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Ex Libris 
C. K. OGDEN 




THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 

OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 



ORIGIN 



OF THE 



GEEEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC BOOTS 



ORIGIN 



OF THE 



Greek, Latin, and Gothic Roots 



BY 



JAMES BYRNE, M.A. 

DEAN OF CLONFERT 
EX-FELLOW OF TRINITY COLLEGE, DUBLIN 

AUTHOR OF "GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF THE STRUCTURE OF LANGUAGE" 



SECOND EDITION 



LONDON 
KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRUBNER, & CO. L» 

PATERNOSTER HOUSE, CHARING CROSS ROAD 

lS93 



The rights of translation and of reproduction are rcscrrcd. 



? 5RLF 
CONTENTS. 

INTRODUCTION. 



PACK 

1 



§ 1. Aim of scientific etymology 

§ 2. Laws of production of roots, of change in their form, and 
of change in their meaning; consequence of ignoring 
the first ......... 1 

§ 3. Abundant variety of Sanskrit roots, and often of meanings 

belonging to the same root ...... 3 

§ 4. Abundant expression of the finest shades of meaning in 

the Indo-European roots ...... 3 

§ 5. Every root originally expressed a principal element in the 

very object of thought ...... 4 

§ 6. Such expression must have engendered great habits of 

analysis ......... 5 

§ 7. Variety of meanings attached to the same root . . 5 

$ 8. The points of correspondence of the utterance with the 
meaning were in the consonants rather .than in the 
vowels ......... 6 

§ 9. Analysis of the utterance of a consonant into seven parts 

or phases ; the natural expressiveness of these phases . 7 

§ 10. The varieties of natural expressiveness of the various 

orders of letters ........ 9 

§11. Groups of words from the same root, groups of roots in- 
volving the same significant element of expression . 1 2 

§ 12. These elements of expression denoted elements of thought 

actually present in the very idea to be expressed . . 12 

114 1G 



VI CONTENTS. 



PAGE 



13 



§ 13. They were inventions of utterance used to denote parti- 
cular parts of particular objects of thought, and after- 
wards applied to other particulars, not as identical with 
the former, but only as sufficiently similar to suggest the 
same expression ........ 

§ 14. Distinguished from the roots, and proposed to be called 

the grounds of the roots . . . • • .14 

$ 15. Roots to be reduced to their grounds, rather than iden- 
tified with other roots supposed to be prior to them; 
and the primitive particularity of thought to be taken 
as a fundamental principle of etymology . . .15 

§16. Criticism of the best etymology of the present day . 16 

§ 17. Proposed effort to ascend from roots to grounds, and 
from grounds to the origin of expression in the phase of 
utterance . . . . . . . • .21 

§ 18. Roots which involve a more concrete act of imitation; 

and roots of interjectional origin . .... 22 

CHAPTER I. 

Grounds of the first phase of utterance, Avhose expressiveness 

is in the closure of the organs ..... 23 

CHAPTER IT. 

Grounds of the second phase of utterance, whose expressiveness 
is in the bend or concavity which is formed by the 
closure of the organ, as when the closed lips shut the 
hollow of the mouth, or when the tongue is applied in 
one part to the palate, while the adjacent parts of it 
are separate from the palate . . . . .47 

CHAPTER III. 

Grounds of the third phase of utterance, whose expressiveness 
lay in the closure being made with the organ, whether 
tongue or lips, in a relaxed condition .... 85 



CONTENTS. vi 1 



CHAPTER IV 



T 



PAGE 



Grounds of the fourth phase of utterance, whose expressiveness 

is in the parting of the organs after closure . . . 104 



CHAPTER V. 

Grounds of the fifth phase of utterance, whose expressiveness 

is in the current of breath through the orirans . .114 



CHAPTER VI 

Grounds of the sixth phase of utterance, whose expressiveness 
lay in the first breaking of the breath through the 
organs, or in the pressure of the breath on the organs . 13. 



CHAPTER VII. 

Grounds of the seventh phase of utterance, whose expressiveness 
lay in the friction of the organs by the breath, and their 
penetration as the breath passed through . . . 200 



CHAPTER VIII. 

Grounds in which the actions and affections of the breath in 
utterance express the spirit of man and its actions and 
affections as represented in his breath of life, as well as 
other similar actions and affections, both physical and 
mental, or in which they express the thought of the 
breath itself, or of its action in smelling, or the thought 
of air, vapour, odour ....... 22" 



CHAPTER IX. 

Grounds expressive of various sounds or of hearing . . . 238 



Vlll CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER X. 

PAGE 

Grounds which imitate actions of the mouth or throat, or denote 
the organs of the mouth by the actions which they per- 
form, or which express sensations of taste by imitating 
the act of tasting ....... 254 



'o 



CHAPTER XI. 

Koots of interjectional origin, the interjections taking suffixes 
of a verbal or nominal nature to embudy them in fact 
or thing ......... 262 



Groups of roots involve various grounds and various meanings 263 

CHAPTER XII. 

On the formative elements in Greek and Latin words . . 265 

Index . . -. . . . . . . . .271 



The transliteration of Sanskrit in this hook is the same as that 
which the author has used in his "General Principles of the Structure 
of Language," the aspirates being distinguished by ', the palatals by 
', the cerebrals by . , n being equivalent to ng, s to sh, and the 
r-vowels represented by ri and ri. 



Table of the regular correspondences of the letters in Sanskrit, Greek, 
Latin, and Gothic, according to Curtius, " Griindzuge der Grie- 
chischen Etym ologie. " 



Sanskrit. 


Greek. 


Latin. 


Gothic. 


a 


a, e, o 


a, e, o, i, u 


a, i, u, ai, 


au 


(1 


a, n, U 


a, ?, o 


e, u 




i 


7 


i, e 


i, ai 




i 


J 


i 


ei 




u 


V 


11, 


u, au 




u 


V 


u 


u? 




e 


ai, €i, oi 


ai, e, oi, ce, on, i, u 


ai 




ai 


V, % V 








5 


u.v, eu, <j\j 


au, o, u 


au, iu 




au 


av, rjv 


au 






k, k\ 7c, x 


K 


c, q 


Kg) 




<7< 9 


7 


u 


k 




g\ h 


X 


initial h, in middle g 


g 


• 


t, f 




t 


th(d) 




d 


d 


d 


t 




d' 


6 


initial/, in middle d, b 


d 




p, p 


TT 


P 


f 




b 


P 


b 






b' 


<t> 


initial/, in middle b 


b 




n, n 


y( K )> y(y)> y(x) 


n 


n 




u, n 


^ 


n 


n 




m 


(t> 


VI 


m 




r 




> 


r 


r 




I 


X 


I 


I 




y 


e 


J 


y 




s, s 




s, r 


s, z 




V 


F 


V 


V 





Grassmann, in Kuhn's " Zeitschrift," xii. 110, explains many 
apparent irregularities by supposing in the original language roots 
with initial and final medial aspirates which subsequently were not 
permitted, but one of them, generally the initial, was deprived of 
its aspiration, the medial aspirates when initial having previously 
been changed into tenuis aspirates, except as in Greek before r and /, 
afterwards also when final, and in Latin an aspirate in the middle of 



a word being changed to a medial. 



ORIGIN 



OF 



GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. 



INTRODUCTION. 

8 1. Etymology seeks to ascend to the origin of words. Its 
object is, as far as possible, to account for them. It takes these 
most wonderful of productions, which are half matter and half 
mind, and strives to find out how they came into existence, and 
how they attained their present form and use ; or, if this be 
impossible, at least to trace back their development to the sim- 
plest elements to which they can with any degree of certainty 
be reduced. 

Now, if etymology is to attain any degree of certainty, it 
must be scientific ; that is, it must be governed by well- 
established general principles. For science is the knowledge 
of general principles or natural laws ; and etymological study, 
in order to have any real value, must aim alwavs at the dis- 
covery and application of the laws of the production and sub- 
sequent alteration of words. There are three sets of laws 
concerned in the history of words — the laws of their original 
production ; the laws of their subsequent change in utterance 
or form ; and the laws of their subsequent change in meaning. 
And so far only as these laws are ascertained can a science of 
etymology be said to exist, or any particular process of etymo- 
logy be regarded as quite secure. 

8 2. Of the three sets of laws above mentioned, the second 
only have been investigated with any considerable success ; 
and the light and guidance which their investigation has given 



2 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHRJ ROOTS. 

to etymology suggests what might be expected from any similar 
success in ascertaining the other two. Grimm's <n-eat disco- 
very of the law of change, to which the Indo-European mutes 
have so very generally been subject in the Teutonic languages, 
lias furnished such a test and guide in identifying Teutonic 
roots with roots in the other languages, that all the laws of 
phonetic correspondence have been eagerly sought through all 
the languages of the Indo-European group, and principles have 
thus been gained for testing the identification of roots through 
them all. It has, indeed, led further to a careful study of the 
phonetic laws of every language to which attention has latterly 
been given, in order that by their help languages may be more 
safely affiliated into families, and perhaps earlier stages reached 
in the development of human speech. 

But while phonetic laws have been thus carefully studied, 
little attempt has been made to arrive at any principles as to 
change in the meaning of roots, 1 and all inquiry into their pro- 
duction has been pronounced to be at present chimerical. This 
axiom of despair has affected injuriously the whole scope and 
method of etymological investigation ; for by prohibiting all 
inquiry into the principles of expressiveness whereby the ele- 
ments of speech came originally to be connected with the ele- 
ments of thought, it has limited the aim of the etvinolog-ist to 
the discovery of original roots out of which language as known 
to us has grown, those roots being regarded as the ultimate 
end of his labours, as if they had been imparted to man ready- 
made when he was created. And it has limited the method of 
the etymologist to identification of roots ; whereas if language 
was produced by man, instead of being revealed to him, its 
abundant sources in his nature no doubt gave out large variety 
of expression, so as to produce groups of roots connected 
together not by strict identity of form, but by similar mode of 
production, being in fact the same invention of expression only 
slightly varied. In that case the effort of etymology should be 
not merely to r >ach original roots by identification, but also to 
reach modes of pi'oduction of roots through the groups of roots, 
like, but not identical, which issued from them. 

Such abundant variety of expression is just what we find in 
the Indo-European languages, and especially in the most ori- 

1 Curtlus, Grund/.ugu der Griecbischen Etymologic, p. 93. 



INTRODUCTION'. 3 

ginal of them, Sanskrit. For Sanskrit is that member of the 
family whose formations have the most archaic character, in 
which the elements retain most of their original fulness of 
form, and in which we can best see how ideas were originally 
expressed in Indo-European speech. And the freedom with 
which roots were varied in Sanskrit with scarcely any differ- 
ence of meaning is a proof that if we are to take them as they 
came into being, they must be classed in groups not limited by 
identity of form, but admitting considerable variation in the 
invention of utterance from which they all sprang. 

§ 3. There are two peculiarities which may be observed in 
the Sanskrit lexicon, and which are full of instruction. One 
is the number of different roots which are to be found express- 
ing ideas between which only the very finest differences exist ; 
the other is the number of meanings widelv different from each 
other which are to be found belonging to the same root. The 
former indicates great abundance of expression ; the latter seems 
to indicate great poverty of expression. There must be some 
misconception where there is so great an apparent contradiction, 
and it is therefore worth while to look closely into each fact in 
order to see how it is. 

§ 4. It is not only in Sanskrit that we find groups of roots, 
slightly different from each other, expressing the same, or nearly 
the same ideas. Curtius discusses them as thev are found in 
Greek ; for example, ru<pw, dvoo, corresponding to Sanskrit d' up, 
sufh're, fumare, and d' u in d'uma, fumus, Sv7rro) Suu>, oXeK'ev 

oX'Xv/Ul, 7TT)'lCrO-00 (lTT}]K'lw) 7TTWT(T10 (iTTdiK' L(o) KaTU'7rT))'T}]l', 

epvK'co epv'w, avT'/JLijv ut'/xi'i a'vco arj'fii, ecryeQ'ov karyjov, TeXeO'ce 
reXe'co, kvi)Qu> kvwui, /3r/3a<x#'« fta'iv'co, eiraO'ov ire'irovQ-a, Stcp'to 
ot\!s'u>, Telv'M Tupu'juai raw-. He regards the added elements in 
such variations of the root neither as components nor as suffixes, 
but as additional ingredients in the root, which give it a more 
determinate significance ; and he calls them root-determina- 
tives. 1 Professor Max Midler instances in Sanskrit tud, tup, tubh, 
lupli, tiuj. twr, turv, to strike ; tur, to hurt ; tuh, to vex.' And 
Bopp throughout his Sanskrit Glossary gives series of roots 
with similar meanings, as may be found under gark', minari, 

1 Curtius, p. 62-71. - Lectures on the Science of Language, i. p. 305. 



4 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. 

whose meaning is expressed also by k'ark', g'ark', g'ark'' , 
(/'ark", g' arg'\ g'arg', gfarg'', g'arts, ti arts, garg ', targ ; g'as, 
lasdere = g'as, g'' as, g'us, g'us, kas, k as, k'as; mug', abster- 
ge re = mun'g, mrig', mag'g', viarg', mark' ; sak', sequi = sa^'k', 
sap, sank', sek, sang', sag'g' ; and any number of others. 

But not only are roots thus freely diversified to express 
similar or kindred meanings, but also roots whollv unlike each 
other are used with significations between which it is hard to 
draw distinctions, the differences are so fine. Thus, as Curtius 
observes, there is in the Indo-European languages quite a mul- 
titude of roots, all meaning to go, and yet without the smallest 
phonetic connection with each other. That there are fine shades 
of difference distinguishing their original meanings is highly 
probable, and may indeed in many instances be observed. 
Thus, Curtius remarks that in the Homeric use of the roots £ 
and (3a, there is a consciousness of difference, or they would 
not be used together in such expressions as (3do-K 'i6i, (3f] levai. 
And he distinguishes as follows between six roots for seeing : 

C CD 

skav, sight dwelling on its object ; spalc, sight spying its object ; 
ak, sight with a penetrating glance ; vid, sight discovering its 
object ; dark, sight with clearness ; var, sight with heedful care, 
besides which there are the roots of Xevcrcra), /3Ae7r<w, Oeaofxai. 
He refers also to the multitude of different roots which signify 
to speak, and the numerous verbs for shining and glittering/ 
These are only examples of what must be regarded as a most 
striking feature of language, at least in the Indo-European 
family, the abundant expression of the finest shades of meaning 
in roots fit for the purpose. 

^ 5. Now it appears from this profuse expression by various 
roots of various radical elements to denote the objects of thought, 
bhat originallv men found in the associations between thought 

O J CD 

and utterance an expressiveness whereby every radical element 
of thought found a root to express it. A principal element in 
the object of thought, whether a substantive object or not, was 
abstracted by the mind and expressed by the mouth in the 
i-l'l'ort to denote the object; and the root thus formed would 
serve as the radical part of various words to denote various 
objects which were thought with a like principal element. Bui 

1 Curtius, p. 95-] CO. 



INTRODUCTION. 5 

when the principal element varied the root varied, and we are 
not at liberty to reduce different primitive words to the same 
root, unless it is probable that the objects which they denote 
were thought originally with principal elements sufficiently like 
to suggest the same expression. 

In subsequent times, when language had been settled, and 
new ideas had to be expressed by new applications of words 
already in existence, when moreover it often happened that 
the objects denoted by words gradually came to be thought 
differently, while the same words were used to denote them, 
changes of meaning took place which might give new associa- 
tions of thought to the roots of words. But the original mean- 
ings of primitive words must have had for their principal 
element a thought closely corresponding to that which their 
root was adopted to express ; and etymologists are too ready 
to imagine a range of original applications of the same roots 
involving change of meaning, which is contradicted by the fact 
that distinct roots were originally appropriated in such abund- 
ance to express every shade of meaning. 

§ 6. It is to be observed, also, that the employment of roots 
in such abundance, and so finely distinguished, must have gene- 
rated great habits of analysis. The work of the period was to 
pick out elements of thought and elements of utterance which 
were suggestive of each other, and the habits of analysis must 
have extended to the utterance as well as to the thought. For 
if ideas consisted of elements of which one might be taken to 
suggest the remainder, so also did each act of utterance consist 
of parts, one of which might be suggested to the mind ab- 
stracted from the rest by the element of thought as representa- 
tive of it. 

§ 7. This has an important bearing on the second fact which 
I have mentioned as so striking: in Sanskrit, the number of 
quite different meanings which so often belong to what is appa- 
rently the same root. Thus pat means, according to Bopp, ire, 
findere, dicere, splendere, vestire ; according to Bohtlingk and 
Roth, it means to go, to speak or give light, to split ; and the 
substantive pata means cloth, flat surface. And the Sanskrit 
lexicon is full of similar groups of various meanings attached to 



6 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. 

what seems to be a single root. How is tins to be reconciled 
with the nice discrimination of various meanings with various 
roots which has been noticed above, or with the postulate 
laid down by Curtius that there is a correspondence between 
the sound and the impression which the object made on the 
soul of the speaker ? * It might be conjectured that in such 
cases the single root is always the decayed representative of 
roots originally different in form as they differed in meaning, 
which have fallen by decay into an identical form. But besides 
that there is no positive ground for such a supposition, it is 
rendered improbable by the original and archaic character of 
the Sanskrit formations ; for in these, owing to the fulness 
and distinctness of the formative elements, the root is more 
distinctly felt than it is in the other languages, and its ex- 
pressive elements would be better preserved in consequence. 
Even in the other languages, when phonetic laws are allowed 
for, roots may be observed to have remarkable permanence, both 
of form and meaning, which Curtius accounts for by the postu- 
late which has been mentioned ; and it can hardly be imagined 
that in the more archaic language their expressiveness had been 
so impaired that from mere decay they became to a very large 
extent quite confounded with each other. If this variety of 
meaning attached to the same root were due to decay, it ought 
to prevail more largely in the later languages than in Sanskrit, 
whereas the contrary seems to be the case ; and the presump- 
tion is that any feature which becomes more marked as we go 
back towards the original language belonged originally to that 
language. 

S 8. Now if originally the same utterance was used to ox- 
press quite different meanings, that one utterance must have 
furnished different points of correspondence with the different 
meanings, to which these could severally be attached. It, is 
usual to speak of the sound as expressing the sense, and no 
doubt it is the sound which conveys the meaning, for it is to 
the ear that speech is addressed. And yet it is very remark- 
able that the most expressive elements of speech are those 
which have the least sound. For example, in the root pat, 
given above, the voice is only in the a ; ]> and t are mutes, nut 

1 Griech. Etyni., \\ ?3. 



introduction. 7 

even sonant. And yet the significance of the root is mainly in 
p and t, the a being the general vowel, which is felt as being so 
little distinctive of the meaning that it is omitted in the Sanskrit 
writing. It must be, therefore, in some points of correspondence 
with the meaning which the consonants have rather than tin* 
vowels that the meaning is connected with the utterance. 

§ 9. There are three factors in speech — the voice, the breath 
in the mouth, and the muscular action of the tongue and lips. 
The first is principally in the vowels, the two last principally 
in the consonants. And if the consonant is the more expres- 
sive element, then the expressiveness is principally in the two 
latter factors, and in these the connections between thought 
and utterance are to be looked for. The actions which are 
performed in the mouth of the speaker were originally sug- 
gested to the hearer from his own experience of speaking, 
when he distinguished bv his ear the elements of the word, its 
sound, and its interruptions of sound ; and it must have been 
thus indirectly that the sound became expressive of the sense. 

The utterance of a consonant involves an application more 
or less close of the tongue to some part of the palate or to the 
teeth, of the lips to each other, or of the under-lip to the upper 
teeth, an opening of that closure, and the passage of a jet of 
breath ; and attention may fix either on the closure or on 
the breath, or on the mutual action of the two. Now in these 
three there are seven distinct parts which may separately 
attract notice, and which are suggestive of classes of objects of 
thought. In the closure, there is first the closure itself, sug- 
gestive of ideas of contact, as junction, application, coincidence, 
position, what occupies place, &c. ; secondly, the concavity 
formed by the closure of the organ, either when the lips 
enclose the concavity of the mouth, or when the tongue, 
applied to a part of the palate, forms a concavity with the 
remainder of it behind the closure, this concavity being sug- 
gestive of enclosure, of flexure, of curvature, Arc. ; there is, 
thirdly, a sense of relaxation if the tongue or lips be applied 
in a relaxed condition, and this will be suggestive of softness, 
of weakness, of lassitude, &c. ; there is, fourthly, the end of 
the closure, or its opening, suggestive of separation, of parti- 
tion, of interval, &c. In the current of breath there is, fifthly, 



8 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. 

a suco-estion of motion which may be variously modified by 
the tongue and lips as they give it passage or direction. In 
the pressnre of the breath on the organ, or its first breaking 
through the partial closure of the organ, there is, sixthly, a 
suggestion of impact, of tension, of force, of outburst, of 
orowth, of increase, &c. In the friction of the breath on 
the organ as it passes, there is, seventhly, a suggestion of 
roughness, of smoothness, of penetration, of tearing, of attri- 
tion, &c. There are thus under each consonant seven different 
points of correspondence with seven different groups of the 
elements of thought ; and the latter may be attached respec- 
tively to the former, suggesting them and being suggested 
by them. 

It is not here assumed that such has been in fact the con- 
nection between thought and utterance. It is only asserted 
that utterance does in fact involve such parts, and that these 
parts do in fact furnish such resemblances to the elements of 
thouo-ht which have been mentioned as might well connect 
them with the latter in mutual suggestion. For the effort to 
represent in utterance a contact, a concavity, a relaxation, a 
separation, a motion, a pressure or a friction, would necessarily 
and immediately suggest each of these respectively made in 
the mouth and emphasised in the utterance to draw the hearer's 
attention to it, and when perceived by him would necessarily 
and immediately suggest to him the corresponding element of 
thought. Whether words did originate in this way can be 
ascertained only by such a careful study of them as will find 
for each the true fundamental meaning which' actually under- 
lies its various uses, and by seeing whether, when they art- 
classed together by similarity of phonetic elements and of 
fundamental meaning, the groups do in fact express such 
common elements of meaning as belong to the parts into which 
utterance has been analysed. 

For the purpose of such an investigation these parts may 
fitly be distinguished by numbers according to the above 
division, so that, for example, p v p 2 , p y ]> r /> ,, y,, p v are all 
different elements of expression, and would be uttered some- 
what differently if attention were strongly fixed on the par- 
ticular part or phase of the utterance which the number 
refers to. 



INTRODUCTION. 9 

Prior to such an investigation, which forms the subject of 
this book, it may be observed in support of the hypothesis, that 
if the connections of thought and utterance, on which expressive- 
ness depends, are to be found, as has been said above, in the 
actions of the mouth, it must be in these seven phases of utter- 
ance that they are furnished, for these comprise the whole 
operation. And it is to be noted that these differ from each 
other in what they express much more than any one of them 
in one letter does from the same in another letter ; so that 
while the same combination of letters might have widely 
different meanings because taken in different phases of utter- 
ance, different combinations of letters might have meanings 
only slightly varied because taken in the same phase. If the 
phases of utterance noted in the root were distinguished by 
numbers under the letters, then it would be found that simi- 
larity of meaning depended on the similarity of the numbers 
rather than of the letters, and all the anomalies which appear 
so puzzling would disappear. 

It would then become apparent that, on the supposition 
indicated by such notation, there is no such poverty of expres- 
sion in Indo-European speech as would be implied in the use 
of one root to express several meanings quite different from 
each other ; for what now seems to be one root would then 
be seen to be several, each widely different meaning being 
connected with a different element of expression ; and in the 
changes of letter, with onlv slight change of meaning, it 
would be seen that, in general, while the letter changed, the 
number remained the same. 

^ 10. The difference of letters, however, must have supplied 
further necessary varieties of expressiveness, otherwise the 
various orders of letters would not have been developed to 
distinguish different words ; and it is only when these dis- 
tinct shades of meaning have been ascertained that the laws 
of the production of roots can be established in their totality. 
This, as well as the laws of change of meaning, is work for 
the future. Here only some general observations can be made 
on the natural expressiveness of the different orders of letters ; 
and even these observations are to be regarded mainlv as 
hypotheses to suggest future inquiry. In such inquiry, more- 



1 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. 

over, it must be remembered that before the languages of the 
Indo-European family had attained the form in which they are 
now known, different habits of speech had already produced 
different changes in their original utterance, or different pre- 
ferences in selecting from the varieties of roots originally pro- 
duced, so that, for example, a guttural in one language may 
correspond to a labial in another, / in one to r in another, s in 
one to r in another. And such varieties, produced by mere 
phonetic habit, could not have taken place if the distinctive 
expressiveness of the corresponding letters had not been lost 
sight of. We cannot, therefore, expect always to find in the 
roots as they now appear in the languages the full expressive- 
ness which may originally have belonged to the different orders 
of letters as distin guished from one another. This can be 
found only when we have the roots in their original forms ; 
and when this is not the case, we can get no further towards 
the original expressiveness out of which they sprang than those 
larger elements of meaning which they drew from the phase of 
utterance to which they belonged. In some cases, however, or 
in many, we may have, or we may recover, the original forms 
of the roots, so as to study even now the distinctive expres- 
siveness of the letters ; and for such an incipient study of the 
actual genesis of language the following considerations, which 
have been suggested in the course of etymological investiga- 
tion, may possibly be useful. 

Taking first the three great divisions of guttural, dental, and 
labial, we may observe physical differences in the organs they 
belong to, which tend to diversify their expressiveness in the 
several parts or phases of their utterance. 

The point of the tongue is so mobile, and its action can be 
directed with such precision, that the dental utterance which 
is performed with it has a definiteness of expressiveness which 
does not belong to the other organs. 

The root of the tongue is so close to the soft part of the 
palate, and the saliva is so viscous there, that the guttural is 
specially fitted to express, in the first phase of its utterance, 
junction or adherence; in the fourth, strong separation; in 
the sixth, a breaking forth of growth or increase ; and in the 
seventh, rough friction; while in the second, its closure of the 
back of the mouth is specially suggestive of concavity, if it be 



INTRODUCTION. 11 

connected with an anterior closure, whether of the lips or of 
the point of the tongue, which completes the closed hollow ; 
and in the fifth, the jet of breath is so deep that it may 
suggest movement in its source. 

The lips have less muscular power than the tongue, and they 
are therefore specially fitted to express in the first phase of 
their utterance simple apposition, without force or junction, 
especially a double, being themselves a pair ; and in the fourth, 
simple separation. In the sixth, as they swell out with the 
pressure of the breath, they express vividly the swelling of out- 
growth or increase; in the seventh, finer attrition or penetra- 
tion ; while in the second, they are specially fitted to express 
enclosure, as they shut the mouth ; and in the fifth, their want 
of force may give to the breath which passes a sense of move- 
ment weakly directed. No doubt there are also fine differ- 
ences of expressiveness between the tenuis, the medial, and the 
aspirate, but they are generally too fine for any attempt to 
distinguish them at present. And accordingly, under the 
expressiveness of the tenuis I shall include in the classification 
of roots that of the medial and the aspirate also. 

The vibratiles give a sense of flexibility or mobility in all 
the phases of their utterance, r being more strongly suggestive 
than I both of flexibility and of successive changes of move- 
ment or of resistance. 

The nasals, by the quiescence of the lips or tongue and the 
unimpeded passage of the breath through the nose, are fitted 
to express continuousness of state or process, the passage of 
the breath being- su<r$restive °f unconfined undirected movement 
in the fifth phase, and of free penetration or fine friction in 
the seventh. 

The spirants are specially expressive of what the breath 
expresses, but they also partake of the guttural, dental, and 
labial expressiveness, according to the organ to which they 
belong. 

And the vowels, though they express so weakly compared 
with "the consonants, are not bv anv means destitute of that. 
which gives the consonants their expressiveness ; for they too 
require for their utterance that the organs of speech shall be 
put into certain definite positions. The tongue is close to the 
palate in sounding i, more removed from it in sounding u, 



1 2 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. 

quite separate and open in sounding a ; and very generally 
throughout the languages of mankind the three vowels express 
accordingly proximity, non-proximity, and remoteness. The 
current of breath is slender in i, and therefore requiring little 
force of propulsion ; it is larger in u, fullest and strongest in 
a ; and the three vowels are accordingly fitted to express cor- 
responding degrees of force. It is a movement of outgo in «, 
less so in i, closed and internal in u, and the three vowels have 
a corresponding fitness to express respectively process of being 
or doing outward into fact, or in the subject superficially, or in 
the subject with a deeper inherence ; or else action forth to an 
object, or action thought with smaller degrees of transition. 

Such varieties of expressiveness in the various orders of 
letters might supply shades of meaning to make the expression 
of thought more precise, so that the root, by changing one for 
another, while its consonants continued to express in the same 
number or phase of utterance, would get touches of expression 
to make it a better picture of the object before the mind. 

§ 11. Yet, after every ingenuity of utterance had been ex- 
hausted, there would still be in the original efforts to express 
thought a wide interval between the expressiveness of the 
utterance and the very thought that was to be conveyed ; and 
this interval could be bridged over only by the analogies of use. 
Gesture no doubt largely helped the early efforts of expression. 
For as speech is imitated on the hand by imitating the letters, 
so in its first formation the action of the organs in represent- 
ing the elements of thought might be imitated by the finger 
and thumb, to make more manifest the effort of representation. 
The parts of a sentence, also, though each imperfectly under- 
stood, helped by their combination to determine each other's 
meaning. But the only way in which a word could be in 
itself intelligible, so as to suggest to the hearer what the 
speaker signified by it, was by its containing elements of utter- 
ance to which alreadv the hearer had attached certain elements 
of the intended meaning. Speech thus must have grown along 
lines of analogy. And not only did words take similar forms, 
the same formative elements being used with different roots, 
while the same root was used to denote objects thought with 
similar principal elements, but the roots themselves followed 



INTRODUCTION. 13 

analogy in their formation, the effort of the speaker being to 
use elements in them which had already acquired associations of 
meaning. And hence it is that not onlv do words fall into 
groups as formed from the same root, but roots also fall into 
groups as involving the same significant elements of expression. 

S 12. Now the nature of these elements of expression is a 
fundamental question of etymology. Professor Max Miiller, in 
his most interesting and learned lectures on the " Science < f 
Language," ii. p. 345, says that in order that any name could 
be given to a concrete object, such as a dog, " it was requisite 
that general ideas, such as roving, followiuo\ watching, steal- 

O * CD ' Cj7 C ' 

ing, running, resting, should previously have been formed in 
the mind and should have received expression in language. 
These general ideas are expressed by roots. As they are more 
simple and primitive, they are expressed by more simple and 
primitive roots, whereas complex ideas found expression in 
secondary radicals. Thus, to go would be expressed by sar, to 
creep by sarp, to shout by nad, to rejoice by nand, to join by 
yu or yug, to glue together by yaut. We thus find in San- 
skrit and in all the Aryan languages clusters of roots expres- 
sive of one common idea, and differing from each other merely 
by one or two additional letters, either at the end or at the 
beginning. The most natural supposition is that which I have 
just stated, namely, that as ideas grew and multiplied, simple 
roots were increased and became diversified. But the opposite 
view might likewise be defended, namelv, that langmajje besran 
by variety ; that many special roots were thrown out first, and 
from them the more general roots elaborated by leaving out 
those letters which constituted the specific differences of each." 
The difference between these two views, though noticed, is 
treated as unimportant by Professor Miiller, and he practically 
assumes the first. Yet nothing can be more certain than that, 
viewing the history of language as a whole, the course of its 
development has been, not from the general to the particular, 
but from the particular to the general. And indeed, in the 
above statement of the original development as from the 
general to the particular, it may be asked what is meant by 
the phrase " as ideas grew and multiplied " ? Is it meant that 
there was a time when men thought the movement of a serpent 



1 4 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. 



l, ^^u.^^., , 



(sarp) as without any difference from other modes of going? 
If so, they must not at that time have observed any difference, 
for the idea is the revival of the perception ; but this is absurd. 
.Men from the first noticed and thought the various objects 
about them, but it was only gradually that they formed gen- 
eral ideas under which they were classed ; and the expressions 
which they invented originally to denote the objects of thought 
expressed only what was actually present in the particular 
ideas of those objects. 

S 13. But if the sar of sarp, to creep, be not the root sar, to 
go, what is it ? It is the imitation by the organs of speech 
of a partial thought of the movement of the creeping thing to 
which the root sarp was first applied. And it was suggested 
by the movement of the creeping thing because it had already 
been used to express a partial thought of some other move- 
ment, which element of motion was sufficiently like the present 
element to admit of the two having the same representation ; 
or it was invented for a principal element of the movement 
of the creeping thing, and afterwards transferred to other 
similar elements of motion. In either case, the elements sepa- 
rated from the concrete objects of thought and denoted by the 
same element of expression were not at first identified with 
each other by the identical expression, but only recognised as 
sufficiently like to be both recalled by it. It was not till 
afterwards that, by the associations growing out of frequent 
use, expressions gathered around themselves general ideas. In 
the primitive effort to convey thought, the very object before 
the mind suggested the expression ; the effort was to bring the 
thought of the hearer as close as possible to the very object 
intended by the speaker; and in every such effort thought was 
directed to that object with intense particularity. 

Thus series of roots grew out of inventions of utterance used 
to denote particular elements of particular objects of thought, 
and afterwards applied to other particulars having a similarity 
to these. Such a common element, forming with the addition 
of minor elements a series of roots, shows indeed a tendency to 
generalise, but it is at first thought particularly in each root. 
It may or may not be itself syllabled as the root of a word. 
It may also be varied, so as to give rise to kindred series of 



INTRODUCTION. 15 

roots, each series having an identical element, and the different 

series having only kindred elements, or only an identical type. 

§ 14. These elements of expression which pervade classes of 
roots are to be distinguished from the roots; and instead of 
calling them roots, it would be better to give them a designa- 
tion of their own. Thev might be called the grounds of the 
roots; and this would fall in with the use of the word grund- 
bedeutung by some German philologists to denote the exact 
element of thought which the root originally expressed. For 
just as the radical meaning of a word had originally for its 
principal element the meaning of the root, so the ground 
meaning of the root had originally for its principal element 
the meaning of the ground. The difference between roots and 
grounds is that the root by itself, or with the addition of for- 
mative elements, constitutes a word, but the ground does not. 
It is only the partially organised material of the rcot which 
may be already vaguely expressive from the phase of utterance 
in which its letters are felt and the order to which they belong, 
but has become more precisely significant by taking up from 
actual use in roots the power of sug-o-esting certain elements 
of meaning. 

When these elements of meaning are unlike, the grounds 
are different though the letters be the same, and even though 
they are taken in the same phase of utterance ; for the same 
phases of utterance admit within the limits of their expressive- 
ness many different determinations of meaning. Grounds also 
which are not phonetically identical must be regarded as dif- 
ferent, however closely they may approach each other in mean- 
ing. But just as there are groups of roots which differ slightly 
both in phonetic elements and in signification, so there are 
grounds which differ slightly in both respects, and which must 
be regarded as the same invention of expression slightly varied 
to express slight varieties of meaning, sometimes varieties so 
fine that they cannot be distinctly stated. 

§ 15. Now if the principles above laid down be correct, and 
if the earliest development of language was, like all its subse- 
quent development, from the particular to the general, then the 
effort of etymology should be to affiliate roots into families on 



16 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. 

the grounds out of which they sprang, and which express par- 
ticular elements of the corresponding radical ideas, rather than 
to deduce them from roots which express other complete ideas ; 
and the primitive particularity of thought should be taken as 
a fundamental principle of etymology. Such particularity is 
implied in the manifold meanings of Sanskrit roots, for these 
show how exclusively the mind must have been occupied with 
its present object when it could make its present application of 
the root undisturbed by the associations of the other meanings ; 
and the same particularity appears in the multitude of roots 
used to express meanings scarcely differing from each other. 

^ 16. The application of this principle to etymology may be 
illustrated by a consideration of one or two of the etymological 
deductions of those great scholars Curtius and Max Miiller; 
for even Curtius, though he states strongly 1 the primitive par- 
ticularity of thought, and quotes a passage from Heyse in 
support of it, does not hold fast ly it as a principle of etymo- 
loo-v. Both Curtius and Miiller repudiate the identification of 

On L 

the root of Latin mure, the sea, with that of the Sanskrit vari, 
water, and reduce it to the root mar, which, according to 
Curtius, has most usually the meaning to die, but in fiapalvw 
and marcco the more general meaning to wither. "Mare, ac- 
cordino-lv," savs Curtius, " denoted the sea as the unfruitful, the 
death of vegetation, as, according to the usual explanation, 
a-p vyeros ; " 2 and he considers that this is borne out by the 
affinity of Gothic rnarci, sea, to Old Dutch mcere, sea, swamp, 
pond, and Old High German mnor, swamp, moor, morass. 3 

Max Miiller agrees substantially with Curtius. He says, 4 
" There is an Aryan root mar, which means to crush, to pound, 
to destroy by friction," which, if used as an intransitive verb, 
" would mean to be wearing away, to be in a state of decay, 
to crumble away as if ground to dust." He adds, "Now let 
us suppose that the ancient Aryans wanted to express for the 
first time what they constantly saw around them, namely, 
the gradual wearing away of the human frame, the slow de- 
cav which at last is followed by a complete breaking up of 
the body, how should they express what we call dying or 

1 Griech. Etvm., p. 07. '-' Kuhn's Zeitschrift, i. 33. 

:; Griech. Etym., p. 333. ' Lectures, ii. p. 347. 



INTRODUCTION. 17 

death ? One of the nearest ideas that would bo evoked by 
the constant impressions of decay and death was that expressed 
by mar, the grinding of stone to dust. And thus we find in 
Latin morior, I die." " From mar, in the secondary but definite 
sense of withering, dying, we have the Sanskrit maru, a desert 
(a dead soil). There is another desert, the sea, which the 
Greeks called atrygeton, unfruitful, barren. The Aryans had 
not seen that watery desert before they separated from each 
other on leaving their central homes. But when the Romans 
for the first time saw the Mediterranean they called it mare, 
and the same word is found among the Celtic, the Slavonic, 
and the Teutonic nations. We can hardly doubt that their 
idea in applying this name to the sea was the dead or stagnant 
water as opposed to the running streams (I'eau vice), or the un- 
fruitful expanse. Of course there is always some uncertainty 
in these guesses about the original thoughts which guided the 
primitive framers of language. All we can do is to guard 
against mixing together words which may have had an inde- 
pendent origin ; but if it is once established that there is no 
other root from which mare can be derived more regularly than 
from mar, to die (Bopp's derivation from the Sanskrit vari, 
water, is not tenable), then we are at liberty to draw some 
connecting' line between the root and its offshoot, and we need 
not suppose that in ancient days new words were framed less 
boldly than in our time." 

Now these passages taken in connection with Curtius's in- 
troduction to his great work on Greek etymology give a clear 
view of the method of the scientific etymologist of the present 
day. He seeks carefully for the fundamental meanings of 
roots which are to be found as the basis of their various uses. 1 
The root with this meaning he will identify with no root ex- 
cept in accordance with established phonetic laws ; and so far 
he is scientific. But he looks out for some root to which 
phonetic laws will permit it to be affiliated ; and if he can find 
one which may be connected with it even by such metaphor or 
poetic imagery as is to be found in the present use of language, 2 
he takes that root as the origin of the one in question, when 
no other can be found which comes nearer to it. Here, how- 
ever admirable his learning, it must be said that his science 

1 Curtius, Griech. Etym., p. 102-110. 2 Ibid., p. 111. 

B 



18 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. 

fails him. He is guided by no principle except phonetic laws ; 
and he violates that which every consideration confirms — the 
primitive particularity of thought — by importing into the idea 
of the word wide-ranging associations to connect it with the 
root. 

If, indeed, the root of mare did not come into existence till 
the Homans saw the Mediterranean, it might be supposed to 
belong to a period when thought had acquired a considerable 
degree of generality. But how could this be reconciled with 
the fact that it is Celtic, Teutonic, and Slavonic, as well as 
Latin, and that its antiquity is attested by a numerous kindred 
throughout the Teutonic languages ? There is no reason to 
doubt that it belongs to the old stock of Indo-European speech, 
and that its origin dates back to the speech-forming period. 
At that time our ancestors were busy finding utterances which 
would suggest to the hearer the thought which they wished to 
awaken in his mind. The effort must have been to suggest the 
thought itself by suggesting some element in it so character- 
istic of it as without fail to bring it up. Now, is death such 
an element in the thought of the sea ? Who would be re- 
minded of the sea by the mention of death ? In the calm of 
stagnant water there may indeed be an image of death, but the 
constant motion of the sea and its vast energy irresistibly sug- 
gests life. It is indeed destitute of vegetation ; but is want of 
vegetation equivalent to want of life ? If so, all life is vegetable 
life, which is absurd. True, the fruitless sea is a poetical idea ; 
but what makes it so ? The novel attribution of a new element 
with poetic associations. There would be no poetry in attribut- 
ing to an object an element already involved in the idea of it. 
But when the primitive speakers wanted to suggest to a com- 
panion something they were thinking of, their instinctive effort 
would be, not to attribute to that object some novel resemblance 
or allusive feature, but to find in the very thought of it some 
element prominent to every mind that formed the idea, and 
which they could denote in utterance. 

The Sanskrit maru, desert, is appealed to as a similar appli- 
cation of the idea of death. But the primary meaning of the 
root mar is, according to Max Midler, not to die, but to grind 
stone to dust ; and this thought is just such an element in the 
idea of a desert as would have the above-mentioned fitness to 



INTRODUCTION. 19 

denote it. Maru is explained in Bopp's Glossary as agud can n 
locus, dcscrh! hi • and what is the aspect of a dry desert but that 
of rock pulverised by the aclion of the atmosphere ? No doubt 
it was by some feature similarly involved in the very idea of 
the sea that marc denoted it. 

But if the mar of marc be not mar, to die, from what root 
can the word be more legitimately derived ? I know of none. 
But though there be no legitimate parent root expressive of a 
complete idea with which it can be identified, there are roots 
of kindred meaning and kindred form, organised from kindred 
grounds, and involving an identical type of utterance and a 
slightly varied invention of expression. That type is the com- 
bination of flexile r with the unimpeded flow of the breath in 
a nasal or spirant consonant, which gives a vivid representa- 
tion of fluid motion when the consonants are taken in the fifth 
phase of utterance. 

M 5 r. marc, Goth, marci, sea; nvpw, to flow; ^op^vpoq, a 
sea- fish. 

N b r h . Skr. nara, aqua ; vdpog, flowing, liquid ; vnpirm, sea- 
snail. 

Vr. Skr. vari, aqua; ovpov, Lat. urina ; ur'uior, to dive; 
ovpla, water-bird ; eup'nro?, strait with strong flux and reflux. 

S 5 r b . Skr. saras, lacus, sarit, Humeri; oppos, Lat. scrum ; Lat. 
scrra, sacred name of Tiber. Skr. sru, xru, fluere. 

To which mav be added — 

SJ 5 . Skr. salila, aqua ; crdXos, the rolling swell of the sea ; 
Lat. salum, open sea, current of a river ; a A?, ?/, the sea (thought 
in its attribute of rolling) ; d\j, o, salt (a secondary use of the 
preceding, the word being transferred from the object which it 
first denoted to another, which, though a separate independent 
thing, and therefore masculine, was got from it). 

Now it is to be observed that the above roots reveal an 
identical type of utterance with an identical element of mean- 
ing as matters of fact, and that, as a matter of fact, the former 
does most vividly represent the latter. What more is needed 
to account for the roots ? 

One of those roots suggests another derivation maintained 
by the same two distinguished scholars. 

The Skr. ax'nc, tear, they derive from «x'> to cut > to be sliar P- 
and cWp, tear, from Skr. d&x'> to kite. In the latter deriva- 



20 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. 

tion, indeed, all the authorities agree, some of them thinking 
that dakru was the original form, and that the other came from 
it by dropping d ; while lacrima, lacruma, came from it by 
changing d into I and adding ma. 

The explanation of this derivation is that as a^ is used in 
Lat. acidus to express sour, bitter (bite), so ay^rv, meant 
originally a bitter tear, and similarly Sdicpv a biting tear. 1 
But should not the word tear be left out of the explanation, 
and should it not rather be said that the idea of tear was 
expressed as the sharp, the bitter, or the biting ? Now is there 
such an element at all in the idea of a tear ? No doubt sharp- 
ness may be recognised in sourness and biting in bitterness, 
and these may be attributed metaphorically to sorrow. But to 
suppose that when a speaker wanted to awaken in the mind of 
a hearer the thought of a tear, he sent the latter to look for 
his meaning through sharp and biting things, is totally to mis- 
conceive the nature of primitive expression and the marvel- 
lous skill which it exhibits. Such large classes of objects were 
absent from the thought of the speaker. If they could be 
suggested to the hearer, they would only lead his mind away 
from the present object. It was some principal element in the 
very idea of a tear that the speaker must have represented in 
expression ; and that representation, or one like it, had doubt- 
less been used for like elements in other ideas, or, having been 
invented for a tear, would doubtless be used, perhaps with 
some variation, for like elements afterwards. The etymologist, 
therefore, having conceived clearly the very idea for which the 
word was in fact used, must look out amongst other words for 
principal elements of meaning like to what is really a principal 
element in that idea, and which have got like expression. 
And if such be found, the comparison will reveal them as 
identical or kindred grounds of the series of roots, and will 
determine the ground meaning of the roots. 

Now such a series can be found for a%'ru. Skr. a^'rv, 
lacrima ; asrit, lacrima ; o.sra, lacrima, sanguis ; asrig', sanguis ; 
asan, sanguis ; tfru, fluere ; sric, fluere ; sri, ire ; srig', efftra- 
dere ; snu, fluere stillare. 

The verbal roots are strengthened in the concrete substan- 
tives on account of the vividness with which they are conceived 
1 Max Miiller in Nineteenth Century, October 1885, p. G'-OJ. 



INTRODUCTION. 21 

in the substantive objects ; and doubtless a- strengthens them 
with a significance such as it has in the Lat. a-qua and Goth. 
a-hva, river. 

Now SaKpv cannot be separated from ay^ru ; for Skr. y 
generally corresponds to k in Greek. But there is no proof 
that ay^ru had originally an initial d, and this is an assumption 
which Curtius declines to make. He prefers to derive each 
from its own root, ay, to be sharp, and dale, to bite. 

Treating Sdicpv then by itself, and deriving it from yru, 
fluere, we should say that it strengthened this root with 
another and stronger element than a-. The Sanskrit root 

o 

day means not only mordere, but also videre ; and akin to it 
in the latter sense is driy, videre, and driy, oculus. What 
can be more natural than to suppose that day in its second 
meaning instead of its first, and denoting, like driy, the eye, 
is in SaKpv, the two k's coalescing into one, and the nasalisa- 
tion being dropped, as it is supposed to be in day, mordere ? 
Though a tear does not bite, it trickles from the eye ; and the 
first effort to denote it would naturally be helped by the gesture 
of pointing to the eye, which would itself suggest an element 
denoting the eye. 

The Latins might have changed d into I, or lacrima might 
have taken the kindred root Skr. laics, videre. But in either 
case the addition of ma confirms the view that the second 
syllable is radical ; for otherwise there is an accumulation of 
suffix upon suffix which in really primitive words is quite 
unnatural. The primitive speakers, in their effort to. impart 
the present idea, thought its principal elements too strongly to 
suffer such weakness in the radical part of their words as the 
current etymology often gives them. 

§ 17. Enough has been said to illustrate the principles of 
the method which is followed in this book. That method is, 
first, to ascertain the radical meanings of words from their actual 
uses ; secondly, to range together those whose radical meanings, 
thus determined, have like elements of thought expressed by 
like elements of utterance, the likeness of the latter being 
estimated according to phonetic laws ; thirdly, to classify these 
bundles according to the phases of utterance within which 
their meanings come if they are found to belong to these. 



22 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. 

More briefly, the effort is to ascend from roots to grounds, 
and from grounds to the origin of expression in the phase of 
utterance. 

The two guides of etymology are the meaning and the 
phonetic elements, and both must be followed with equal care. 
The radical meaning must be sought as the common source of 
the various actual meanings of the root in its various applica- 
tions, and its ground meaning in the element of thought which 
its ground is found to express in the roots into which it enters. 
And if this can be found, it give3 an element of expression of 
a peculiarly original character, for the greater the number of 
roots into which a ground enters, the more likely it is to have 
retained its original meanings, as its significance would be 
less affected by any changes of meaning which particular roots 
might have suffered. 

§ 18. Besides the roots which are formed by picking out a 
line abstract element of thought from an idea, and connecting 
it with a fine abstract element of an act of utterance, there are 
also roots of a less abstract nature which express their meaning 
in a more concrete fashion. 

There are interjectional roots, formed from the interjectional 
utterances by which nature gives an outlet to various strong 
feelings ; and there are what might be called imitative roots, 
were it not that every root is imitative, but what may be called 
concrete roots, as they strive to represent in its concrete char- 
acter a sound or hearing, or an action of breath, or air, or an 
action of the mouth, or a mental state, as a movement of the 
spirit of man, thought as the breath of life in his nostrils and 
his mouth. 

In the following classification of the Indo-European roots 
which are to be found in Greek, Latin, and Gothic, these two 
classes will be taken last, and the others in chapters according 
to the phase of utterance to which they belong, so that the 
number of the chapter and of the phase of utterance shall be 
the same. 

The meanings of Sanskrit words when given in Latin are 
taken from Bopp's Glossary ; when given in English, they 
are translations of the Petersburg Dictionarv bv Bohtlingk and 
Roth. 



CHAPTER I. 

GROUNDS OF THE FIRST PHASE OF UTTERANCE, WHOSE EXPRESSIVE- 
NESS IS IN THE CLOSURE OF THE ORGANS. 

§ 1. t v f\!/ v s v t 1 )\, r v n p position, expressed by putting the 
tongue in a, place on or near the palate. 

Skr. d'a, ponere, d'd'tri, creator; riOty/si, to place; Oe'jua, 
Oe-o-'/uos, reQ-fxog, Oi'jun^, the settled; Oe'iue-pos, sedate; Oe-fxefXov, 
Oe-jue-OXov, foundation; Oe'yue-Aio?, of the foundation ; Qifa-avpos, 
treasure (ii. 23). Skr. d'aman, homestead, law, regulation, 
habit, condition, fashion, form (settled), effect, faculty (reali- 
sation) ; O/y/uLow, 6co-/u.6s, heap (things put in a place) ; Goth. 
ga'deds, realisation (being put); filwdei'sei, cunning (much 
disposition, vi. 15). 

Suffixes of place: -6a, -6i, -6e, -6ev (see Goth, yains, § 5); 
Goth, tka'd'ei, where (tha, dem. § 3 ; -d, suff. of place, -ei, 
relative, § 5). 

Lat. do, to put ; abdo, condo, &c, credo (vi. 4). 

Lat. ad; Goth. Eng. at; Goth, du ; Eng. to; Lat. atque = 
ad'que, ac an abbreviation. 

Suffixes of place: Lat. inde, unde, in- and un- being pro- 
nouns like hin(c), in the same case as -Qev, pro'in'de ; Lat. 
en'do, vivdu, ante'd, anti'd, ajp'wd, posH'd, prwd-, pwd-, jpro'- 
d'vus, farther on (-ius comparative) ; -Se, place as object to 
which; aXAv&s, else whither; a/u-v8t$, together, ? adverbial (§ 9). 

Skr. pra'ti, irpo'ri, towards. 

Skr. -tya, suffix of position ; -o-e, aX\o-<re, to another place 

(r = ty\ 

Lat. sc-ro, to sow (place, iivsero) ; Goth, saian ; Eng. soiv ; 
Goth, -seths, seed, kind. 

Skr. -tra, suffix of position ; (sa-)tra, together with ; (ta')tra, 
ibi. 

Goth, thar, Eng. there; Goth, her, Eng. here (t dropped 
from the suffix). 

23 



24 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. i. 

Skr. -dya, suffix of position ; sccdyas, statim (§ 32) ; -Xe, 
'AO/jva^e, to Athens (£ = dy). 

Skr. -tas, genitive suffix of position ; -to?, euro?, e-ToCfxo$, 
ready (e = Skr. sa (§ 32), toi, loc. of the to of to-?, like evSoi ; 
cf. Skr. sadyas, statim) ; Lat. -tus, intus. 

Lat. Goth. Eng. in (n x quiescent position, Tntrod. § 10) ; iv, 
evl ; Lat. -?ie, super'ne, &c. ; Goth, liindcvna. 

iv = ev, e?, 6/9 = ev? ; the 9 seems to express motion ; lyvva, 
hack of knee (ev yovv) ; 'ly'tcpo? = eyKe<pa\o? (ev Kapa), 'lyvtjre?, 
indigena? (evyey), 

k 1: position. 

h, q, or c, followed by the adverbial suffixes us, as, or s (§ 9), 
or by the above suffix -tus, forms local adverbs. 

Lat. antrc/vs, in front ; 2 } osti'c'us, behind (anti and posti are 
locatives). 

ave-Kd?, on high; 7reprj~, around; mo:x, presently (place 
transferred to time) ; Lat. cord'icitus, deep in the heart. 

Lat. long'in'quus, prop'in'quus (-in- locative). 

"X°, -x ou > 'X 01 ' "X'?' cases °f P^ce ; /or^o?, /af-y^o?, whither 
(<^o Zoa). 

Lat. con'Jfcvges, places where all winds blow; con'Jiwgcs, where 
streams flow to. 

§ 2. The nominal formative suffixes which are used with 
nominal, pronominal, prepositional, or adverbial bases, very 
often express connection or coincidence, the formation denoting 
what is connected or coincident wdth the base. Old cases of 
nominal stems are used adverbially. The accusative defines 
an action by limiting it, and a kindred ending gives limiting 
definition as an adverb. 

-stiin-. -tim- (e.g. finvtinrus, bordering; soli'stimus, on the 
ground), are accusatives of the locative suffixes, sti, ti, which 
are themselves in 7rpo/u.vi]'<TTri>oi placed one before another 
(-TrpoiAvos) ; media' strmcs, a drudge (in the middle, ready for 
everything) ; claivdcsti'iius, in'te'stl'nus, foetwtrna, a stinking 
place. 

^ 3. t v s v v v -demonstration, expressed by more or less 
close, more or less distinct, approach to one organ by another ; 
for pointing out is an effort of approach. 



sec. 5.] GROUNDS OF THE FIRST PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 25 

Skr. sas ta, 6 to': oS't'os, t- ; Goth, sa 6, thata, neut. ; 
Goth. Eng. th-\ Old Lat. sos = cos. 

o-Qlfiepov), r(i)fi€pov), to- day ; cr(JiTe<s), t($T€s), this year; 
Tyvos, that (t§ loc. = ret) ; to/, strengthening particle ; Lat. 
sic; to/ and si seem to be locatives, c strengthening demon- 
strative. 

Lat. tarn, accus. (see § 2) ; &8e, so ; &s, thus. 

The numeral for three comes perhaps from the demonstrative 
t combined with r, which, by the successive appulses of the 
vibrating tongue, expresses a succession of individuals. 

Skr. tri; rpet?, ires; Goth, threis; Eng. three; Tpivaj*, dprva%, 
trident (vii. 20); Oplov, fig-leaf (three lobes); rpls, thrice (y 
adverbial, § 9). Lat. tri'lus ; Umbr. trefn, a tribe (third part 
of the people, vi. 38). 

S 4. LVi, s,v„ *.p„ y.v., demonstrative of the juxtaposed. 

O 11 11 1-*- 1 ,j/ 1 1 

See Introduction, § 10. 

Skr. tva'm, thou (m by its nasal breathing expresses per- 
sonality, viii. 1) ; Lat. fai, fa'fc (-tc demonstrative) ; rovv, rav, ru, 
a-v ; dual, ar(pco, u(pwi\ cnpmv ; Goth, thu ; Eng. thou. The 
genitives reo, reoio, reov?, reov, t/o?, tiov?, and dative th' 
are remarkable. 

In the Sanskrit stem of the 2nd pers. pi. ywsma, yu is 
demonstrative of the juxtaposed, and sma is the identifying 
element of § 32 ; hence v/meis ; Goth, yus ; Eng. you. 

The origin of the numeral for four seems to be tvahrcr, 
in which t is demonstrative, tva a pair of objects, and r the 
succession of the four: tva differs from the numeral dva in 
involving a demonstrative t, whereas the d of dva is part of 
the expression of combination. 

The first v of tvatvar produced qu in Latin, p in Greek, and 
k in Sanskrit ; and hence Skr. k'atur ; Lat. quatuor ; ireropeg, 
7re(rcrvpe$, 7ricrvpes, Teo-<rape$, Terr ape?, reTTopes ; Goth, fidvor ; 
Eng. four. 

S 5. D having a weaker closure, is a weaker demonstrative 
than t (§ 3), and is used, therefore, either to strengthen another 
demonstrative, or to point attention to verbs or sentences ; for 
these are less definite as objects than substantives. The dental 
aspirate demonstrates more weakly still. The vowel i x or 



26 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. i. 

consonant y refers to the proximate, and as a suffix in Greek 
strengthens the demonstrative ; and the corresponding palatal 
consonants, c in Latin and -yi in Greek, express the same more 
strongly. Akin to this is the expressiveness of y in ye, for 
this particle demonstrates with limitation, as if singling out 
its object as nearer to the thought of the speaker. The guttural 
and labial k and p demonstrate less definitely than the dental. 
But more indefinite, less external, more subjective than any 
other demonstrative element is n' v by reason of its faint closure 
and the breath of life that is in it ; and in a less degree m 1 
has the same characters. The vowel a x gives a sense of the 
remote, a 1 of the nearer or the double. 

These distinctions correspond to what has been laid down 
in the Introduction, § 10, and they may be traced through 
the significance of the particles which are formed out of these 
elements. 

The particle rol (§ 3) strengthens an assertion, but there are 
other particles which emphasise a statement in various ways ; 
Sal, Si'}, dijv, S>}6ev, Sijra, Se more definite than fxev, from which 
it distinguishes ; Se, auxiliary demonstr. (oSe) ; Tj emphasises by 
itself, and subjoined as in rlrj, oto'i, &c. 

Indefinites or interrogatives, Ko'iog, tto'ios, k'W, 7r&>9, kw> 

7TW, TTOl, TTO'dl, ITO'dey, 7TOV, Kl}, TtT], KO'Tep'O?, TTO'Tep'O?. Lat. 

-piam (indefinite with adverbial -am, § 2); Skr. has, who? 
kim- ? (m gives more indefiniteness). 

Indefinite hypothetical demonstratives of fact, Kev, ice, av (v 
gives subjectivity, from the breath of life in the nostrils). 

Indefinite demonstratives, Sels (Sevq), Seiva, n? (rivi) one; 
t/j, wlio ? era, Dor. for rivd (ria, rya, era). 

Proximate demonstratives. Skr. i'd'am, hie ; iyam, hsec ; iti, 
sic; i'tara, alius (i with transition, vi. 9) ; Lat. itennn, again ; 
ISe, and ; Goth, is, he ; Lat. is, i'ste, i'ta (perhaps the instru- 
mental case), i"psc (ix. 5) ; Lat. jam, accusative adverb (§ 2) of 
the proximate demonstrative. irnmo = rsmo (§ 32) ; \va seems 
to be instrumental of \. 

Sev-po, Sev're, Sevpl, rv'iSe Dor. hither ; Goth, hi'ri, come 
here; v and the labials express juxtaposition or coincidence 
(Introduction, § 10). 

Skr. eva, sic ; evam, sic (ace. § 2). eu-re, when (time coin- 
cident, vi. 57). 



sec. 5.] GROUNDS OF THE FIRST PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 27 

Skr. vai, quidem, vero, sane, si (juxtaposition of a fact) ; 
Osk. svai ; Lat. si; el; Goth, ibai, niim, si; ycibai, if; Skr. 
svit, interrogative particle. 

Lat. -pte, -pote, -pe, demonstrative of the contiguous, intro- 
ducing what immediately follows. 

Skr. yacli, si, nam, demonstrative of the proximate. 

Skr. yas, who (y expresses close reference to the antecedent) ; 
Goth. -ci. rel. pron. suffix; as, who (y passes into h) ; ocr'Te, 
09 strengthened with demonstrative t (§ 3). 

e'Tep-os, other (h refers here also to an antecedent, from 
which there is transition, vi. 9). 

In Lat. cetera the c replaces y and h. 

Lat. qui (the reference to the antecedent involves connection 
with it, which q is specially fit to express, see Introd. § 10 ; 
and q is strengthened with juxtaposition in v and proximity 
in i). The relative pronoun defines by connection with another 
object, and therefore expresses what needs definition. Its 
ground, qv, belongs therefore also to the indefinite, -quam, -cun-, 
-que, and to the interrogative quis, which is stronger, as more 
emphatic. The same ground as expressing connection supplies 
the copulative -que. Lat. quam, relative limitation or degree 
(see § 2). Goth, leva, Eng. who ; Goth, hve'leiks, Eng. which 
(§ 26); Goth, hvevr, Eng. where (§1); Goth, hvefthar, Eng. 
whether ; Goth, -him, Lat. -cun-, -quam ; Goth, uh, Lat. que ; 
the transposition of h and v in Goth, uh is like that in Eng. 
who. The q is dropped in u(ter), u(bi), &c, and t, ti, demons, 
is added in ut, uti. To -que correspond Skr. h'a and re. 

A weaker ground than qv, but of similar expressiveness, and 
similarly associated with i, is in Lat. hie (hvi'c), whose genitive 
is hurjus, or rather hu'jus'ce ; for the final c of hie is the demon- 
strative element -co or -c, which has been mentioned above. 
This -c is -h in Goth., as in thaifh (see below). 

Lat. cccc, ecquis. 

Lat. cvs, ci'tra, Goth, hi-, Eng. hi(thcr) ; hita, ace. sing, 
neut. her, Eng. here (§ 1); hi'dre, Eng. liitJicr (vi. 9); Lat. 
ecu, (ci've, specifies with equivalence). 

eicei, eKei'vos, Kij'vog, Kecvog. 

yd = ye, yap (specifies with transition, jO ) ; Lat. igitur 
(specifies with transition, vi. 9). 

ku'i has an expressiveness like que. 



28 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. i. 

JSf demonstrates indefinitely by reason of the weakness of 
the closure. 

Lat. en, rjv, lo ! demonstrate indefinitely, as the object is not 
yet observed. evQa, there (§ 1) ; evrauOa, here, there (evQ-av- 
T'a) ; evravOoi, hither ; ev'Oev, evrevOev (evQ'evT'ev), thence. Skr. 
ena, demons, an'tara, alius (vi. 9) ; Goth, antheir, Eng. other. 

evioL, some ; Lat. an ; Goth, an ? for, and. 

Lat. num, ixwv ; Skr. -nu ? Lat. -nc ; Skr. nana, multus, 
varius (indefinite reduplicated) ; Lat. -nam. 

N and m demonstrate subjectively, confirming the adoption 
of a statement. Lat. emm, nam, nee, ne ! fxi]v, vai, vai^i 
(strengthened by )(i demonstrative), vrj, vel, affirmative, fxa 
assertive of affirmation or negation ; Skr. nunam, certo. ficv, 
vi'v, are pronouns of the 3rd person in the accusative. 

The Gothic ya, yes, probably expresses affirmation by y 
demonstrating the proximate, as negation involves a sense of 
remotion. But Goth, yarns is the demonstrative of the remote, 
Eng. yon, yoivder, beyond. A similar expressiveness of the 
remote is given by n in Goth. hind(ana), on the far side, Eng. 
behind, and in Lat. sin, which expresses a remote or contrary 
supposition. In all these the expressiveness of n is the same 
as in iv. 4. 

In Goth, yah, and, h gives junction; and in yau interrog. 
a gives the indefiniteness of hv. 

Goth, yu, now, expresses the present by y demonstrating 
the proximate and u the juxtaposed. 

n^y v ly v l-J v demonstrative of the added or of the beyond. 

Skr. anya, alius ; a'AAo? ; Lat. alius, al'ter, adul'ter (ter, 
transition between two, vi. 9) ; Goth, edis, other. 

Demonstrative of the remote, Me, ollc, ol'im (vi. 37), id's (s 
adverbial, § 9), ultra, ul'tro, remote, separate, independent direc- 
tion ; ullus, any (an individual not confined to the near, and 
therefore leading thought to the remote) ; ali'qitis (transition 
from one to another with, indefiniteness expressed by qui). 

v t (juxtaposed and definite. Introduction, § 10). 

Skr. via, vtalio, aut (aho, interjection). 

Lat. aut, aulreni (em has accusative significance, § 2), refers 
to a past thought as different. 

Goth. (bay)'oths ; Eng. (b)oth. 

v , v ^ (I less definite than t). 



sec. 7.] GROUNDS OF THE FIRST PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 29 

Skr. va, aut, sicut ; >/, or, than ; Lat. -ve, vel. 

t v , definite and juxtaposed. 

Skr. tva, alius ; tic, autem etiaru ; Goth, aith'thcm, or else 
(aith demonstrative). 

Goth, thawh, Eng. though (-h = Lat. -c) refers to a co- 
existent fact thought as different. 

m , s.TO-j indefinite. 

a.ju.69 or djuog, a/j.o'Oev, from some place ; ouS-ajuos, none 
(iv. 5, S demons.). 

Goth, sums; Eng. some. 

§ 6. y^, yj v junction. 

Skr. yu , //a;/, jungere (strengthened with g x ) ; l^evyvvfjii ; Lat. 

jungo ; jugum, yoke, connecting beam or ridge; tot'jug'us, so 

many (together); jugulum, throat (connects head); jugerum 

(two actus joined, 120 x 240 feet) ; juxta, juxtim (jug's^ x a, 

jug's tim, S 2) ; jumentum, beast of burden (yoked) ; jugis, 

continual (uninterrupted) ; v'fxrjv, Hymen (' for y). 

Goth, yuh, Eng. yoke ; yiulca, strife. 

Skr, yud\ to fight ; yud'mcc, a fight; vg-jj.lv, ixj-fxiui], a fight ; 
Ma'ju'ma, mock sea-fight in the Tiber in May (Ma = Maid). 

Skr. yat, to join, to be set on an object. 

d v , expression of a double by the help of the labial closure 
v . Introduction, § 10. 

Skr. dva, Svo, duo ; Goth, tvai ; Eng. two ; Skr. dvi'S, twice 
(s adverbial, § 9); vi'su, on both sides (iv. 8); Sis (Sf<-'s), Si-, Soioi, 
two ; Son}, doubt. Skr. dvitlyas, second ; Snrcrog (Si'ry'os), 
SiPos, double ; Si^oo, Sia-ra^ca, to doubt ; Lat. bis, bini, dubius ; 
Goth, tuz-, tuzveryan, to doubt. 

S 7. m , yjn> v gi m i> [Ji v i> combination of one with another 
(labial juxtaposition). 

Lat. cmo, original meaning to take or receive; ex'im'o, 
ex'im'ius, cx'emylum, prceniium (jprce'im m um), swm'o, cle'nro. 

Skr. yctma, a pair; Skr. g'am'jpati, husband and wife (pati, 
husband); Skr. gama'tri, gener (tri expresses the relation of kin- 
dred, vi. 9) ; ya/u.'fi-p6$, Lat. gener, son-in-law; Skr. garni, soror; 
Lat. dmita, father's sister (ta is a reduction of tri) ; ya/uos, 
marriage ; Lat. genvinus (yama), jaw v trices, elva-repes, wives of 
brothers (11 for m, as in gener) ; Skr. yatri, mariti fratris uxor. 



30 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. i. 

<y6[A(pos, a wooden bolt. 

fieo-q'yv, fxerw^y, between (yv and £v express the pair 
between which). 

g I , I,, connection by affinity ; the flat closure of I gives a 
sense of apposition. 

ydXo'm, husband's sister ; yaXa'co'vij, id. ; Lat. glos, -oris, id. ; 
Skr. -al'a, -eda (§ 31). 

S 8. b , m , v , p , juxtaposition (Introduction, § 10). 

Skr. abhi, ad ; -(pi, /mea-(pi, iuea-<pa, until (vi. 36) ; Goth. 
hi, Eng. by ; Lat. vbi, wH ; -<pw, <fii's, 9 adverbial (§ 9). 

Goth, adverbial suffix -ba = coincidence, correspondence. 

Goth, bed, bayoths, Eng. both (strengthened by oth, § 5). 

Skr. ub'a, ambo ; a/mepto, Lat, amb'o (strengthened with w x ) ; 
aju.(p'ovS-[?, on the ground again (ovSas, vi. 71). 

Lat. a/p'u'd (§ 1). 

Lat. jpce-ne, nearly (§ 1) ; s«r^e (§ 30). 

7r;/o9, relation by marriage. 

yaXoo)-, yaXaco-, in S 7 = ya\a-va ; wz —juxtaposition of two. 

Lat. m'trvcus, stepfather (collateral vi-, relation of kindred, 
tri-, vi. 9, having -cus, § 2) ; jpri'viyni, stepchildren ; oirviw, to 
marry (oir, § 30, + ot) ; jpatr'u'us, father's brother (u collateral) ; 
patr'U'elis, medrwelis, fratrweles, related as nephew through 
father or mother, or as cousins through sisters; -el = Skr. -al(§ 7); 
Skr. pUri'vyas, patruus (vi. 38) ; irarpo^, id. ; V ratri'vyas, 
nephew (vi. 17); 7raTp'vc6$, stepfather; fxrjTp'vca, stepmother. 

Lat. amis, grandfather ; avunculus, uncle (2nd degree of 
kindred) ; Goth, woo, grandmother. 

Lat. fivcre = figcre, fibula. 

Skr. vi"%va, omnis (combination, §31); Lat. cervix (vi. 1). 

air-Too, to fasten, kindle (affect with fire) ; <n|/o?, joint ; 
ud)0ei, erysipelatous inflammation ; xopS'axJso?, inflammation of 
the bowels (x°P&'l) 5 «^ ? /> touch, grasp ; ^irrrrr]^, a mender. 

P-fv Pi s V v i s v J ux t a position, definite. 

Lat. apt/is, fit. 

Skr. pcrtta, sedes ; pain, aptus habilis dexter. 

Lat. re'pucl'ium, puttiug away. 

Goth, fclyan, to adorn. 

Goth, beidan, Eng. bide; Mid. Lat. boda, mansio ; Gotb. 
baidyan, to compel. 



sec. 10.] <; ROUNDS OF THE FIRST PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 31 

Lat. pono (pos-no), jwstis ; Goth, fast' an, to hold, guard; 
Eng. fast. 

§ 9. vj v v v s v v x s v coincidence, correspondence. 

Adverbial suffix, Skr. -rat, -vets (Icritvas); -co?, -s ; Lat. -us,- 
is, -s, ali-uta, otherwise; Goth, -va, hvavva, Eug. how ; Goth. 
S'va, Eng. so ; Goth, sve, as ; -oj. 

Skr. k'va, ubi (7c interrogative) ; Lat. v&stig'ivm (vi. 71). 

iv v ijcv i l m v coincidence correspondence. 

Skr. ira, sicut ; Lat. ccquus ; inviior, imago, mnvulus ; Goth. 
ibns, Eng. even. 

Lat. red-ion- vo, to encircle (cause to coincide with by bend- 
ing back). 

§ 10. nj v quiescent apposition denned (Introduction, § 10). 

Skr. nid, propinquum esse ; Ir. naithm, covenant. 

Goth, nithyis, cousin; nithan, to help. 

Skr. nand-a, nand-ini, sister-in-law ; nand'ana, progenies 
(propinquity of kindred) ; vdvvag, vevvog, uncle ; Lat. nonnus, 
monk ; nonna, nun (name of reverence). 

nJc v quiescent apposition close. 

Lat. angustus, narrow; ayyi, near; eyyu$, near; aarcrov, 
nearer (ayyj.ov) ; Lat. angiportus, narrow alley (vi. 20) ; Goth. 
aggvus, narrow; Goth, nehv, near; Eng. nigh, next. 

Skr. nalcs, nancisci, to come by, reach ; Lat. nancio, to get, 
obtain ; nassa, naxa, basket to catch fish. 

Skr. naks'a'tra, star, sun, stations of the moon (nedes, to 
come up to, regularity of arrival). 

n 1 m 1 , n 1 v v n 1 p l , quiescent apposition strengthened with 
juxtaposition side by side (Introduction, § 10). 

Goth, niman, to take; Lat. numella, kind of fetter. 

vaiw, to dwell ; vao<?, temple (where god dwells. M6\. vavos, 
Curtius). 

Lat. nubo, to marry (especially the woman's part). 

vvficpt], a young wife or bride. 

Lat. noverca, stepmother (by marriage nov, relation -cr-, 
vi. 9, having -ca, § 2). 

Skr. musa, daughter-in-law (nu strengthened doubly with 
s ) ; vi/09, ivvog, nurus, id. 
Ir. nuathar, wedding. 



32 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. i. 

Skr. nap'tri, nepos ; nap'tri, neptis ; Lat. nepos, grandson, 
nephew ; neptis, grand-daughter, niece ; Skr. napdt, filius ; 
napti, filia ; yeVocW = Teicva ; ave^ios, cousin (a copulativum). 

The -same applied to time. 

vv, Goth, nit, Eug. now ; vvv, vw (accusative adverb, § 2, up 
to limit of present moment) ; vvvl (i demonstrative) ; Lat. nunx 
(c demonstrative), nu'dius tertius, day before yesterday ; nuper 
(vi. 27); Goth, nawh (h demonstrative), Germ, noch, still. 

Skr. nava, Lat. novus ; veos (proximate in time), veav=veo$ 
(-aVj, § 2) ; veavlas, young man ; vea\ri$, fresh (A n, § 2) ; vrj'yd'- 
reos, new (vi. 66) ; vei'/Xaros (second formation from i'e>/A?/?), 
vea^ = veai/ia? (cf. /meipa^), veoar<r6<s, veoocrcrco (cf. Xi/uuxra-oo), veo^- 
luos = veo$, vefi'pos, a fawn ; vefip'a'^ a young animal ; Goth. 
niuyis ; Eng. new. 

§ 11. m v iffi^n> v m i^v m i s v m J'v n i r v coincidence, coincidence 
defined. 

Skr. ma, mas, metiri ; mas, mensis luna ; iai'jv, month ; 
MP)], moon ; Goth, mena, Eng. moon ; Goth, menoths, Eng. 
month ; Lat. mensis ; mens'tvuus, monthly (tr step of transition, 
vi. 9) ; Skr. masa, measure, weight ; /uupis, a liquid measure ; 
Lat. invman'is (unmeasured) ; Lat. niini's, beyond measure. 

Ir. mithis, time ; mis, mi, a month. 

ju.eSilu.vos, fioScog, measures; Lat. moclius, id.; modus ; moclero ; 
modo, just now ; mod'ernus (the present contrasts with the 
remote in involving a sense of a limiting point of time). 

Goth, mitan, to measure ; Eng. meet, adj. ; Goth, mota, tax 
(fit); ga'motan, find room (fit). 

Goth, ga'motyan, to meet ; Eng. meet, mate. 

/jlutiov, a measure; /xerpov, a measure; Lat. metior ; meta ; 
met'cllus, mercenary; fxoiro?, thanks, return; juiaOo?, Goth. 
mizdo, pay. 

Lat. amussis, a rule or level; mus'tri'col'a, machinula ex 
regulis in qua calceus suitur (tri, whereby an effect comes 
forth). Cyp. fj-vaa-'iov, measure ; Lat. norma, rule. 

Goth, mcl, defined time; mela, bushel. Lat. mcrco ; merx ; 
merces ; equivalence. 

Lat. mensa ; Goth, mes, table (on which things are laid). 

/mi/mos, mimic. 

Skr. mit' , met' , Tried', to accompany, to meet. 



sue. 12.] GROUNDS OF THE FIRST PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 33 

§ 12. />,/,, L»,, If,. /,, the double contact, with the flat 

Ml 11 11' 1 

closure of /, gives a sense of surface and of flatness, but is 
strengthened with other elements in the same phase of utter- 
ance, and with similar significance. 

Lat. plan'us ; planc'a, a board; plant" a, sole of the foot; 
pdl'a, a spade ; 7rA«£, anything flat ; Lat. placenta, cake ; 
plat'essa, iiat fish, plaice; plag'usia, a kind of fish; plag'a, 
tract, surface ; palnva ; pul'pit'um (vi. 40). cxt'xoX'jy?, on 
the surface ; 7raXdfx'>], palm ; TraXafi'vaios, one guilty of 
violence ; 7ruAa<T-r>/, palm of the hand (xaA strengthened 
with (7T , which has similar significance) ; ttXuctt- iy}^, scale 
of a balance ; iraXdOt], cake ; xXiVO'of, brick-shaped body ; 
7raA/raT/«9, palm-wine ; 7rAaTaVo?, plane (leaves) ; irXuTa/x-wi', 
tlat body ; irXdQ-avov, dish on which bread was baked ; Lat. 
plautus, flat; platalea, the spoonbill. 

Lat. lanx, plate, scale of balance; lanna, ear-flap. Lat. 
later, brick (flat surfaces). Goth, land, Eng. land. 

eXar't], the pine, the bud of the palm (flatness of the shoots 
and branches) ; eiXdnvos, of pine ; eXeo?, eiXeos, kitchen-table. 
Did these words originally begin with F ? 

t J , s 1 ^ 1 , t r., the same. 

Skr. tola, solum, planta pedis, palma, superficies ; Lat. medi'- 
tullium, middle place ; Lat. sub'tcl, hollow of the foot ; Lat. 
tellus (tal'var, var being the root of Skr. uru, spacious, whose 
comparative is variyas). 

Lat. solum, bottom; solea, sole; creA/?, bench; o-eX/JLa, deck, 
throne, scaffold ; cnjXiu, rijXia, tray ; rapo-os, sole, flat surface ; 
Goth, sul/ja, Eng. sole. 

I p , l^m v the same. 

Goth, lofa, flat hand; Goth, laufs, Eng. leaf. 

Lat. lamina. 

s 1 p v pJ, pr v double contact, giving sense of flatness, 
strengthened as above. 

cnrdOi], broad blade ; <nruSi]~, palm branch or frond ; iraravt], 
flat dish ; Lat. patiiva ; patera, broad flat dish or saucer ; 
bat'ill'um, fire shovel or pan ; ttittukuoi', leaf out of writing 
tablets ; \f///TTa, y^tjercra, flat fish. 

Skr. parna, feather, leaf. Lat. frons, -clis, leaf, 

Goth, bauirl, Eng. board. 

C 



34 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap, i. 

2\ n v Pj l v s i m ^ ar to preceding. 

7rtVa^, flat board ; a(3u^, slab or board ; Lat. abacus, id. 

§ 13. p I , p r , lt v juxtaposition, coincidence. The flexile 
closure of / or r gives a strong sense of coincidence. 

irXrjv, save, except, than (beside, with sense of distinctness ; 
-7r\}]jULiae\)')9, out of tune ; irXtjyevi)';, half brother or sister 
(collateral incomplete kindred); 7re'Aa?, near; iriXvaw = 

Lat. fere, nearly ; fer'me, nearly. 

Lat. prop'e near; prop'ter (tcr correlation, vi. 9); propri'us 
(allocated) ; Lat. pareo, to attend, apparco ; irapa, beside ; 
Lat. paro, to make ready at hand ; op'per'ior, to wait at 
hand. 

Lat. lat us, side (beside which). 

p,r correspondence. 

Lat. par, equal; perinde, just as (§ 1, likeness taken from). 

\l 1 p 1 correspondence. 

Skr. Jcalp, to be right, correspond, be favourable for, become 
something; halpa, adj. adapted, — like, subs, rule, recurrent 
period ; Goth, halbs, Eng. half (corresponding parts). 

§ 14. pi, t I , apposition with flexile coincidence. 

TrXda-rroi), to mould ; irXayywv, wax doll. 

SaiSaX-os, cunningly wrought (intensive reduplication). 
Lith. dalle ars, dailus habilis elegans, dailauti kunstvoll 
fiigen, Gadh. dcalbh fingere. Dief. Goth. s. v. tils. 

§ 15. pi, p.r , sjo , p s v apposition with adherence, the 
tongue being felt as if adhering to the palate. 

ihupw, (popvmi, (poXviw, to blend, to soil ; Goth, blandan, 
Eng. blend; (pvpdo), mix, knead; (popeia, mire; finpfiopos, 
id. cpoXui'e?, kind of dogs (spotted); <poXl?, spot; Goth. 
blauthyan, Eng. blot ; Goth, blinds, Eng. blind ; <pop!w, 
kind of alum used as styptic ; (papiKOv, poison ; (pdp-fxuK-ov, 
an application (^ 20); cpap-juda-a-co, to use' (papfxaKov, to dye, 
paint ; Lat. fari.o, a trout (speckled) ; 7rop<pvpco, work together, 
darken; iropfavpa, the purple fish (dark dye); fiapfiupu. 
kind of plaster; Lat. conforio, to pollute wholly; foria, thin 
excrement. 



sec. 16.] GROUNDS OF THE FIRST PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 35 

7ra\a.(T(Tte, to defile ; Tra\vv(O t strew, smear ; iraky, iranruX,'i, 
the finest meal ; Lat. pul'iris (vii. 28) ; polluo ; pollen, fine 
dust; polenta, cooked meal; blatea, spot of mud; blatta, clot 
of blood, dark purple ; Goth, plats, patch. 

/3aX<o?, dappled. 

7reX<o9, discoloured from extravasated blood, black and blue, 
dark (stained) ; 7reXXo?, 7reXo?, dark coloured ; Lat. pullus, 
dark coloured ; 7roX<o'?, grey (a mixed colour, as if powdered) ; 
Skr. palita, canis capillis praeditus ; Lat. palleo ; irXayyos* 
dark-coloured eagle. Lat. baliolus, swarthy, chestnut-coloured. 

Skr. ppk', prig', pgin'g', miscere conjungere; airpi^, close; 
a-7rpiy86-7r\i)KTo?, struck with blows close to one another ; 
TrepK'6?, 7repK-v6s, dark coloured; irepK)], perch (from its colour); 
Lat. percis, a sea-mussel. 

Skr. spartf, to touch, to become a part. 

ftXevva, phelgm, mucus; /3XeWo?, mucous matter, the blenny 
fish ; {3\ei>vo$ f drivelling. 

TrXevvepos, slimy. 

(pXey/ua, phlegm. /3X/^-a><^/?, ^Xi^avwS)j?, running at the 
nose ; (Sklicavos, a frog. Lat. plaeitis, crust adhering to furnace. 

a(ppayi9, seal ; spagas, vocatur in Asia resina quae fit e 
picea.— Plin. 14, 29. 

o-irXyviov, a plaster; Lat. seplasium, an unguent; uairwv, 
Lat. sapo, soap (Teut. or Celt.); Lat. eon'spol'ium, sacrificial 
cake (vii. 6) ; (nriXa?, agillaceous clay, stain ; o-7r.'Xo9, stain ; 
urrcpaXro?, bitumen ; oiavrnj, grease in wool (of>, sheep) ; Lat. 
sebum, grease. 

7T«o-cra>, to sprinkle, lay on ; 7rucr-/xa, sprinkling, plaster ; 
7r«7"7r«X>/, finest meal (see above). 

ylrapo?, dappled grey ; ^'luvBog, white lead (§ 20). 

fiXi/ma^M, to feel for eggs. 

pjn, p m r the same, the continuous closure of m giving a 
sense of adherence. 

Lat. fimus, dung, dirt; /3<ifJL{3aKo? = (pap^xaKo?. 

Goth, vamm, stain, Lug. wem, wemless, 

§ 16. m.n , vn v v x m v juxtaposition quiescent (Introduction. 
§ 10), accomplishment of approach. 

fxevw, stay; fiefjivwv, steadfast; Lat. maneo ; ta'men (that 
continuing); Goth, manvus, ready. 



3G CREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. i. 

Lat. veivio ; Goth, qvim'a'n, Eng. come (the elements of 
verbal succession, -i-, -a-, supply motion). 

§ 17. vjc v juxtaposition close (Introduction, § 10). 

Skr. vix, intrare (§ 16) ; ucco, to come ; 'lic'nevos, coming, 
favourable ; "icavog, coming up to ; Skr. ve%a, house ; otVco?, 
id. ; Lat. m'c«.s, vicinus ; Goth. mAs, village. 

-i Js , k x ik v a PP os ition close. 

?//c<w, come ; 'iK'rap, near (tcijOj correlation, vi. 9). 

Kiyyavoo, to reach, hit, or light on. 

^ 18. p , v v with consonant of palatal closure ; the tongue 
striving to adhere to the whole palate, gives a sense of 
stickiness. 

Skr. pi-%, to a( lorn, dress, shape ; pin'g', to paint, join ; 
pix'una, informer, backbiter (stainer) ; pey^ala, decorated, beau- 
tiful, also fit (§ 19); 7ro(/c/Xo?, many coloured (like artificial 
colour) ; Lat. pingo, to paint, embroider (attach colour) ; 
pica, magpie (coloured black and white); Goth. filw/aihus = 
TToXviroiKikos ; bi/aih, secret detraction (cf. Skr. pi)(una. In 
Uifilas, Ms. B. 2 Cor. xii. 20, bifaiha translates y^iOupicrfioi, 
whisperings) ; Old H. Ger., Old Sax. /eh, varius, pictus ; 
Ang.-Sax. /ag, versicolor; Mid. and New H. Ger. /eg&n, 
ornare. 

Skr. pikWa, slime, gum; Lat. pix, picis, pitch; pieea, 
Norway spruce fir ; p'nius, pine tree ; irla-a-u, iriTT'a, pitch 
(era; tt, come from the palatal effort, ty or ley) ; ttitus, pine 
tree (itu brings all parts of the tongue near to the palate) ; 
Lat. pituita, slime, gum; bitumen; abiet-, the white fir; 
TTiicepiov, butter ; Lat. abiga, ground pine ; bugillo, id. ; Goth. 
pnka-bagms, palm tree. (Grimm supposes peika to be bor- 
rowed from picea or contracted from peinika. Gram. i. 55; 
iii. 377). 

(Jwkos, sea-weed, paint ; Lat. /ucus, id. 

Lat. fingo ; figulus, potter; figura (sticky handling). 

Lat. viscum, mistletoe, birdlime ; i£o?, id. ; iWat, fungus on 
oak and walnut. 

Lat. viscera (slimy) ; Lat. exta, entrails (cf. t£o?). 

Skr. visa, vis, stercus ; visa, virus; Lat. virus; toy, rust, 
poison. 



bec. 20.] GROUNDS OF THE FIRST PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 37 

Lat. venenum, poison, dye; (Tepe)fitvdo?, turpentine tree; 
(pui'wv, eye-salve; sacopenium (vii. 48), crayair^vov (vii. 48), 
ferula Persica and its gum. 

Tria-TUKt], tree which bears a nut with a soft unctuous 
kernel; irlrraPis, fruit of cornel cherry; 7tuo-t>7, Lat. pasta, 
paste ; Lat. pausea, kind of olive. 

(pBeip, louse, fish that sticks on other fishes, small fir-cone. 

The palatal closure without the labial also expresses stickiness. 

Ki<r<r6$, ivy ; cora'cesia (see § 23) ; k'/ctto?, cistus (sticky 
flowers, gum-cistus). ayacr(vWi$), heracleum gummiferum. 
rr^a'o?, mastic tree ; Lat. (lcnt)isais, id. ; Skr. sag'g, adhserere, 
inhaerere. Lat. lingo, to smear; Skr. an'g', ungere. 

§ 19. }\l\, apposition of correspondents p x , adherence /. , 
(Introduction, § 10). 

Lat. patio, paciscor, to make an agreement; pax; 7ra£! 
peace, enough. 

Goth, (full 'a)fa 7 //ail, fulfil; gafeh'aba, fitly; fagrs, suitable; 
Eng. fair. 

Lat. pango, to fix ; paxillus, peg ; irriyvvixi, to fix ; Lat. 
pignus; 7rayos, rock (solid, hard); Lat. propages, layer (fixed 
forward) ; Lat. figo, jixula = fibula. 

§ 20. mje v contact with adherence (Introduction, § 10). 

fxacrcro) (jxcucyw), to handle, knead ; fxayeipo?, cook ; fxa^a, 
cake; (pap'/uaKov, (pap/mdcrcroci (§ 15); fiaaofiai, I will touch. 

Lat. mucus, snot; mucor, mould, mustiness ; /*('£«, snot, 
slime ; -fiv<r<rco, -£w, to blow the nose ; Lat. mungo, id. ; fxvKr//p, 
the nose ; -[avkti^co, to scorn, mock. 

/uv^wv, slimy fish ; Lat. mugil, sea-fish ; [auko? = niapo? ; Skr. 
■mag 'g 'an, medulla; muges, dici solet, quasi mucosus, is qui talis 
male ludit (Festus) ; mugmor, to dally (fumble?). 

Goth, maihstus, dunghill ; Eng. mixen, muck. 

Lat. macula. /unalico, to stain (i 1 supplies the palatal 
closure) ; /x/a^o'9, stained. hjlvkXos, stripe on the ass. 

fttjov, a herb called spignel or maldmony (speckmelde). 

Skr. meg'' a, nubes (blots the sky) ; o/x/^X>/, mist. 

fiiywjuu, /uLia-yw, to mix (s increases the palatal closure) ; 
Lat. misceo ; /ulio-koi, droppings of food. 

Lat. maekio, a mason (cements) ; Goth, megs, one connected 



38 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. i. 

by marriage ; Old Ger. mag, kinsman ; Old Ger. machon, 
iungere, facere ; Ang.-Sax. macian ; Eng. make. 

m.s v m^ v m v the same, the continuous closure of m giving 
a sense of adherence. 

fjLaaTi)(t], a gum ; /xda-TreTov, the leaf of the silphium (iv. 
15) ; mystus, piscis ex lacertorum genere ; Lat. musculus, kind 
of fish, sea-muscle, muscle of body (adheres to the bone or 
shell) ; musinor = muginor, to dally. 

IulvSos, damp clamminess ; julvSuco, to be damp or clammy ; 
/uLvSa^o/uai, to loathe (expectorate) ; /jlvti?, liver of mollusca ; 
/xuTiAo?, muscle-fish ; //veXo'9, marrow ; fxu$, muscle-fish ; Lat. 
mitulus, mutuhts = fJLvnXos ; Lat. mvtilago, juicy plant (vi. 92); 
/jlvttos, pudendum niuliebre. 

Skr. mid, unctum adiposum esse; met', adhferere ; medas, 
medulla; Lat. medulla; fieT'coiriop, gum of an African tree 
(o7riov, juice); /j.itv*s, bees-wax; y^l/xvOos, white lead (^ 15). 

ml, the same. 

Skr. mala, sordes Latum; lalwmala, lead (bahu, multum) ; 
/uuzXus, black ; ixoXvvw, to defile ; /jlo\v{3Sos, /xo'Ai'/3o9, Lat. 
plumbum (pi = ml), lead; Goth, mcl, writing; mail, stain, 
Ang.-Sax. mad, Eng. mole ; irrfieXij, fat, grease (vi. 38) ; 
fxaXOrj, mixture for calking ships ; maldacon, gum of the 
bdellium. 

mjr y , s i m v t 1 m v the same. 

/u.opu<T(TU), to defile ; Lat. merda, excrement. 

Lat. temero, tamino, to defile ; tamnus, climbing plant (ad- 
hesive) ; taminia ura, its berry ; Lat. sampsa, pulp of olives 
(lleb. semen). 

Ang.-Sax. mearc ; Eng. mark. 

Irish maorach, shell-fish ; yXvuv'/Aapls, kind of oyster. Lat. 
marga, marl. Eng. marrow, Ger. mark. 

Goth, smarna, dung (s l strengthens wij); smairthr, grease; 
Emj. smear. 

Goth, smeitan, to besmear; Ang.-Sax. besmltan, contaminare ; 
Eng. smittle, contagious. 

Goth, smitlia, Eng. smith ; Ger. ge'schmeidig, malleable, duc- 
tile. 

§ 21. /J,\, t i , contact with adherence. 

Skr. dih, to spread over; delta, the body (the external part 



sec. 23.] GROUNDS OF THE FIRST PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 39 

spread over the internal); Ang.-Sax. tegian, to stain; Lat. 
con'dio, to season. 

Lat. ias'conium, kind of potter's earth; to^ikov, resinous 
juice, poison; Goth, thaho, clay. 

Goth, deigan, to mould; Ang.-Sax. dag, Eng. dcmgh ; Goth. 
ildiys, the potter's lump ; ga'dilcis, the thing formed (dig' = d ih, 
Grassmann). 

Suyvs, wax doll. 

tJe, L, 7c , contact, prehension. 

TeTuywv, taking ; Seyojj.ai, StKO/uai, to take, receive ; Ang.- 
Sax. takan, Eng. take; dSSi^, a measure (vi. 59); SuictvXos, 
linger ; Lat. digitus. 

rdco, root of rij = \d(3e ; T>](/ue\ik), careful ; Skr. day, fa//, 
tag, sumere, tueri ; Skr. dasa, famulus, servus (a possession). 

9iyydvu>, to touch ; Lat. tango ; Goth, tehan, teikan, to touch. 

Goth, ya'yeiyan, ya-yeiyyan, to gain ; aiyan, to own ; Skr. 
-ha, possessive suffix, mcrma'ka, meus ; asma-ham, nostrum 
(gen. pi.). 

^ 22. fc £ , h s v adhering conjunction. 

Skr. gat conjungere, conglutinare ; yata, hydria fictilis. 

Goth, has, vessel ; hasya, potter. 

Skr. Irtt'ina, vas fictile ; Lat. catinus, a bowl. 

Goth, gadiliggs, cousin (§ 26) ; Ang.-Sax. gadding, comes ; 
Ang.-Sax. gaderian, Eng. gather. Lat. catcrva. 

Goth, ovyitan, to find; Eng. get. 

KTao/uai, to get, hold ; KTeap, KTeavov, possession ; Krepas, 
possession, gift ; tcrepea, funeral gifts ; KTtjvo?, cattle. 

^ 23. hJ, , adherence on application. 

yXo'ia, yXla, glue ; Lat. glus, -litis, glue ; y\tvtj t mud ; 
yXi'/vi], honeycomb, anything sticky ; yXeivos, maple (resinous) ; 
y\io~xj3o<?, sticky, dirty; yXlrrov, dirt; ^Xi/oV, dirt; yeXytj 
= pcoTros, trumpery (dirt); yXu/u>], yXi'/fxtj, Lat. gram/ice, 
viscous humour in corner of eye ; yXafAvj-o?, blear-eyed, 
(yXani + ahsa, oculus) ; yaXaKes, kind of muscle. 

koXXu, glue ; kuX^i], purple dye ; ^aX/c//, id. ; tcoXXvpiov, 
eye-salve, poultice, clay; koXXo7t6co, glue together; koXXo\^, 
debauchee, cimedus. 

Lat. colostra, biestings ; Lat. color. 



40 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. i. 

apyiWos, potter's earth ; Lat. atgilla (Jear, dropping k, + 
gil) ; qvdon, jelly. 

Lat. callicia, plant said to freeze water (or to thicken it, § 25). 

K>]\h, stain; Skr. kola, niger ; kalaka; lalana, macula; 
Ke\aiv6?, black ; Lat. catigo, darkness ; ax^v?, mist, darkness ; 
Lat. aquilws, dark coloured. 

k L r v the same. 

Skr. kardama, lutum ; tctpa/nos, potter's clay ; Kepvos, large 
earthen dish. 

icdpSoTTos, kneading trough ; icepdoo, to mix into one ; Kpan'ip, 
mixing bowl ; eyKpis, cake made with oil and honey (ev 
-Kepao)). 

Lat. cremor, thick juice, cream; Lat. corcrccsia, plant like 
callicia (see above, § 18); Kopts, Kopiov, plant same as x«/W- 
ttitvs ; Lat. cart'ilago, gristle (viscous, vi. 92). 

Kqpos, wax; Ki'iptifio?, bee-bread (vi. 129); Lat. cera, wax; 
creta, chalk; Lat. ccrvsm, white lead (vi. Ill); (sin)cerus, 
clean, sound ; aKi'iparos, pure, untouched, undamaged. 

Goth, qvrammitha, moisture ; Old Norse, kramr, soft semi- 
fluid. 

Xjo/w, anoint, colour, prick slightly ; xP a ' iV0) > smear > sta ^ n 5 
X|o/yU7rTO0, affect with contact ; XP ( *'C W > XP® VW P L > touch, tinge ; 
XP ( ' )Uy Xi ^ 9 ' sur ^* ace 5 colour; Lat. hcerco, stick. 

k v k l n 1 , adhering contact. 

XpvSpos, gristle ; x ov ^P^^> plant which exudes gum. 

Lat. cosnum, dirt; inquino, bedaub; cunire = stercus facere. 

kvko.0), to mix ; Kvpnavaca, id. (cf. Kepaw). 

Lat. cinnus, mixed drink ; coivcinniis, nicely fitting. 

/aVra/3o?, K<xva/3os, model ; icavcov, what adjusts. 

§ 24. l Y m v l x v v l x p v l v adhering apposition, the tongue 
being felt as if adhering to the palate. 

\}llixr} = yXyfi.)], viscous humour; Xo./j.-ki], scum; Xairt], phlegm; 
Xe/ucpo?, mucus; Lat. limns, slime. 

\u-9poi', Xv-fJLa, \v/ul7], defilement ; Lat. lus'trum, slough ; 
lu-tum, mud; iliuv'ies, dirt; luridus, sallow, pale; lo'mentum, 
powder for skin. 

Lat. liveo, to be black and blue, livid ; oblirueor, to forget 
(blot intercepting object) ; oliva ; oka ; oleum ; eXala, olive ; 
eXouov, oil; (loth, alev, oil. 



^eg. 26.] GROUNDS OF THE FIRST PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 41 

Skr. lip, ungere; aKctyoo, id.; X/tto?, grease; Goth, lubya, 
venenum. 

Lat. deiibuo, besmear ; lobes, stain ; a\d(3tj, kind of ink. 

r p , tlie same. 

f)V7rog, dirt, wax; pvirrua, cleanse; pwTro?, trumpery (dirt). 

Lr , sticky. 

X<tpi£, larch ; Xapivo?, fat ; laridum, lard. 

*i l v s i r v s i f v h l v s i' *i> adherin g apposition. 

alaXos, fat; alaXov, saliva; Lat. saliva; Lat. sil, yellow 
ochre; Goth, lisaulyan, to stain; Eng. soil, sully; Ang.- 
Sax. salovirj, Eng. sallow (dirty colour) ; Lat. obsolcsco, get 
sullied. 

Goth, salbon, to anoint ; Eng. saZ-we. 

OoXog, 6X09, mud, dirt, especially in water ; a.6e\fi-a>, 
uOeXfidi^u), to filter. 

Lat, sordcs ; aavp'm, impure, filthy ; aaig, dirt. 

crrac?, -to?, dough of wheaten flour ; areap, -to?, fat, 
dough. 

Lat, situs, rust, mould, filthiness ; Eng. soot; Lat. suasum, 
colos qui fit ex stillicidio fumoso, vel omnis colos qui tit 
inficiendo (Fest.) ; in'suasum, kind of dark colour. 

§ 25. Lis, i.1s v lj v rj,- v adherence ; for adherence of 7^ see 
Introduction, § 10. 

Skr. lay, adhasrere ; Xoyyevco, to dye. 

Skr. li, adhaarere ; Xet^W, lichen ; Xia-^po? = yXio~xj)os. 
sticky, dirty; dXiayeay, pollute; aXi], dirt. 

Lat, cal'licia, supposed to be a plant which thickens water 
with, mucilage (§ 23). 

Lat. lollgo, cuttlefish; fwtigo, soot (fumus); vitiligo, cu- 
taneous eruption (vitium) ; os't'lyo, scab on the mouth (x. 
24) ; por'rigo, scurf, dandruff (vii. 28) ; pet'igo, a scab, eruption 
(vii. 41). 

Skr. ran'y', tingere colorare adhasrere ; /oe'^o, pi'rC®, to dye. 

Skr. ray' as, pulvis, menstrua ; rag am, nox (darkness 
thought as blotting out the light) ; Goth, riqvis, darkness ; 
Eng. rack, cloud. 

§ 26. r v l v lj> v coincidence, expressed by the flexile appli- 
cation of the tongue to the palate. 



42 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. r. 

apco, fit ; apea-Kco, satisfy ; ypa, acceptable ; ep[->]pos, faithful, 
attached ; ypavos, friend, guardian ; eTrn'ipavos, acceptable (fit- 
ting on) ; ap-fxo?, joint, fitting ; dp-fxa, yoked chariot, chariot 
(cf. airrivrj) ; aphakia, allotted provisions (fitting) ; ap'ri, just 
(coincident time; cf. vecoo-ri, fxeyaXoxrri, § 2); apap-Trj, at same 
time, at once ; o/x-ap-Tt], jointly ; Sdfx-ap, wife (§ 34) ; o/x-^-o?, 
bonded ; npOpov, joint ; -yp*]S, fitted with (rptypw, KU>Trripn<i, 
'£«p)'lpW, TroSi'ipw) ; ap-ireSik, flat (vi. 40) ; ap-Tapos, butcher 
(iv. 2). 

Lat. annus, the shoulder, where it is fitted to the shoulder- 
blade ; anna, arms ; armentum, domestic animal (fit for use) ; 
artus, joint, limb; Goth, arms, Eng. arm; Lat, ars ; sorters, 
skilled (ii. 23). 

Skr. ard'a, dimidium (-(fa, partitive suffix, iv. 1, corre- 
sponding part). 

Skr. (ta)lis, (qua)lis ; Goth, -leiks, Germ, -licit, Eng. -ly ; 
Eng. like. 

Lat. locus (stlocus), locare. 

Goth, lulsan, to shut, Eng. lock ; liugcvn, to marry a wife ; 
gad'iligg's, cousin (§ 22). 

§ 27. r t , adjustment. 

aprios, complete ; aprriQo, get ready ; apre^'ig, safe and 
sound ; aprefxcov, topsail or pulley ; aprdw, fasten, hang ; aprow, 
contrive, arrange ; dpidfio^, number (cf. dpriafy, to count, 
species of measuring) ; epiOos, hireling (just pay) ; elicocrivypiTos, 
twenty-fold; i/^jwroy = vi'iptO/mos, countless; Goth. gwraids, 
arranged ; Ang.-Sax. ge'raedian, parare ; Eng. ready. 

Lat. ordo ; Goth, ratyan, settle. 

Lat. ritus ; rite. 

§ 28. m v mj v mj<\, close. 

/jLvw, shut ; [xvew, initiate into mysteries ; /au'w^o'?, mole 
(fxvoa-akm, oculus) ; <TKap$ct'p.vcr(r(0, blink, wink (aKaipw, 
fivKj/oi) ; fj-UTTik, dumb ; fivTtjS, dumb ; Skr. muka, mutus ; 
fiv'KOS, dumb ; /ulv'K'i], winking : crrdp'/AVKTOS, unwincing (v. 
11); rap/mv^o/uai, to wince (v. 11); Lat. muius; ^i^o?, a recess. 

§ 29. s.L, stand, stationary, firm, hard ; there is an in- 
creasing fixedness in the closure of I after that of s. 



six. 29.] GROUNDS OF THE FIRST PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 43 

Skr. st'a, to stand ; 'lemjfJLi, id. ; iarck, mast; ccrroip, peg on 
pole of chariot which carried ring for stopping it ; trroa, porch 
(erection) ; (ttu-cti?, placing, standing, faction ; (rra'ftiv, what 
stands upright; crTi'f/uLm>, the warp thread (upright); Lat. sta- 
men, id. (ii. 38) ; arrd-Siov, measure of length (stage) ; <TT<xdio$, 
standing; (TTa'tivos, a jar; a-ruOiud?, standing-place, weight 
(steadies the balance, root strengthened with 6) ; crra-6-epo?, 
iixed, still ; crra-ori?, weighing (steadying the balance) ; uru-ryp, 
weight ; <ttuo), stiffen, erect ; ariKpw, constrict : <ttvtttik6s, 
astringent. 

Lat. sto ; super'stitio, an awe (standing over us); statim, 
without moving, on the spot; pi'ce'st'O (prcest'us), at hand; 
sta-'tu'o (strengthened with the verbal element tit) ; statera, 
balance. 

Goth. statJis, stads, place; Eng. stead; Goth, statJis, land; 
-stass = -araa-ig, from staths, stads ; Lat. stag'num. 

o-Teipo?, barren (fixed) ; a-repKpo?, id., firm ; a-reipa, fixed 
beam of ship ; a-reped?, firm ; arepejuvio?, id. ; Tepefxvo?, id. ; 
n-Ttip'i'fu), set fast, prop; o-rpupvo?, VTepcpivos, firm; <rrpv(pi<o<;, 
astringent, rigid. 

Lat. stervlis ; Goth, stairo, barren; and'staurran, to be 
obstinate; Germ, starr, stiff, motionless. Lat. stiria, icicle; 
i/rstar, form, fashion (in which the thing is defined or fixed). 

Goth, gastaurkan, to dry up ; Ang.-Sax. stcarc, rigidus ; 
Lug. stark, starch. 

Lat. -stino, fix; Goth, stains, Eng. stone (firm, hard); aria, 
pebble ; atfJLO'craTtjs, kind of stone (aiju.a). 

Goth, standan, Eng. stand ; the prast. stoth is taken by Die- 
fenbach as belonging to a root stath, and from stoth, ga'stothan, 
to establish, and stodyan, to begin (rise up). 

crre'\Aa>, to set duly (/ by its fiat closure expresses fitting) ; 
o-to'Ao?, equipment, band, troop ; Lat. prce'stdlor, await (take 
up place beforehand) ; Lat. satcllcs, -itis perhaps belongs to 
this root, sa'stelle's might mean placed in order with (Skr. sa) ; 
Goth, ga'staldan, to possess, gain. 

Lat. stiva, plough-handle ; arr'fii], frozen dew. 

Goth, stir it I, patience. 

Skr. st'avira, st'ura, thick, solid; st'ura, taurus ; ravpo?, 
bull; Lat. taurus; Goth, stiur, Eng. steer; Skr. st urin, pack- 
horse. 



44 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. i. 

arravpos, upright stake ; Goth, stiuryan, to establish ; Lat. 
in'stau ro, rcstauro. 

Skr. ast'i, os ; Lat. os, ossis ; oareoi', bone; ocrrpaKov, shell, 
pottery ; ocrrpeov, oyster ; oarpug, tree of very hard wood ; 
oiTTa/co?, ao-raKos, a crab. 

Lat. testa, shell, pottery (redupl.) ; testis, testicle; testudo, 
tortoise ; teste, earthen pot-lid or pot. 

§ 30. s k , s p , junction (Introduction, § 10). 

Skr. sakam, saha, cum ; Skr. sahasd, cito, subito (perhaps 
instrumental case of an abstract noun sahas, the immediate) ; 
(T^e'^oV, near, cr^e'^09, near, sudden ; evo-^epa), €7rra"^epco, in 
succession (uninterruptedly) ; Lat. sceye, in close succession 
(§ 8) ; Skr. sahasra, mille (a combined succession) ; oXo'a-^ep^, 
whole, entire (p~X e = saha, cum, all together) ; y^iXioi, a thousand 
(^Eol. ^eWioi, ar-^ecrpioi?). 

Skr. sak', sequi ; Skr. sale a, sa/ei, amicus; Lat. sequor, 
secta (secuta) ; sccundis ; secus, prep, beside ; seats, sex (classed 
together) ; sexus ; soeius. ea-yjxros, last ; e^w, e^eo]?, one after 
another (cre^ela). 

Goth, kritn. sehiios, sponsa. 

Skr. seep, sequi ; eirofxai, to follow ; (Wa^oo, make to follow ; 
owdoov, attendant; ottv'm, marry (§ 8); Goth, vn'sibis, lawless 
(sib, federation) ; sibya, kindred ; er7roAeiy9, bread taken only by 
relations (enr + oXi), bruised barley). 

€7rw, be about or with ; o-ttXov, tool, implement ; (S6X)o^/, 
lurker in ambush ; (Spv)o\]s, woodpecker. 

§ 31. s^'j, l\i v s^, l\r v kfiiy \n v junction ; r v of two 
(Introduction, § 10). 

Skr. syala, uxoris frater (S 7) ; al'eX'ioi, a'iX'ioi, brothers- 
in-law whose wives are sisters. 

Skr. bifida, uxoris frater (§ 7). 

Skr. sva'g'ana, cognatus (sva cum, g'an gigno) ; ^va'^ura, 
father-in-law four, firmum esse, firmly related, i.e. by marriage) ; 
eKvpos, id. ; Lat. socer, id. ; Goth, sraihra, id. 

Lat. so'brinus, cousin (sva + tiri ferre, blood relation); <rvv, 
with (svarri); Lat. cum, £yv (j^vam related to x'' v '~> as • s " / " k° 
sa- } § 32) ; Pvvo$, common ; koivos, id. 

Lat. con-; coram (con-os) ; Goth, ga, with, altogether. 



seo. 32.] GROUNDS OF THE FIRST PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 45 

Skr. (vi)x't'<(, omnia (§ 8). 

Skr. lei, colligere, cumulare; Jc'aya, multitudo ; koios = 
api6/u.os. 

Skr. %'and, hund, colligere, coacervare. 

Goth, hansa, multitude, liost. 

Lat. cohum, the thong which bound beam of plough to yoke 
(eoha is to cum as saha (§ 30) to sam). 

§ 32. sra., sn, m- v junction; m y expresses junction of two, 
or comprehension on both sides (Introduction, § 10). 

Skr. sam, samam, cum; a /ma, together; afxaw, to gather; 
Goth, samana, sammath, together; Skr. sci'tra, cum (§1); «-, 
d-, together; Skr. sam'prati, nunc (prati, contra, e regione, 
the very present); Lat. mox (x adverbial suffix, § 1, cf. irepi^, 
m immediate); Skr. sa'dyas, statim (sa=sam, immediate 
connection ; dyas, suffix of position, § 1, gen. ; on the spot) ; 
troi/j-os, ready (e = sa, tol loc. of suffix of evros, fxos verbal 
adj.); Lat. si mid ; simvtu — simul (-tu an element expressive 
of time, vi. 57); Lat. simidtas, contest (si = sim, mul fight, 
vii. 45). 

ojut.-a.p-T>j, jointly (§ 26) ; 6V>7j°-o9, bonded (§ 26) ; o^-i\og, 
crowd (}%/) ; oniaSos, throng, din.; 6/xo-/cX>/, summons, reproof 
(call to duty, naXeco). 

Lat. santerna, kind of solder for gold. 

Skr. sama, omnis integer totus ; sima, totus ; sa'Jcala, id. 
(ii. 2) ; samayra, id. (ii. 4) ; Skr. Iritsna, totus omnis (iv. 9) ; 
Lat. omnis. 

km , Sjmj, s x n v coincidence, correspondence. 

Skr. sama, similia a3qualis planus ; ofAos, same ; o/xoios, like ; 
o/xaAo'?, even; Goth, sama, Eng. same; Lat. similis ; oyacr- 
rpios = o/jLoyaarpios ; Skr. sdmi, semi ; Lat. semi- ; ijp.f<ru^, half 
(iv. § 8, -cry = Zend -sra, part, Bopp., Vergl. Gram. ii. 62) ; Lat. 
tr'emis, third part (emi, equal). 

Lat. campus, plain. 

Skr. -sma, suffix of emphasis or identification ; Skr. a'srna-. 
ri'/xeh, we (viii. 4) ; Lat. imnio (i'smo, § 5). 

Goth, saun, redemption, reconciliation ; sunis, sunya, true 
(coincidence); ga'sunyon, to justify; suns, Eng. soon (approxi- 
mation) ; bi'sunyane, neighbouring. 

Goth, asneis, hireling ; asans, harvest (pay, equivalence). 



46 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [ch.u-. i. 

§ 33. LJc , t v v t p., coincidence, evenness, fitting place. 

tuctg-w, to arrange in order (rayi/ct)) ; Lat. taxo, to measure, 
adjudge; dunvtaxat, provided one estimates it. 

Goth, teva, order ; un'ga'tdss, aVa/cro?. 

T07T09, place ; aro-Kos, strange, monstrous ; tottuXw, to aim 
at ; Lat. topia, ornamental gardening ; To-m'iiov, a cut hedge. 

Lat. tabula, ra(3\a ; Ir. taobli, side ; (Kp6)ra(ptog, side of the 
head (vi. 1). 

Goth, ga'ddban, to happen, a-vfi^aiveiv ; rjadobs, fitting. 

§ 34. tm, tn v coincidence, flatness, correspondence. 

Oevap, palm of hand, sole of foot. 

Sl'Sv/ul'os, twin (Spi + Sufx, cf. yama, § 7) ; Lat. idem ; tantus'- 
dem, just so great ; quon'dam(quum), one time ; quid-am; -dem, 
-dam, identifies ; i'don'eus, fit (i pronom.) ; Lat. tempus, the 
temple (corresponding sides of the head ; cf. Kpora(pos, § 33) ; 
tempero, to bring into due proportion ; rtern, likewise ; Goth. 
ga'timan, to agree, suit ; Eng. beteem ; Safi-ap, wife (§ 26). 

Skr. Ved. da ma, domus ; <5eV«, to build ; So/uos, house, layer 
or course of stone or brick in building (fitting); Lat. domus; 
Goth, timryan, to build ; Se/mag, body (fitted structure) ; Sefxvioi', 
bedstead, bed (flat coincidence) ; $w (Soju), Sw-fia, house, chief 
room . 

re'Tfx-w, come up with, find. 

tjii v t 1 n v t l « v close. 

Tu/uicros, rennet (§ 20). 

Qa/jid, close, often ; dafxi>o$, a shrub. 

acfrevSaiuL-vos, maple (Safx, close ; <r<pev, pointed foliage, vii. 
17); SiK'rafjL-vov, plant (ramis tenue, Facciolati ; Sue-, flexile, 
interlacing, cf. Sik'tuov ; tu/jl, close) ; Sa/xa'a-covtov, a plant, 
alisma plantago (dense multitude of shoots; cf. rravviov, a javelin) ; 
&a/iia'piTnr€t0$, kind of fig (thick interlaced, pi\\/, wickerwork). 

Lat. densus, close. 

Lat. dus'mus, dumus, a bush; <W\o? ; thick. 



CHAPTER II. 

GROUNDS OF THE SECOND PHASE OF UTTERANCE, WHOSE EXPRES- 
SIVENESS IS IN THE BEND OR CONCAVITY WHICH IS FORMED 
BY THE CLOSURE OF THE ORGAN, AS WHEN" THE CLOSED 
LIPS SHUT THE HOLLOW OF THE MOUTH, OR WHEN THE 
TONGUE IS APPLIED IN ONE PART TO THE PALATE, WHILE 
THE ADJACENT PARTS OF IT ARE SEPARATE FROM THE 
PALATE. 

The flexibilitv of the tongue in uttering / and r is strongly 
suggestive of flexure, and the continuance that there is in the 
utterance of s, v, n, and m, favours the attention given to the 
position of the organs in uttering them, the point of the tongue 
against the palate, or the closed lips forming a bend or enclo- 
sing. In w there is a partial closure both of the lips and of 
the root of the tongue, which is strongly suggestive of con- 
cavity or curvature. U has similar expressiveness, and i forms 
a partially closed concavity with the arch of the palate. The 
concavity formed by a posterior closure of the tongue coupled 
with an anterior closure of the tongue or lips, may be thought 
as forming a closed hollow. But the two closures may also be 
noted separately as strengthening the expression of curvature, 
each with its own associations. 

The closure of the organs in one part, with the adjacent 
parts unclosed, may also be thought as an angle rather than 
as a curve. 

The ground is often strengthened with another ground of 
similar significance. 



o 



§ 1. kj j I , curvature, concavity, flexure, intertexture. 
kuXXos, crooked, bent ; kvkXos, circle ; kvXioo, kvX'ivow, 
Kak'ivSe'ofxai, to roll around (§ 32); ku\i£, kv\>j, cup; oXXi£, 

47 



48 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. ii. 

drinking-bowl ; kuXv^ cup; ku\tt>i, urn; /ceAt/3>/, drinking- 
vessel ; KoXeog, a sheath ; kvXu, the parts under the eyes ; 
■^eXiScoi^, hollow above elbow, hollow of hoof; Goth, us'lmlon, 
to hollow out ; halks, empty ; Lat. caelum, heaven. 

Lat. cul'ullus, drinking- cup ; culcus, a bag; ccdix, cup. 

/cctA-or?, rope (flexibility) ; ^aA-^-o?, bridle, strap ; Lat. 
galbeus, armlet; icXaviov, bracelet; kXoios, collar; kXvjul€vo?, 
honeysuckle ; kXwv, kXij/ulu, young shoot ; X°'^'£> S n ^ > koXov, 
part of gut (flexure) ; kiXXi^, with twisted horns ; KiXX'ovpos, 
wagtail ; Skr. led, ligare. 

kX'w'O-co, to spin, twist (6 is #.,) ; KaX-aQ-o<?, a basket ; neXev- 
opov, KeXeovres, cross beams of loom (flexure of the angle of 
crossing) ; KijXucrTpa, KyXaarpo?, privet or holly, also eine art 
gefass (Benfey) ; icXyjOpa, the alder. Lat. clathrl, trellis, grate ; 
Welsh, cledrwy, lattice-work ; cledr, rafter (across) ; Lat. clitdlw, 
panniers ; KiyKXi§-, lattice (§ 6). 

kwXov, limb, member (flexibility of joint) ; Lat. col'tphiuvi, 
nourishing food for athletes (KooXov-I(pi) ', tcooXt], KcoXr/v, ham, 
haunch ; coAeV;;, Lat. ulna, Goth, aleina, elbow, arm. kooX-}]\^, 
hollow of knee ; Lat. cuius, the fundament ; collum ; Goth, hah, 
neck ; Lat. coluber (§ 16) ; calsa, calla, dragon-root ; Tpd^iXog, 
neck (§ 20) ; Lat. claims, the tiller of the rudder (turns on 
pivot) ; Ko'AAo\j/-, screw, handle for turning wheel. 

KoXo'KwOog, round pumpkin (vi. 66) ; KoXo'Kacrla, large water- 
lily or arum plant (vi. 67) ; KoXo'Kvjaa, large wave before it 
breaks (vi. 67); tcoXXij^, KoXXvp-a, roll of bread; koXXv{3oi>, 
small round cake, coin, or weight ; KoXo(pwv, ball ; koXttos, 
bosom, fold ; Lat. cillibcv, round tables ; oX'/ulo?, round or hollow 
body ; oXorTpo^o^, rolling (§ 20) ; Lat. olla, pot. 

kXivw, to bend; Lat. -clino, clinamen, inclination; Ang.- 
Sax. Idinian, Eng. lean ; /cAf/xa£, ladder (sloping up) ; Lat. 
clivus, a slope ; Goth, halclis, adv. compar. lieber, rather ; 
Ang.-Sax. hald, inclinatus. 

KXffidS'iov, KXv-{3ar'is, plant, same as kXQvri (^ 10); Lat. 
clupea, supposed to be the lamprey, a fish like an eel ; Lat. 
calamister, curling-iron. 

oicXdfu), to crouch with bent hams. 

yaXrdyKoov, having bent arms (§ 9); ydXXi^ = t'Xi£, spiral, 
yeXXij^at = crvveiXrjcrai ; yXtjvwv = (3Xrj-va)v, pennyroyal, the pubes 
(llcxible like hair). 



sec. 2.] GROUNDS OF THE SECOND PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 49 

yau\os, yavXos, a round vessel ; -ycoXeo'?, a hole ; yoyyvXo<:> 
round; yiyyXv/nos, ball-and-socket joint; yXi'ivij, socket of 
joint; Lat. gillo, a vessel. 

Skr. galla, the part of the cheek near the corner of the mouth. 

arrp-o-yyvXos, round (§ 22) ; acrrpd'yaXos, a vertebra (§ 22). 

Lat. (/lull's; glomes, a ball or clue of yarn. 

§ 2. kJ 2 , enclosure. 

Skr. kul, tegere, to confine; Goth, hulyan, to cover; hcdya, 
Eng. hell (kuX-, cover) ; Skr. kid, colligere ; g'al, tegere ; gala, 
rete ; Lat. galea, helmet ; galerum, cap ; ylXXaca, hull ; ytXov- 
Tpoi', a cover ; yXauuog, garment ; ^Xacva, ^Xaw?, ^Xa/xi;?, 
cloak ; Goth, hakuls, mantle ; Lat. cacidlus, hood ; tcapa-icuXXov, 
hood (vi. 1). 

koXvittw, to cover ; KeXucp)], husk, shell ; Lat. glubo, to bark, 
i.e., peal ; glumaj cluma, husk ; columns, of hazel ; culiola, 
cortices nucum viridium ; gulliocce, green shells of walnuts ; 
cuculus, a plant ; Lat. celtis, lotus (leguminous) ; koXoitgu, 
KoXovria, a tree that bears pods ; Lat. clipeus, shield ; cliba- 
narius, cuirassier ; Skr. y^alaJj a, locusta (cf. y^araV a § 4) ; 
KoXv(3§aiva, a kind of crab ; /cXeVrft), to steal ; Goth, hlifan, to 
steal; Lat. clepo, id. ; koXiu, hut, nest; kuXios, a cabin, coop ; 
Skr. xiila, casa, stabulum ; kukoXov, a wall ; Lat. cella, store- 
room, stall, hut; celo, to hide ; occul'o ; calim, clam, clanculum 
(redup.) ; domvcil'ium, 

/co'^Xo?, koX^o?, shell-fish ; Lat. cochlea, snail ; ^e'Xu?, tor- 
toise, chest of body ; ^eXcow/, tortoise ; KXefxfxu^, id. ; Goth. 
/dims, helmet ; hlamm, snare ; Lat. calces, leaden bottles ; cal- 
ccus, shoe ; caliga, soldier's boot ; Skr. k'' alii, cutis, cortex ; 
yelXos, yeXvvri, lip ; yeX'dv, fish with long snout (cf. labeo) ; 
Y9A09, chest ; ^j/X;/, hoof (encloses the foot), claw (encloses, 
grasps) ; Skr. k'il, vestire ; Lat. cilium, eyelid ; ajvcile, shield 
(§ 6). ■ 

kXcis, kX>]'l's, key, Lat. clavis ; claudo ; kXco/3o?, cage ; kX«£, 
-uko$, key ; Lat. clacend'ix, kind of shell-fish (§ 58). 

Goth, haldan, iroi/xaLveiv, keep; KaXaupo\\r, shepherd's staff 
thrown to keep the herd together (cf. poiraXov) ; Lat. class ts 
(assembled band). 

Skr. sa-kala, totus (sa, together, i. 32 ; kal-, inclusion) ; ale ila, 
omnis ; a'yeXi], herd (a- = sa). 

D 



50 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. n. 

Goth, hliya, hlcithra, tent ; Lat. caliendrum, calautiea, 
coverings for the head. 

Skr. ■tflaJc, X'^' am P^ ect i J KoXwwvas, the barrier from 
which the race started (cf. career) ; Lat. a-classis, tunic open 
at the shoulders (§ 6). 

§ 3. k„r curvature, concavity, flexure, intertexture. 
Kopcovos, curved ; Kopwvrj, anything curved ; Kopa^, hooked 
thing ; Lat. corona ; curves ; Kvpros, curved ; Lat. cortina, 
round vessel ; Kpd-fiar'o?, couch (vi. 40, on which the body 
should be in a bent position). 

KipKog, KpiKo?, a ring ; Kaptclvo?, circle ; Lat. circus, circum, 
circiter, circa ; Kepitos, a tail (flexible). 

Lat. carclo, hinge (circumflexion) ; Skr. J/arama, ultimus 
occidens (behind, indicated by turning round). 

yvpog, round ; yupivo?, yepuvo?, tadpole (round) ; Lat. gyrus. 
Kapiros, Lat. carpus, wrist (flexile). 

ywpvros, bow-case, quiver ; KwpvKos, leathern sack ; yepyvpa, 
yopyvpa, dungeon underground ; Lat. gurgustium, an obscure 
dwelling ; ypoovo?, cavernous hollow ; Kpaxrcros, Kpunros, jar ; 
Lat. gndlus, kind of ship. 

Skr. grat' , inflexum esse; grant', nectere ; ypovQwv, a fin- 
gering of the flute ; ypovOog, closed hand, palm. 

X°P^'h string (flexile) ; Kelp, hair (flexile) ; rev-Kpiov, kind of 
chamasdrys (vi. 53) ; Kap'yfia-ioi, bandages, halyards (§ 9) ; 
Ketpia, girth of bedstead, swathings ; Lat. crinis, hair ; cirrus, 
curl ; cri'sp'US, curled, wrinkled (§ 27) ; tceipis, sea-fowl (sug- 
gested a fable about a lock). 

Skr. Jcrun'tf, inflexum esse; Goth, hrugga, rod; Lat. crux; 
crus (flexible). 

KpeKw, weave ; KpoKt], woof. 

yeppov, wicker ; yep§io$, weaver ; yvpyaOos, wicker basket 
(| 6) ; ici/pros, basket ; KapraWo?, id. (§ 18) ; Lat. crates, wicker- 
work ; can'cer, lattice (§ 6) ; icapo-ios, cross-wise ; Kprjaepa, sieve ; 
Goth, hrot, roof; Goth, haurds, door; Ger. horde, hurte, 
wicker-work; Ang.-Sax. hyrdle ; Eng. hurdle; Ang.-Sax. 
hriddlc ; Eng. riddle, a sieve ; Ka^pvco, entangle. 

Lat. corbis, a wicker basket ; ypc7ro?, yp'ifpoq, fishing-net or 
basket made of rushes (cf. scirpus, § 28, pfy, § 52), also an 
enigma (cf. riddle) ; Lat. corb'ita, ship of burden. 



sec. 4.] GROUNDS OF THE SECOND PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 5 1 

ypviros, curved ; ypv^r, a griffin. 

Lat. hira, the jejunum, coiled in region of navel (ef. 'iptyyes, 
the veins); hi'llce, small guts (dim.). 

§ 4 k, 2 r 2 , enclosure. 

KopSu\->], covering (§ 18); Skr. karyara, cranium (§ 17); 
Kpdvos, helmet, bed-covering ; Kpaviov, the skull ; Kop-vX'os, 
hazel or filbert tree ; Lat. eorylus, id. (from hull of nut) ; Lat. 
((Cits, -cris, husk ; d-^cop, -opos, dundriff, scurf ; d^apv^s, sea- 
fish = Spaces (scaly); u-^vpov, chaff; Lat ocrea, greave, cover 
of leg ; Kopfcopos, kind of pulse (pod) ; Lat. cicer, the chick- 
pea ; cracca, kind of pulse ; Lat. carino, to obtain a shell ; 
carina, bottom of a ship; Kapvov, nut; Skr. k'arman, corium ; 
Lat. corium ; cortex; yopiov, skin. 

Kvp-))B'Lov, husk; KapfiaTivt], shoe of undressed leather (§ 33) ; 
Kp}]7rl?, boot, walled edge of river ; Lat. crepldo, enclosure, foun- 
dation (§ 33) ; cr&pida, slipper ; Kpdo-Ke&ov, edge ; Lat. crep'icu- 
1 u in, covering for the head ; ypairls, -iSos, slough of serpent. 

Skr. k'tir, furari (concealment). KpinrToo, to conceal. Skr. 
X'arvarl, nox; Kepfiepo? (cf. epe{3o$) ; Lat. crepcr, dark ; crepus- 
culum, twilight. 

Skr. hri, capere; X e; 'i°' l ian d 5 ^at. hir, id. ; Iwria, fishing-boat 
(hri); Goth, greipan, to seize ; ga'grefts, decree, decision taken. 

Kapafios. beetle, crab ; Kapdju^io?, beetle (§ 45) ; Kepd^fivt, 
Kepdiu(3t]\ov,heetle; Kapafiala, fork , Kpcofiiov, Kpuoiriov, scythe 
or billhook ; Lat. carabus, crayfish ; Skr. -^arab'a, loensta ; 
K>ipa<fiis, locust ; Kapk, shrimp ; Lit. carpo, to take, pluck ; 
ruasxarp-io (iii. 4) ; Skr. Team, manus, elephanti proboscis ; 
Skr. karkata, cancer ; Lat. cancer, crab (§ 6) ; KapKivos, id. 

Skr. samagra, totus (i. 32) ; grah, capere ; d'-ypa, catching 
(a = Skr. sa, together) ; ay pew, take by hunting ; d'ype^wv, 
catcher ; a 'yp^vov, net ; ypaug, sea-crab. 

ypv/mdia, bag or chest ; Lat. crmnena, purse ; Lat. gremium, 
lap. 

Goth, gards, house ; ufgairdan, to gird around; awti'gards, 
Ang.-Sax. ortgeard, Eng. orchard (vi. 23). 

Skr. Aura, Vara, career ; tedptcapov, a prison ; Lat. career, 
enclosure ; Goth, karkara, career (borrowed). 

Lat. curia, ward, district, court. 

Goth. l;airda, Eng. herd; hanjis, army. 



52 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. ii. 

aye'poo, assemble (a = Skr. sa-, together) ; ayopu, uyvpis, 
uyappls, assembly ; Lat. grex. 

Skr. grama, pagus turba. 

X°pos, a circle or band of dancers ; Lat. coiiors, court, 
cohort (co — con). 

Herceus Jupiter intra conseptum domus colebatur (Fest.) ; 
herctum, inheritance, estate; hercisco, to divide an inheritance 
(appropriate) ; hems, master, owner ; Herem marteam antiqui 
accepta hereditate colebant (Fest.), (goddess of ownership on 
death) ; hcredivm (in xii. tabulis), garden ; heres, master, 
owner, heir ; (Skr. hri). 

Lat. hara, pen, coop; horreum, storehouse; hirnea, jug 
<§ 57). 

Xoopeco, to contain, give place, find place ; x t * y P a i X W P 0? > P^ ace - 

Skr. kri, emere ; KapouaQai, to buy ; KepSo?, gain. 

yplvTi?, the sky ; Lat. grunda, roof. 

Skr. g'arayu, slough of serpent, the outer investment of the 
embryo. 

§ 5. k 2 v„, concavity, enclosure, curvature (§ 1). 

Lat. cavus; icorXos, /co'i'Xo?, hollow (icofiXos); xoiXta, the 
belly ; Goth, hvilftri, coffin ; hvairhan, to compass ; hvairnei, 
the kull ; Lat. cavern' a (§ 57) ; Skr. x'vab'ra, caverna ; icvaOos, 
cup, hollow of the hand ; Kvap, -ro?, hole ; /c<w?, a prison ; Lat. 
caula, hole, enclosure; cohum, the sky (cf. Skr. guh, tegere) ; 
leva/mo?, bean (pod) ; Lat. caveo, to be on one's guard. 

Skr. kuk, capere ; Tcuhti, venter ; kuk', includere curvare ; 
hunk', inflexum esse; kun'k'a, maxilla inferior; hug, furari 
(concealment) ; uoy>], a sheltered place (seems to be like hug' ; i 
approaches to k) ; /cavus, kind of shoe ; kuvkos, kind of cup ; 
icavKoiXis, an umbelliferous herb ; KavKuXiov, a narrow-necked 
vessel; Skr. kuh, decipere fallere ; ku-)(, kus, amplecti ; %'fl, 
gemma floris, vagina ; kovkovXiov, cocoon ; KVveoo, to kiss ; Goth. 
huhyan, to store ; hugs, farm, field ; huzd, treasure ; has, house. 

Skr. g'us, to like, love, choose; Goth, kiusan, Eng. choose; 
/ I'lcijan, to kiss. 

yvrjg, yv<x, a certain measure of land ; yva\6s, hollow ; y\ 179, 
curved tree to which ploughshare is fixed ; yvios, lame ; 
1 '.i/j j)fyv>')'€ig, lame in both legs ; yavcros, crooked, bent ; yviov, 
limb, body (flexile). 



bkc 6.] GROUNDS OF THE SECOND THASE OF UTTERANCE. 53 

Lat. torque-o ; Koia = <r(paipa, ball ; x ai09 > shepherd's crook. 

Skr. hvri, curvum flexuosum esse; Ger. quer, across; Goth. 
vrai'qvs, crooked (§ 12). 

yecpvpa, dam across (§ 16). 

Lat. qualum, wicker basket ; quasHlum, a small basket. 

Skr. guh, tegere abscondere ; eyyvOi'/Kt], chest or case to 
keep things in, stand for vessels ; Lat. incitega, case in which 
at a feast the amphora was kept (borrowed and mispronounced) ; 
eyyvt], pledge, surety. 

kuuvos, dark-blue substance (cf. Skr.s&w,Lat.oJsc?mts,&c.§ 29). 

§ 6. /r./ 2 , k 2 n 2 , n 2 , the same, intertexture (§ 1). 

Skr. hit, inflexum esse ; kvti, casa ; Lat. cutis, skin ; kutos, 
a hollow, what contains, skin, trunk of body ; ey/cara, Lac. 
eytcura, entrails ; eyicurl, to the skin ; kvti?, a small chest ; 
kvtivos calyx of pomegranate ; kuticto?, a leguminous shrub ; 
KVTTapos, cavity; Kvcrrrj, bladder; Skr. guda, anus; tcvSapos, 
kind of small ship. 

Skr. kata, coxa, lumbus (flexile) ; Lat. catax ( = coxo), crip- 
pled, lame ; ciKrea, the elder tree ; KeS-pcoa-ng, bryony (flexile, 
§ 56) ; Lat. catena (flexile) ; Lat. ex'cetra, a snake (§ 9) ; aya- 
O79, clue, ball of thread. 

yvp-yaO'os, wicker basket (§ 3). 

Skr. kit, ligare. 

Skr. k"ad, tegere; /c«<W, Lat. eadus, jar, box; Goth, hatils, 
Eng. kettle ; ^-poira, Ke^-poira, pulse (§ 53) ; /o/&V, vessel, box ; 
KoO-op-vos, high boot (§ 13) ; klOwv, yjrwv, tunic ; apvcftclS-, 
skeepskin; Lat. cetra, shield; kot-v\-i], cup; Skr. gud, servare ; 
(/and, guiit' ', gud', tegere ; iceuQw, to cover up ; icvvetj, helmet, 
cap ; Lat. cudo, helmet of skin ; Skr. ganda, the cheek ; Lat. 
gena, cheek, eyelid ; ya£a, treasure (Persian word). 

Skr. karkata, cancer (§ 4). 

Skr. kun, curvare, inflectere ; kuni, manum intortam habens. 

Skr. garni, genu; yovv, id.; Lat. genu; Goth, kniu, Lug. 
knee; Goth, knussyan, to kneel; -Trpo-^yv, kneeling, ywvla, 
corner. Skr. g'angd, crus (§ 9). 

riyvos, a tree like the willow = \vyo$ (flexile). 

Kvt]-/nt], the leg between the knee and the ankle (what turns 
on the joint) ; Kvti'fik, greave, spoke of a wheel ; KVtrp.6?, limb 
of a mountain. 



5 4 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. ii. 

■ 

kikivvos, curl ; Lat. cincinnus, id. ; Lat. cingo (§ 9) ; Lat. 
caivcer, crab (§ 4) ; canalis, hollow groove or pipe. 

Lat. coivquin'isco, to stoop ; Goth, hneivan, to stoop. 

Lat. -nuo ; an'nuo ; re'nuo ; ccrnwus headlong (vi. 1); 
vujo), to supplicate ; vevu>, to incline in any direction ; vvaraCw, 
to nod ; Lat. nu'to, to nod. 

ndvadpov, a wicker basket ; icaveov a basket ; kuvOos, a 
pannier; kijkXis, lattice (§1); Lat. canistra, wicker basket; 
canipa, basket ; canterius, pack-horse, trellis ; cancer, canceling, 
lattice (§ 3). 

Ski*. x«na, hemp ; icdvvafiis, id.; Lat. cannabis, id. (flexile) ; 
Goth, hniujpan, to tie ; yvdfx-n-Trco, KuafX7T7rw, to bend ; Lat. 
gen'ista, broom (flexile), spartium junceum, Lin. (§ 22); Goth. 
kuna'veda, chain (§ 32). 

icavdos, corner of eye, felloe of wheel ; yv66o$, cave, pit, 
hollow. 

j3epe'Kvv9ai = pofJLJ3oi (§ 16). 

Lat. cumulus, ring; dvrp'ov, cave (§ 21) ; cUv'tvq rim (Skr. 
tvak', tegere, § 21) ; Lat. an-fractus, broken round ; an'cile, 
shield (§ 2) ; a'classis (§ 2) ; ennicio, to wrap about (§ 35). 

Enclosure. 

KavOapos, beetle, cup, boat (hold) ; Goth, handus, Eng. 
hand ; handugs, crocpos ; dy^dv)], a measure, cup ; x°^ ul ^-> a C,1 T 
measure; ■weTa'xy'ov, -kvov, a broad flat cup (iv. 15); Lat. 
can'i'fera, carrying a small box ; ^ai^'cu'co (x a $-), to hold ; Lat. 
hedcra, ivy ; yevro, he grasped ; Lat. 'prehendo ; av6evT>;s, 
with his own hand. 

Goth, us'hinthan, to take captive. 

Lat. canicce,, bran; cantabrum, kind of bran. 

Skr. x' a) ik'a, concha; icoyxn, cockle-shell; Lat. concha, id.; 
congivs, a measure (capacity) ; cignus, a measure. 

Skr. gas, servare, tueri ; yacrr^p, the belly ; Skr. gat, coa- 
cervare ; g'at'ara, venter ; Goth, qvithus, the belly ; yevrep, the 
belly ; yevra, the entrails ; Lat. longano, the rectum (/o?*#- 
r/'o/^) ; yayydni)], round net, enveloping membrane. 

§ 7. Kp# K 171 ^ w -» cavity, flexure (p. 47). 

Kinrapo? = KUTTapos, cavity ; ku7t>), kind of ship, hut ; tcvireX- 
Aov, goblet ; Kv\]/e\>], hollow vessel ; Ku/ufios, KVfi^i], a cup ; 
Kuju.(3a\ov, a cymbal ; yvirt], hole ; Kiaa-'ufBiov, a rustic drinking- 



sec. 8.] GROUNDS OF THE SECOND PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 55 

cup (of ivy wood or ornamented with ivy, /ao-cro'?, i. 18); 
Lat. cupa, tub ; caiqmlus, kind of small ship ; Lat. camellu, a 
cup. 

Lat. capillus, hair (flexure) ; caperare, to wrinkle ; capreolus, 
tendril of vine ; caprago, cicer columbinum ; capronce, forelocks. 

ku-ttto), stoop, bend ; Kv(p6s, v<po$, bent ; kv(3itov, elbow ; 
icufios, cube (bent surface) ; Lat. cubitum, the elbow ; cubo, to 
recline, slope. 

X«/3o9, curved ; oK'icaft'os, ring (§ 9) ; yv^, vulture. 

/ta/xTTTco, to bend ; Kafir*], caterpillar, fabulous monster ; 
/cayU7ro9, sea-monster ; Lat. cam'urus, bent ; Ka^idpa, anything 
with an arched cover ; Lat. camera ; camillum, cavity in archi- 
tecture ; Kai*lvo$, Lat. camlnus, oven-flue ; <ya/x\J/o?, curved ; 
Lat. cambio, to exchange, barter (turn) ; Skr. hnar, inflexum 
esse ; Ka/mapo?, crab (curved claws) ; Kov-apos, strawberry-tree 
(tendrils) ; Lat. combretum, kind of rush (6 euphonic) ; Kifxftdfy, 
oKifjL^d^o), to crouch with bent hams ; Lat. cama, small bed 
(Diez, Rom. Gr., i. 36). 

Skr. hamsa, ctsa, shoulder; Goth, amsa, shoulder; Lat. 
humerus; w/ao?, shoulder ; x<xix6s, curved ; Lat. hamiis, hook ; 
re'chamus, block of pulley (bent back). 

Lat. gamba, joint of hoof. 

rj/jLva), to bow down. 

§ 8. k 2 p 2 , Jc 2 m 2 , enclosure (p. 47). 

Skr. kapala, shell, potsherd, skull ; kap'dla, cheek ; lap- oil, 
knee-cap (cover of flexure of jaw or knee, § 10) ; Kcrn-dp*}, felt 
helmet, chariot ; Lat. capitium, part of woman's dress (covered 
the bosom) ; capidulum, head-dress ; Kv-Trds, short frock. 

Lat. homeltium, kind of cap ; to/uuWa, game of throwing into 
a circle drawn on the ground (7rcu(W els lofiiWav). 

KfiiXeOpov, fxeXaOpov, roof; Ger. himmel, heaven; Goth. 
himins, id. ; /co,u/3o9, band, girth; Kwfivs, bundle, sheaf; Lat. 
campagus, boot worn by military officers ; Goth, hamon, to clothe. 

Goth, haims, village; 0. H. Ger. heima, domicilium pro- 
prium ; Dutch, hcym, domus et patria ; heymen, sepire ; Ger. 
and Dutch, geheim, secret ; Eng. home, hamlet ; Keifx-fa-iov, 
treasure (§ 11); kw/xi], village. 

kwos, ^of, muzzle, basket for fishing, funnel of voting- 
urn ; d-Kjuujvos, fasting (taking nothing). 



56 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. n. 

Lat. camera, chest, box. 

Lat. capio, take, contain ; capistrum, halter ; capis, capedo, 
bowl used in sacrifices ; capida, small bowl with handles ; 
forccp's, tongs (§ 16) ; recuperet, to recover (recipero) ; Kw-n-rj, 
handle ; Ka/3-eipos, crab. 

Lat. oc'cup'o (get into so as to be contained -cup- ; preventing 
others, ob-). 

Goth, hafts, holding ; haftyan, to hold. 

Lat. habco ; kahilis, handy (fitness for holding implies a 
sense of enclosure) ; manu'bim, money obtained from the sale 
of booty (jiianu'habeo, what is got in the hand for it) ; habena, 
thong, rein. 

Goth, haban, Eng. have ; ga'hobains, temperance, eyKpareia. 

Goth, giban, Eng. give (put into possession) ; gabei, riches 
(possession). 

kij3-(jot6s, chest, coffer ; tafi'wp'iov, seed vessel (§ 13) ; 
k'Shti?, pouch, wallet ; Ko<pivo9, basket ; Ka/n\^a, tcd^a, Lat. 
capsa, case ; Kafios, Kaweri?, KcnriOt], corn measure ; Lat. gahataz, 
kind of dish ; Kij-n-og, garden (enclosure) ; Lat. cippus, pale, 
landmark ; Skr. ~)(ap) a, ungula equi. 

o7r*A>/, hoof. 

§ 9. % 2 & 2 , & 2 , k s 2 , flexure. 

The nasal softens the closure, so as to take the stiffness out 
of it, and gives a sense of flexibility to the bend which it forms ; 
but without the nasal, the closure forms the bend. 

ayyos, jar, pail ; ay ko^, bend or hollow ; dyicwv, bend or 
hollow of the arm ; ayKv\o$, curved ; Lat. angulus. 

djKvpa, anchor ; ayKarrpov, fish-book ; oyxos, a bending ; 
Lat. uncus ; Oscan. ungulus, a ring ; Lat. cingo (§ 6) ; Skr. 
gang' a, crus (flexible, § 6) ; Goth, agga, neck. 

Lat. eicci'piter, hawk (hooked bird of prey, irrepvi^) ; ukki- 
Trtjo-ios, sturgeon ; Lat. aci'penser, id. (hooked swimmer) ; Skr. 
pant, ire ; pat' a, aqua) ; lep'uic-, hawk (§13; has the hook last, 
like Ang.-Sax. haf-uJc, hawk; haf — capid) ; oK'Kafiog, a ring 
(§ 7) ; Goth, hahan ; Eng. hang (hook or hank up). 

Skr. pvanfh', east; pratyanh' , west; avan'k', south; ud'an'k', 
north (ank seems to mean turned to a direction, like Eng. 
-wards, before, opposite, down, up) ; Skr. a\a, shoulder. 

7T|Oa)/c - To?, the breech (§ 16) ; Lat. suf'fr ag'o, the ham (sub). 



sec. 10.] GROUNDS OF THE SECOND PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 57 

Skr. ah, tortuose ire; ahi } e'^9, anguis; f^rcVa, adder (§ 58) ; 
Lat. ex'cet'ra, snake (§ 6). 

eyX'eXv?, eel (§ 10); eyy p'avXis, anchovy (§ 10); t\nov, a 
plant, dragon-root, ox-tongue ; ayyovcra, eyxpvo-a, ox-tongue ; 
Lat. anguis. 

Skr. ?i«7i, nectere ; Lat. necto ; fornix, arcli (§ 1G ; m'c, 
bend). 

Skr. aksa, axle, rota, talus (turn on a joint). 

Skr. hahsa, armpit ; Lat. coxa, coxendix (§ 58), the hip ; coxo, 
crippled; coxim, cessim, turning back; koywvij, part between 
anus and pudenda. 

Lat. axilla, armpit ; axis, a£W, axle ; aV^o?, shoulder ; cuc- 
XuXcftap, Lac. bier (fiap = (pep, borne on the shoulder ; the s 
in blending with k has become x) > 0- H. Ger. ahsala ; Ger. 
achsel, shoulder ; i£ys, small of the back (cf. /V^/oy, hip-joint, 
§28). 

Lat. ccestus, cestus, strap, belt ; Kap"xfl<y"ioi, bandages, hal- 
yards (Kap, § 3) ; ayoaTos, the flat of the hand, also = 
ay/eakt], the arm. 

Enclosure. 

Skr. x «//, complecti ; ^aha, lentil (pod). 

Skr. g"as, capere tegere. 

yeicrou, eave, border. 

Kiamj, Lat. cista ; cost a; castrum; castellum; castula, bodice; 
custos ; casscs, -ium, hunting net; cassid-, helmet; rasa, cot- 
tage ; cisium, light cabriolet. 

Skr. hvnil, dejicere oculos, to shut the eyes (§ 41). 

§ 10. v I , il , I flexure, curvature. The lips are flexile in 
v as well as the tongue in / and r ; and also the palatal closure 
of i, followed by the anterior closure of I, expresses flexure. 

Lat. volvo ; Goth, valvyan, valtyan, to roll; eXvw, to roll; 
e'tXofiai, to go to and fro, revolve ; e'lXXw, 'iXXw, to wind ; 
eXicrcrco, elXlcrarco, to turn round ; eiXvo/uai, to wriggle ; e'lXv- 
(nrao/uLcu, to wriggle along (v. 3) ; eiXvcpdco, to roll along (v. 3) ; 
eyx'eXv?, an eel (§ 9) ; eXeXify, to whirl round ; ueXXa, whirl- 
wind (viii. 12) ; Ou'eXXa, hurricane, whirlwind (v. 24) ; eprcoX't], 
whirlwind (§ 12); iXiyP, a whirling (§32); tXXos, squinting. 

eiXeos, colic, ileus, volvulus ; Lat. ilia, guts, flank ; ilex, 
evergreen oak (flexility ; cf. cr/miXa^, § 40); eXXus, elXd?, bond, 



58 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. n. 

thread ; eiXi'Tevqs, long-fibred (reiuai) ; eXivos, tendril ; eXeV>/, 
wicker basket ; eXeviov, a plant (flexile) ; eXQvr}, a plant ; Lat. 
alb'uelis, kind of vine (§ 50) ; euX'ypa, avX-qpa, reins (flexile) ; 
uXvcrig, a chain; evXi'j, maggot; eX'/uivO-, eX'/j-iyy-, worm (§ 38), 
'iovXos, the centipede, a worm ; eyyp-auXl$, anchovy (§ 9) ; Lat. 
ad'ulor, to turn, wriggle towards ; Skr. Jcap'ola, cheek ; hqrult, 
knee-cap (cover of flexure of jaw or knee, § 8). 

avXo?, pipe, tube, hollow ; avXcov, a hollow way ; avX'coTrus, 
having a visor ; avX-unr6s, hollow-eyed (a'\J/-) ; Lat. vola, the 
hollow of the hand or foot ; vallis. 

OpvaXXl?, a wick (rush-roll, § 20) ; TjOOttciAAjV, bundle, 
bunch (§ 20) ; -ftpvo-aXXis, golden-coloured sheath of pupa (gold- 
roll) ; Spoo" aX A/?, kind of vine (iii. 13); aXXd$, -avros, sausage, 
(roll of forced meat, vi. 3-1) ; aXoo?, aXoot], disc of sun or moon, 
halo ; aX-ivS-ew, to roll (32). 

§ 11. vj , I , enclosure. 

e'lXw, e'/AAw, '/AAw, to roll up, coop up ; eaXt]v, aXij/uevcu, 2nd 
aor. pass, of e'lXco ; ecXvw, iXvco, to enfold ; e'/Aeo?, lurking-place ; 
elXap, IXap, cover, shelter ; 7reS-lXov, sandal, shoe, boot (vi. 10) ; 
eXvfxos, case ; 'iXvos, den ; tjXiala, court ; K€tfj.-)'iXioi>, treasure 
(k€i/ul, § 8) ; Lat. fid'elia, pot (§ 33). 

Skr. vol, tegere, circumdare ; avXi), court, hall ; avXig, shelter. 

Lat. vallum, wall, rampart ; valva, leaf of door ; volva, vulva, 
covering, integument ; vclo, to veil ; villa. 

e'lX>], 'lX)j, (3eiX)] (Tarent.), troop ; ojul-iXo?, any assembled 
crowd ; aXia, assembly ; ouAa^o's-, throng, troop ; e^'ouXt], de- 
barring ; cnT'eXXu), (Jnr'eiXXa), to keep away, ward or bound off; 
u6XX^, all together (a = Skr. sa, together) ; Skr. ke'vala, totus, 
solus (iv. 7) ; 6'Ao?, ovXos, whole ; ouXco, to be whole or sound ; 
ovXos, 'lovXos, corn-sheaf; ovX//, wound skinned over (cf. volva). 

Goth, alls; Eng. all. 

Lat. pecul'or, to embezzle (ul= Skr. val) ; pec'td'ium, money 
laid by, son's or slave's own ; alydoX-tos, night bird of prey (v. 1). 

aXlcTKOfxai, to be taken ; eiXov, I took. 

Goth, vilvan, to rob ; vulfs, Eng. wolf ; Lat. wipes, fox 
(§ 51). 

§ 12. r 2 ?\ 2 , r 2 , flexure. 

Skr. vrit, to turn, roll, go about, ire, versari ; Lat. verto ; 



sec. 13.] GROUNDS OF THE SECOND PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 59 

Goth, vairths, Eng. worth (exchange = give and take = turn) ; 
-vairths, Eng. -wards ; Lat. de'orsum, &c. ; eCOu'oopo?, in a 
straight direction (ayj, indeterminate or flexible direction, 
determined by evOv) ; crKafwplu, a trick (v. 2). 

Lat. vergo } to turn, incline ; vergilioz, the Pleiades (rise visi- 
bly at the end of spring as it turns into summer). 

Goth, vravavs, crooked ; Eng. wriggle, wrong, &c. ; Goth. 
rairs, Eng. worse; Skr. urga, serpens. 

Lat. aurca, bridle (flexile) ; auriga, charioteer ; virice, brace- 
lets ; opva, sausage ; Ger. wurst, id. 

Lat. ornus, ash tree (cf. farnus, § 16); lab'umum (§ 50); 
vib'urnum (§ 37); \afi-vp-ivdo$ (§§ 51, 32). 

uppls, vpio-o?, wicker basket ; vpov, beehive ; vpu£, mingled ; 
Lat. aero, a wicker basket. 

epioo\>], whirlwind (var, vol, S 10); Ger. ivirocl. 

evpaL, ends of axle on which the wheels turn ; evp'u^, on 
one side, sideways (-£, i. 1). 

Lat. verrunco, turn out (well or ill) ; a'vcrriinco, avert. 

Lat. vermis, worm (§ 38) ; verminosus, full of worms ; Goth. 
vaurms, serpent ; Eng. worm ; Lat. ver'mina, writhings. 

Skr. vlra, arundo. 

ipig, rainbow; 'ip-iyye$, veins (§ 32). 

Lat. irtvola, sort of vine (cf. icrarig, § 32). 

§ 13. v r^ r 2 , enclosure. 

Skr. para, ripa ulterior (parara, vi. 20) ; Skr. avdra, ripa 
citerior (§ 16; cf. Lat. ora) ; Skr. vri, tegere, circumdare, 
arcere, impedire ; oupos, warder, guardian ; cpp-ovpog, guard 
(■n-po-ovpos) ; opos, ovpo$, boundary ; ovpavos, the heaven ; 
bponai, opeva), to watch ; opaoo, to see, look to, take heed, see 
as a warder does; ficopoi, eyes; copa, care; icopos, watchman; 
aXe-wp)'), shunning, shelter (v. 12); Kifi-wp-iov, seed-vessel (§ 8); 
KoO-op-vos, high boot (§ 6) ; Lat. ora, border; Goth, vairilo, lip 
(guards the mouth) ; vpravt], el lid ; Xeivvp-ov, rind (§ 51) ; alb'* 
in-nvin, layer of sapwood (albus); (pi\-vpa, lime tree, bass 
under its bark (§ 15); Goth, vars, heedful; varyan, to guard, 
hinder ; -vards, warder ; vardyan, to guard ; Skr. varna, cover, 
exterior, colour, form ; Lat. omo, to furnish, adorn. 

Skr. vrik', tegere ; epKo$, ep^o-Tos, op^aro?, fence ; t'pyw, 
eipyco, to shut in ; Goth, vruggo, net. 



C>0 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. ii. 

Goth, vrithus, herd ; e'ipt], assembly (cf. fielXtj, § 11) ; tipi]v, 
youth of age for the assembly. 

alpeu), to take, grasp ; avpdoo, to get or hold possession ; 
euplcTKO), to find. 

\a(p-up-a, spoils of war (§ 51); lep-a£, "ip'n^, fie'pa^, hawk 
{peip-aK, § 9) ; fieipaKr] — apiruKTiKi] (Benfey). 

elpwv, dissembler (vri, tegere) ; \ej3-iip-l?, slough of serpent 
(§ 51). 

damrvaus'tra, danwaustra, precatory words of unknown 
meaning (perhaps damnuurtra, damnum + Skr. vri, arcere). 

Skr. rrik, sumere ; vriJea, lupus. 

§ 14. p J , flexure, curvature, cavity. 

TroXew, to turn, go about ; 71-0X09, pivot, axis ; 7ru)\eoju.ai, to 
turn round and round, wander about ; ai-rroXog, goatherd (v. 1),; 
<Wao— 7ro'Xo?, a judge (Sucatco).. 

7raWa, ball ; Lat. pila, ball ; pollio, pila ludo (Fest.) 

7Tft)Xe(», to exchange, barter (the give and take involves a 
turning) ; e/rxoXao>, to get by barter. 

7rXe/c<», to plait, twist, weave ; Lat. plecto, id. ; plico, to 
fold; -plex, -plus, -fold; -7rXa£, -7rXd'o\o9, -7rXa*a709, -7r\oo9, 
id.; Goth, flahtom, dat. pi. braids; Lat. copula (con-). 

Lat. centi'pettio, second maw of ruminants (100 folds); 
re-plum, leaf of a door ; papttio, butterfly (wings) ; Irish, feilea- 
can, butterfly ; feilionM, seagull ; feilbin, lapwing. 

Goth, falthan, Eng. fold ; Goth, -faiths, Eng. -fold. 

Lat. pilus, a hair ; pcllion, a plant, called also daphnoides 
(flexile). 

Lat. flccto ; filum ; filix, fern ; flexumincs, an old name of 
the Roman knights {flccto, drivers or riders) ; influla, band. 

7rd\iv, back (turning) ; ttoX'cu, formerly (duration behind, 
v. 24) ; -n-aXia, the day after a festival. 

uo-7r\>]y£, vcr"7r\}]^, rope kept up at race-course till the 
start, snare (vg, § 32) ; Lat. atri'plex, orach (in multa capilla- 
menta erumpens = aTpd(pa£i?, cf. Tpi)(-, tricce) ; sup'plex, on 
bended knee ; poples, ham. 

7r\icr(To/jLat (e-n-Xt^djuiiv), cross one's legs, walk briskly ; pollex 
(avTi^eip, crosses the hand). 

f/)oX/co'?, bow-legged; Lat. valgus, id. ; <bo\jci9, <pa\icri$, beam 



sec. 15.] GROUNDS OF THE SECOND PHASE OF UTTERANCE. f>1 

in bow of ship ; falx, scythe, sickle ; falcipedius, bow-legged ; 
falco, falcon. 

irXdyiog, sideways, slanting (as if bent) ; -wXuyos, side. 

fiXecpvpa, <pXe(pvpu = yetpvpa (§ 1G), dam across (at an 
angle). 

fiXauros, 7rAc«<ro9, knock-kneed. 

fiXirov, an herb (radice flexa plurimis capillamentis) ; 
ftXrixtov, the herb pennyroyal, the pubes (hair) ; Lat. pulegium, 
puleium, pennyroyal ; ^Xij-^i'ov, a fern (cujus ex una radice 
complures exeunt Slices, Facciolati) ; fiXtj^pos, a plant. 

(pXetos, arundo, ampelodesmon. 

7re'XAa, ireXis, ireXi'^ ireX't^yr], 7re\;i/£, bowl, pail, cup 
(cavity) ; irvcX'os, tub, trough ; Lat. pelvis, basin. 

(pidX-i], shallow bowl, cup ; (pidXXco, to take in hand, to 
undertake. 

rpvfiX-lov, cup, bowl (§ 20) ; rpvcpdX-eia, helmet (§ 20). 

' § 15. pJ 2 , enclosure. 

Skr. pal, servare tueri ; pal, id., regere ; Skr. pala, palala, 
caro, stramen ; Lat. palm, chaff; irkXXa, skin ; inreXos, a wound 
not yet skinned over (a neg.); Lat. pellis ; Goth. -Jill, skin; 
Goth. JilKan, to keep, hide, bury ; Lat. sanda-pila, common bier 
or coffin (iv. 8) ; Goth, fulgins, concealed ; vis'pellio, ves'pillo, 
robber of grave-clothes ; ves'pillo, burier (§ 36). 

7r//A->/£, helmet ; ttuX-iu.}], shield ; TreX'rrj, light leather shield. 

7re7rXo?, covering ; ire7rXis, spurge, purslane (perhaps from 
the skin). 

Lat. palatium, the hill (fort) ; xuX 7x1/9, king (cf. dfxuuco, Sec, 
§ 39) ; -wuXr], gate ; iroXt?, city. 

fidXXw, to put round or in the midst ; (riro-fioXwv, granary ; 
fioXftu, vulva ; fiaX-dvriov, bag ; /3aX/3/9, starting-posts (career); 
/3//3\o9, /3u/3Ao9, inner bark of papyrus ; BXavTrj, a slipper ; 
(3aXava-Tiov, flower of wild pomegranate (calix) ; fieXexa, kind 
of pulse (pod). 

(peXXos, cork ; (f)Xo[o?, bark ; (piX-upa, the lime tree, the 
bass underneath its bark, used for paper, for mats, for tying 
' (§ 19); <pX6os, slough of serpents; (poXl?, (pXoius, a scale; 
(pwXl?, kind of fish ; (poXXi^, a scab ; (poXXis, a piece of money 
(cf. scale, shilling); Lat. fottis, bag; follicidus, dim., husk; 
Goth, balgs, Eng. bag, Ger. balg, skin, husk. 



G2 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. 11. 

(pvXacrarot), to guard. 

(pcoXeos, a lurking-place. 

irakevu), to catch, trap ; Lat. plaga, net, snare ; plagula, a 
curtain ; plagium, kidnapping. 

Lat. palatum, the palate (arched cover) ; gluteus, shed, 
breast- work, back of a couch ; ucpXacrrov, aplustre (cf. /3aAav9- 
Tiov) ; aplustre, curved screen above stern of ship ; plostrum, 
plaustrum, waggon; ploximum (Gallic) waggon-box; Irish 
plaosg, shell, husk. 

Lat. apluda, bran ; Lat. palusca feus (thick skin?); p&lu- 
datus, dressed in a military cloak; paludamcntum, military 
cloak ; Lat. pal'pcbra, eyelid (§ 17). 

d'(3o\o?, cloak ; Lat. abolla, thick woollen cloak ; a/3c'\Aa>, 
to wreathe, crown ; Lat. balteus, belt. 

Lat. bwhulxus, oxherd ; su'bul'cus, swineherd (guard). 

cnreWal, assemblies (cf. /3e/X>;, § H). 

§ 16. p 2 r 2 , p, 2 s 2 , flexure. 

fiapt]Ke?, fidfipiKes, die sich krummende (Benfey) ; fiepe-- 
Kvv9ai = po/ufioi (§6); fipoyos, snare, mesh; fipi<ryo<?, wicker 
basket (cf. vplcro?, § 12); fip-voovcs, wild vine, creeper (cf. 
iaa-iwvt], § 32) ; (3plyKO$, a sea-fish ; (papKt,?, wrinkle ; (3pa-^tcov } 
Lat. brachium, fore-arm (cf. balm, &c, § 34). 

Top*}]?, ring ; iropKos, net ; Lat. porculus, ring. 

Lat. fornix, arch (§ 9) ; forpex, curling-tongs (§ 34) ; for/ex, 
shears (vii. 19) ; forceps, tongs (§ 8). 

Lat. frcnum, a bridle ; farnus, ash tree (flexile branches) ; 
fraxinus, id., ferula, thin branch. 

(Pop-fjios, plaited basket, mat ; irepicdva, woven stuff; -rrelp-ivq, 
-ii'dos, a wicker basket (§ 32); Lat. pervinca, periwinkle 

(§ 34). 

Lat. ser'pcrastra, bandages (§ 22) ; Lat. juniycrus (§ 32). 

Lat. apronia, a plant = bryonia ; apruxis, kind of fraxinus ; 
apruco, a plant. 

Skr. pari, circum ; irepl, id. 

ye-cpvpa, dam across (compound of the Ay 2 ground, § 5, and 
of the p.f,). 

(Vcpoupu, id. (across two, viz., banks) ; fi\e-(pvpa, (pXedivpa. 
id. (§14). 

<$i'({xxatos, twofold (cf. 7rAa<T<09, § 14); Lat. bifarius. 



sec. 17.] GROUNDS OF THE SECOND PHASE OF UTTERANCE. G3 

Lat. coluber, a serpent (§ 1). 

a\|/fV, wheel, bow, arch; \J/a\/?, arch, vault; \j/e'AA<oy, 
bracelet ; \^eXto'«, to twine, wreathe ; -^dXiov, bridle. 

p r % „ p^ 2 , r 9 .<?.„ r„, p 2 , v 2 , turning ; the perception of what is 
behind requires turning round. 

Skr. para, retro ; Trp-ooiCTos, the backside (§ 9) ; Lat. svf- 
frago, the ham (sub-). 

a\l«-, backwards; owia'de, 6ttI<t'<tw, behind; 6mo"Tepo9, 
posterior. 

Lat. ^os#, posterns, (-tcr correl., vi. 9) ; postrl'die, on next 
day (postri, loc. ; cf. pridie, vi. 20). 

Skr. 2 ia X'^ a > behind. 

avoiriv, backwards; Kar'ainv, behind; Goth, afar, afta, 
behind ; ift'uma, following ; Eng. aft, after. 

Lat. puppis (redup.). 

av, airOi?, au'ris, back, again ; av're, again ; v-o-repos, after ; 
iro-Taro?, hindmost; Skr. ava, de ; avara, inferus, posterus, 
nearer (the under and the behind, thought as the reverse side); 
Lat. Avernus ; Skr. avara, ripa citerior (the further, para, 
vi. 20, is the more forward ; the nearer is behind it). 

a^'oppo?, back again. 

oppos, end of os sacrum ; 0. IT. Ger. ars ; Eng. arse ; ovpd, 
tail, rear ; ovpra-^o?, hinder part, butt end (i. § 1) ; ap-^6?, 
anus (i. § 1). 

§ 17. p./ 2 , p 2 t 2 r 2 , enclosure. 

rn'ipa, wallet ; Tnjplv, scrotum ; Lat. pero, boot made of raw 
hide ; paries, wall of house ; pergula, porch, shed ; Skr. kar- 
jiara, cranium (§ 4) ; irdp-jULt], Lat. parma, shield ; Lat. re'perio, 
a.-perio, oyerio, covvperio (-per-, investing cover ; re-, turn 
back ; a-, open ; oh-, shut ; con-, complete inclusion, com- 
prehension) ; Goth, ferya, lier in wait. 

Lat. portions (cf. 7rao-ra?). 

7ra7n;jOo?, papyrus (bark) ; fiup&a, hide ; (3ep(3epioi>, shabby 
garment; Lat. bracoe, fipdicai, breeches; Lat. furfures, husks; 
for'ma (investing surface). 

cpdperpa, quiver ; (poplvt], thick hide ; Goth, hrunyo, coat of 
mail ; (pupog, shroud, cloak ; <ftwp, thief ; Lat. fur (conceal- 
ment) ; (pwpdeo, to search (through hiding-places) ; (pwpiajuds, 
chest, coffer; Lat. furvus, fwscus, dark (cf. cr/aa, &c.) 



64 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. u. 

Skr. b'ru, Eng. brow; 6<ppus, id. 

(3\e(pap-ov, eyelid (/3XeVw) ; yXe<pap-ov, id. (yXofa^co) ; 
Lat. pdlyebra, eyelid (§ 15) ; Iri-gantes, vermieuli qui cilia 
arare et exulcerare solent (vii. 5) ; Goth. &ra&y, the momentary 
covering of the eye by the eyelid ; Irish, fabhra, veil, curtain, 
eyelid, eyelashes, eyebrow (redupl. ; cf. 7re7rXo?, (3i(3\os, &c.) 

Lat. menvbrana (§ 39) ; fiperas, wooden image of God : Irish, 
briocht, charm (shield from harm). 

Skr. ab'ra, nubes ; Lat. umbra ; parada, awning of boat 
(thought to be Celtic). 

fioparov, kind of cedar ; fiopao-aros, palm-fruit (shell ?) 

Lat. barea, a boat ; Eng. bark ; Irish, bare. 

Lat. pras, -dis, bail ; prcedium, property given as security, 
appropriated land ; p>ra?.da. 

irep-vrj<;, Trrepvis, bird of prey ; Lat. accipiter, hawk (§ 9). 

Skr. pura, pari, urbs ; irvpyos, tower ; (pup/cos, wall ; Goth. 
baurgs, city ; Eng. burgh. 

(ppdcrcrai, to enclose ; Goth, bairgan, to put in security, 
Ger. bergen (ippay = b'rag' , whence bairgan, Grassmann). 

Goth, barms, bosom (enfolding). 

Goth, ga-faurs, temperate (guarded : cf. Goth, vars, careful) ; 
ga/faurds, council (cf. vrithus, herd). 

Skr. paryva, the side (cf. paksa, § 35, .icrjyys, § 34. The 
idea seems to be the part covered by the flexible arm). 

§ 18. t 2 l 2 , flexure, cavity. 

toXu7ti/, clew, ball ; TaXdaios, wool-spinning ; rdXapos, 
basket ; tcdp-raXXos, basket (§ 3) ; ra/rraX-o?, wicker vessel 

reXafxwv, bandage, belt; trKv m Ta\% a serpent (§ 28, flexile) ; 
Lat. scu'tale, thong (§ 28). 

OdXacrpov, meadow rue (flexile, cf. salix, &c.) 

Lat. talus, the ankle-bone ; talitrum, a stroke with joint or 
knuckle of finger (indicates that the idea of talus is joint or 
hinge) ; tolutim, on a trot (cf. triks, &c, § 20). 

adwwSuX-os, <nr6i>'SvX-o<z, vertebra, round body (§ 27) ; 
Kop'SvX'rj, covering (§ 4). 

6dXo$, round building with dome ; OdXa^os, chamber ; 
OuXdfui, den; OuXukos, bag; Goth, dal, Eng. dale (con- 
cavity). 



sec. 20.] GROUNDS OF THE SECOND PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 65 

Lat. dolium, very large jar. 
Lat. fis'tula, reed, pipe (§ 32). 

§ 19. LL, enclosure. 

Skr. tal, condere ; re'XA>7. shell-fish, muscle ; rij\i$, the herb 
fenugreek (leguminous, called in Lat. siliqua) ; TtjXe'cbcov, wild 
purslane (vi. 38, perhaps from thick skin; cf. -n-eTrXig, § 15); 
Lat. talla, peel or coat of an onion ; tilia, lime tree, its inner 
bark, bast (cf. (piXvpa, § 15); telvcardios, gemma colore cordis 
(shell-heart ?) ; telirrhizos, gemma candidis radicibus (shell- 
root ?) ; telancB, ficus atraa pediculo longo (thick skin ?). 

ooXo?, deceit ; Lat. dolus (concealment). 

§ 20. tj\ 2 , t v r 2 , t 2 s 2 , flexure, intertexture, cavity. 

Skr. tor-ana, a bow, bow-shaped gate. 

Tpe-TToo, to turn ; rpoTr'aXXk, bundle, bunch (§ 10). Lat. 
I mho, whirl (cf. Tu<pu)v). 

KVK\o'rep'ijs, circular ; ropeuo), to work in relief ; Top'vos, 
tool for rounding ; Top'/mog, hole, nave ; Lat. torno, to turn in 
a lathe, round off; tovquco (§ 5); tores, a chain; Tup'SuX'ov, 
an umbelliferous plant (vi. 10). 

Skr. triks, ire, se movere ; rpe-^w, to run (flexure of limbs); 
Tpo-^6?, a runner, a wheel (turns on its axle) ; Goth, thragyan, 
to run. 

TpayjiXos, neck (flexile, § 1) ; Lat. trichila, arbour, summer- 
house (interwoven); Lat. tr'icce, entanglements; a"T|Oe/o/?, no 
mistake ; atri'plex, orach (in multa capillamenta crumpens, 
§ 14); aTpu-(pa^i?, id.; 'i'iTpiov, the warp. 

Opvov, a rush ; OpvaXXls, a wick (§ 10) ; /uep-Opu^ a plant 
called also geranion (§ -42) ; Oplos, rope ; 9pau7ra\os, a shrub, 
guelder rose (flexility). 

Tev'Opwv, kind of chamasdrys (vi. 53) ; Lat. trix'ago, chamse- 
drys. 

fipuKeov, dragon (flexile movement). 

Oaipos, hinge, axle ; Skr. d'var, to bend ; dear, drara, janua ; 
Oupa, Goth, daur, Eng. door ; Skr. dos, arm. 

Tapcro?, wicker-work ; Ta.piru.vi]) wicker-work ; rpucrid, 
hurdle, crate. 

Lat. trama, web ; tran' senna, lattice, snare (§ 58). 

Goth, thvairhs, contentious (across); Eng. thwart. 

E 



66 CREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. ii. 

rpvfiXiov, cup, bowl (§ 14) ; TpvcpdXeia, helmet (§ 14) ; 
rpvifXa, ladle ; Lat. trim, spoon, ladle ; trulla, ladle, trowel ; 
Goth, thrtdla, vasculum ; Lat. truo, pelican (cavity). 

§ 21. t.,r.„ */.,?'.,> enclosure. 

Spucra-o/uai (SpaKi/ofji.ui), to grasp ; Spaj^fi)'/, handful. 

Scopov, palm ; Irish, dearna, palm of the hand ; dcarnaim, I 
handle. 

Skr. tra, trai, servare ; Tijpew, to guard, watch, observe ; 
Tupcris, tower; Lat. t arris ; veic'rap (death-guard; iii. 31, drink 
of immortality ; cf. d/uL(3potria). 

o-repipos, Tepdio?, hide, skin, shell ; O^p/uo?, a kind of lupine. 

Lat. tergum, hide, back (beast's back covers like roof); 
—L-rup-iov, figure of it (figure = bounding line). 

0o:pa£, breast-plate ; Opiytcos, fence, coping, cornice (boun- 
dary). 

Lat. atrium ; avrpov, cave (§ 6); ocr'Tpvfxov, stable (iii. 27). 

<TTopyJx(w, to enclose cattle in fold. 

Lat. ater, black, dark, obscure; tarum, aloe wood (piceo 
colore, Facciolati, s. aloe). 

Tupy^os, solemn funeral ; rapy^vo), to bury solemnly. 

§ 22. sj,„ sjt , sj 2 , s 2 v 2 , sJ 2 , t 2 , flexure, intertexture. 

Lat. slier, ozier ; sal'ix, willow (§ 32) ; sal'iunca, wild spike- 
nard (§ 32) ; a-aXa'/uui'opa, lizard ; adX—i}, cruXiT'iy^ (§ 32), 
kind of fish ; Lat. scdpa, id. Goth, in'sailyan, to let down in 
ropes. 

triXXou), to roll the eyes (cf. iXXos, § 10). (rwXijv, pipe, 
hollow, fold (cf. avXds, § 10). 

Skr. si, ligare ; ffxag, strap or thong (§ 38). Skr. siv, 
suere ; Lat. suo ; Kavcrva), to stitch (Kara-); Goth, siwya/n, 
Eng. sew. 

creipd, cord ; cipw, to string ; eepjuevos, strung ; c'ipepos, 
bondage; ep/u.a, string; eipjuos, train, series; opjuos, cord, 
moorage ; op /mid, fishing-line ; oap, consort, wife ; 7rap')'iopo$, 
yoked beside ; <rvv>)opos, yoked with ; o-vvcopls, a pair ; Lat. 
serjperastra, bandages (§ 16); scro, to put in a line, entwine; 
series; sertum, a wreatli ; servva, ser'lva, a wreath ; re'serare 
to unlock; sera, bolt; prce'sert'im, first in order; scrmo, con- 



sec. 21.] GROUNDS OF THE SECOND PHASE OF UTTERANCE. G7 

nected discourse ; dis'scro, to discuss ; sar'do, to mend ; dp'TreS- 
ov>], cord, snare (§ 33). 

Skr. stoma, crooked. errJ—/;, tow ; S'k'tu'ov, net (§ 28) ; 
Ooo'/uuy^, cord, string (§ 38). 

<TT£<pa>, to surround, wreathe ; o-rpe(poo, to twist, turn : 
(TTpe(3\6s, twisted ; Lat. strihligo, a solecism ; <jTpafio$, dis- 
torted, oblique; tTrpoficuo, to spin round; crTpojU-ftos, a body 
rounded or spun round. 

Lat. struppus, a strap (flexile). 

(TTpo'yyuXo?, round (§ 1); ucrrpi?, a<TTpdyu\o?, a vertebra 
(| 1, rounded joint). crooTpov, felloe of wheel. 

aorA/fy^, oVtA'^^, curled hair, tendril (§ 32) ; o-up'icrK'os, 
crvp'i-^o?, basket (cf. jW<xo?, §12). 

Lat. gen'ist'a, broom (J G). 

arupyai'}] (rapyavrj), plait, braid ; crapyog, a sea-fish ; Lat. 
surena, a lish (fxvpawa). 

§ 23. s./.„ s„r , enclosure. 

Oscan. soil us, whole, all (cf. 6'Ao?, &c, §11); Lat. solli'dtus, 
troubled (cieo, all moved) ; soll'ers, clever (art complete, i.e., 
with full effect) ; soil' amis, stated (every year) ; solidus (what 
remains entire). 

Lat. siligua, husk (§ 47). 

Lat. servo, to keep (cf. opevw, &c, § 13) ; semis (kept) ; 
scrvio. 

Lat. seria, vessel for keeping fruit, wine, oil, &c. ; <rdpo? 
urn, coffin ; crlpos, pit, granary ; crwpaKO?, basket ; 0>ycravpdi, 
treasure (i. 1). 

§ 24. /.,r,, t 2 p 2 , tju.„ /.,//.,. cavity, curvature, enclosure. 

Lat. tubus, a tube ; tuba, a trumpet. 

TJ(f)wi/, a whirlwind. 

Skr. tun, tund, curvum esse. Ouela, cup, mortar. Lat. 
atanuvium, earthen bowl used in sacrifices. 

Skr. teal/, skin; teaks, cutem accipere ; Karal'TVP, helmet 
without (pa\o? or Xdepos (k(xtcu strong form of kutu) ; av'TVp, 
rim (§ 6). 

Skr. d vdnta, obscuritas ; el'leara, piscator ; Slepao), search, 
dive for (cf. (pwpuvo, § 17); Xo(po$ ((tyo^o?), darkness; 'Q'p'- 
vpo9 ; west wind (£6<pos, west; ovpes, wind, viii. 12). 



68 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. ii. 

Goth, thiubs, Eng. thief (under cover). rv(p\6s, blind 
(covered). 

Lat. tueor, to watch, guard (cf. opua), &c, § 13). 

Lat. tab'erna, shed (§ 57) ; rtfo'iv = rpUovg, a vessel (cf. 

§25). 

rrj/3evva, a Greek dress worn by persons of distinction (cf. 

<re/3eviov, § 25). 

T)//xei'o? id. (cf. v'fjtfv, -evog, &c, § 39). 

Lat. tunica. 

Skr. tamas, caligo ; Lat. tene'brce. 

§ 25. s 2 v 2 , s 2 p 2 , s 2 m 2 , v 2 p 2 , enclosure. There is both a 
posterior and anterior closure in u, which may represent 
enclosure. 

Skr. spit, tegere ; ao-rrl?, shield ; o-vraVo?, skin, leather ; 
a-iraraX}], bracelet, anklet ; (nro\d$, leather mantle ; Lat. 
spolium, skin or covering (cf. <tku\ov, § 29). 

o-ittut], iirva, cupboard, case, jar; fidp-anro?, bag, pouch (§ 43) ; 
Lat. simpulum, simpuvium, cup for libations; <t[(3S>], cri§>], 
pomegranate (characterised by its calix ; see Smith's " Dic- 
tionary of the Bible ") ; trefiiviov, case of flower and fruit of 
palm ; <t//x/3Xo?, beehive, store. 

cnrelpov, a wrap, a sail; Lat. siparium, small curtain; sup- 
parum, linen garment, small sail; sub'uc'ula, shirt, shift (cf. 
ftavKL?, kind of woman's shoe) ; o-lirapo?, crlcpapog, topsail ; 
av<pap, leathery skin ; Lat. suber, cork tree ; u(peap, mistletoe 

on fir. 

v-fjujv, membrane, skin (§ 39) ; Lat. omentum, the caul, 
enveloping membrane (§ 39). 

Skr. vapti, caul, investing membrane of intestines ; vapus, 
form, body (investing surface) ; u~ap, a real visible appearance. 

Lat. sepelio. 

Lat. seps, a fence. 

Goth, svarts, black ; Eng. swarthy ; Ger. schwartz (cf. Skr. 
sku, tegere ; Lat. ob'scurus, dark, § 29). 

(Timoio?, /uloio? = a-KvOpunro? (cf. Icsnill, § 9 ; mil, § 41). 

y]se<po?, darkness. 

§ 26. n 2 v 2 , n 2 p 2 , 7c 2 n 2 , njc,, enclosure. 

Lat. nubo, ob'nubo, to veil; nubes; nebula; v£<pos, cloud; 



bkc. 28.] GROUNDS OF THE SECOND PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 69 

<)v6<po<;, yi>6(f)o<;, Kvi(pas, darkness (v variously strengthened) ; 
Skr. nab' as, fog, the clouds, the sky (what encloses) ; Goth. 
ga'nipnan, to grow dark. 

Skr. hnu, furari eripere celare. kwI^ooo, to make dim the 
eyes (cf. (ricviCofiai). 

Lat. con'niveo, to close the eyes ; perf. -nivi or -nixi ; 
nivens oeulus, closing eye; nico, nicto, to wink; Skr. ni\ , 
meditari, to be absorbed (eyes shut); nitfd, nirf, nox (dark) ; 
"■iii^'am, semper (no night); n'tia, niger, dark-coloured 
(ni^la) ; Lat. niger; nmvus, a mole on the body, a spot. 

Skr. nahiam, noctu ; vukt-, night; vvyjx, by night; Lat, 
nox; Goth, nahts, Eng. night. 

Lat. nusci'tiosus, qui propter oculorum vitium parum videt 
(cf. luscns, § 55). 

§ 27. S 2 p„,p 2 s 2 , flexure, intertexture. curvature ; strengthened 
in expression with the flexility of I or /■.,. 

o-7rupa6os, cnrvpds, crtpvpag, ball-dung ; crcpvpa, a hammer 
(round head); a-cpvpov, the ankle (round); <r<paipa, a ball; 
<r(p6v$vX'o? 7 cnr6v$v\'o? } vertebra, round body (§ 18) ; <r(f)a\- 
A09, round leaden plate for throwing, round block for stocks ; 
cr(peXa$, hollow block. 

crireipa, anything wound ; cnrdpToi', rope ; (nrapTos, flexile 
shrub. 

crirupyavov, swathing band. 

tnruph, wicker-basket ; Lat. sporta, id. ; <nra\ia>v, wicker 
roof. 

<T(piS>], catgut (flexile). 

ocrcpv?, loin, small of back (bend ; cf. l£ys, § 9) ; \J/-Ja, \froa, 
\Wa, muscle of loin ; Lat. cri'sp'us, curled, wrinkled (§ 3). 

Goth, spinnan, Eng. spin (cf. iri)vri). 

\|r/a0o9, rush mat. 

§ 28. *,/•'.„ flexure, curvature. 

a-KooXv-WTO/uiat, to curve, wind (§ 50) ; arKoa'Xtj^, -i]K09, a worm, 
also = KoXoKv/na, § 1 (§ 46); trKV-raX'ri, a serpent (§ 18); Lat. 
scu'tal'e, thong (of a sling) ; scvfica, lash, scourge. 

aa-K-akafS'tarw, a lizard (§ 50, v. 23) ; doTfaXa/3o9, id. (§ 50). 

<TKe\os, leg (flexile) ; OTceXXo?, crook-legged; <tkoXio$, crooked; 
(TKoXoTrevSpa = 'tovXos (§ 30). 



70 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. n. 

(tku^co, to limp (bending, uneven motion) ; cncaX^W)?, limp- 
ing, uneven, unsymmetrical. 

<TKCf p.o)Via, kind of bindweed (§ 38). 

avp-io-Kos, basket (§ 22) ; Lat. marisvus, kind of rusk (§ 42). 

a-KaiuL/36?, bent (cf. Kaixirrw) ; o-Kifxfios, limping ; <tkiia-ktw>, 
to lean ; a k in fiasco, to halt, crouck ; o-ki[X7tovs, --ttoSos, small 
couch (cf. KiixfiaYu), to crouch with bent hams). 

cr/cai/^aXov, occasion of falling. 

a-^oivog, rush, reed ; Lat. sci'rp'us, rush (flexile, § 52) ; scirpo, 
to plait rushes (cf. ypi7ro?, § 3). 

o-Kavpo?, having large projecting ankles (cf. yjpo$, § 3). 

CTKlKpO?, CUp (cf. KV7Tt], &C, § 7). 

tjc 2 , t 2 p 2 , flexure. 

xa^o?, yew (flexile, used for bows) ; to£ov, bow, arch ; Lat. 
taxus, yew ; tarn, kind of laurel; too, to weave; sub'te-men, 
woof (sw&, too) ; te'/«, web ; pro'te-him, harnessed team (knit 
forward) ; te-mo, the pole to which the yoke was tied. 

Siktvov, a net (§ 21) ; SiK'Ta/x-vov, a plant (i. 34). 

So^/mos, Sox/uuo?, aslant; Sav-^vr], 8d(pvtj, laurel or bay (flexile)? 

TOireiov, rope (cf. (ttviti], § 22). 

§ 29. s 2 7,' 2 , & 2 s 2 , /i- ?' , 7i' 2 , enclosure. 

Skr. sJcu, tegere ; ctkvto?, a hide (cf. koto?, § 6) ; <tkv\olo, 
cover ; o-/cu'Xo?, skin ; ancvWia, to skin, flay ; ctkvXov, spoils 
stripped off a slain enemy ; ct/toAJxtco, to peel (cf. glubo, § 2) ; 
(jkvviov, e-iri-<TKvviov, the skin of the brows which is knitted in 
frowning; a-KvXpfxai, to be angry with one; o-KvOpos, sullen ; 
dpi-o-KvS)!?, very wrathful ; oTroovf/-, owl-dance, with gesture of 
shading the eyes; Lat. sen! inn, shield; scutulum, shoulder- 
blade; obscurus. fuscus, dark (§ 17). Squama, scale (cf. /cu'a- 
^o?, § 5); scortum, skin, hide; scrotum; scortes, pelles testium 
arietinorum. 

cr/ceVa?, arKeirt], a covering ; Lat. scapula, shoulder-blade ; 
ctk)]vi'], covered place ; cncta, cncod, shade ; crKoioq, shady ; gtkotos, 
darkness ; a-Kvufjoq, darkness (cf. Kve<pa5, § 26). Skr. Jcsapas, nox. 

Skr. xiti, x'//a>««, niger ; tfydva, fuscus ; Lat. ccccus ; Goth. 
haihs, one-eyed ; Lat. codes (c-oculus ; cf. <r/cco\|r) ; ccB'Cid'to, to 
be dim-sighted (cwoculus) ; ca'C'utio, to be blind. 

I loth, skadus, Eng. shadow ; Goth, sleildus, Eng. s/aVW ; Goth. 
skalya, tile ; Eng. ,sm/e. 



bkc. 31.] GROUNDS OF THE SECOND PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 71 

Goth, skatts, money (of. Skr. If ad, tegere ; Ger. schatz, 
treasure). 

Goth, skauda-raip, shoe-thong; Ger. schote, husk. (In Ulsti r 
the refuse of flax is called shos.) Groth. skohs, Eng. shoe. 

auKOS, leather bag ; ao-Kcpa, warm shoe with fur inside ; 'iW- 
Ao?, 1/WX09, vo-)(\os, edge of the sandal laced over part of the 
foot; ocr^ofj the scrotum; octroi', raised margin of orifice of 
womb ; a-y^eXlSeg, <TKe\iSes, ribs (cf. X fc '^ u? ' ^he c ' ies t, § 2). 

craicos, shield ; o-ukkos, Lat. saccus, Goth, sakkus, Eng. sack ; 
Lat. soccus ; crijKog, pen, enclosure; o-uKras, pudendum mulie- 
bre ; var-aaKos, id. (Skr. sus, generare, vi. 80). 

Skr. sag, tegere ; o-dyos, cloak ; a-aytjvtj, net ; crayy, harness ; 
Lat. segestre, covering. 

a-)((xSu)v, cell of honeycomb ; a-^acrrnp, snare, trap ; cr^ei/- 
SuXij, pincers. 

Skr. st'ag, tegere ; o-Teyoo, to cover ; Lat. tego ; toga ; Te<yo?, 
roof, covered chamber; Lat. tugurium, hut. 

Lat. vecttg'al, revenue (§ 35 ; cf. Irish, tiach, bag, prison, 
safe-keeping; tiag, a wallet; tiaghais, dwelling-house; tigh, 
a house ; tighean, a bag). 

§ 30. p t /i 2 , n , flexure. 

TTivva, kind of muscle which fastens itself by threads ; ~>'ji'>i< 
Triyyo?, the thread, the woof ; 7r}jve-\o^r, kind of duck (fibrous, 
nt]v ; fringe or brush, Xo7r, vii. 38). 

utt>]i'}], four-wheeled waggon (yoke) ; Xaix'ir^vri, waggon 
(§ 50). 

irdwucra, fillet (§ 32) ; Lat. panmis, cloth, rag, fillet ; Goth. 
fana, cloth, napkin. 

Skr. punar, retro, rursus (reversion) ; punk' a, pars pennata 
sagittae, the hindmost part of the arrow; Lat. pone,, behind. 

Lat. pandus, curved ; o-KoXo-TrevSpa, centipede, worm (^ 28). 
Skr. pani, manus ; Lat. pan'aricium, disease of the finger (vii. 
30). 

Lat. funis, rope. 

§ 31. p 2 n 2 , enclosure. 

' pcn'es, in possession of; peni'tus, within; pene'tro, pewates. 
Trvavos, bean (cf. Kva/mos, § 5). 



72 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. ii. 

Lat. pcenula, cloak. 
Goth, bansts, basket. 

§ 32. r./.,, p 2 t 2 , ij 2 , i 2 s 2 , p 2 s 2 , vji 2 , yi 2 , v 2 $ 2 , ij: 2 , flexure, 
There is a partial closure in the utterance of i with adjacent 
parts unclosed. 

itvs, rim ; trea, willow (flexile, F-) ; Lat. vitis, vine ; vitex, a 
withy tree ; vitta, a fillet ; vatius, bow-legged ; vatrax, having 
bad feet. 

Lat. arb-ut-iis, wild strawberry tree (vi. 90) ; apicevOos, 
juniper (§ 48). 

Lat. fis'tul'a, reed, pipe (§ 18). 

Goth, ga'vidan, to bind; kuna'veda, chain (§ 6); bivindan, 
Eng. wind ; vandyan, to turn, Ger. wenden, Eng. mwm2 ; Goth. 
vandus, Eng. waw^, (flexile). Lat. vena. untd'o, arbutus 
(flexile) ; arundo, reed (§ 56). 

Skr. pra'vana, declivis, propensus ; Lat. pronus, 7rp->]vt]s ; 
ax - )/w;?, repulsive, averse ; Trpoa-ijvi^, attractive, disposed to. 

fiorpvq, cluster of grapes (§ 20) ; fioo-Tpv^os, curl or lock of 
hair (cf. oa-rXiy^. § 22). 

Goth, vithra, against; ith, but (on the contrary); i'buks, 
retrograde (§ 34) ; id- — Lat. re- ; idreiga, repentance. 

7TTU<T(TW, tO fold (iTTVKyU), cf. § 35). 

7raVi>a-<ra, fillet (§ 30) ; va-irXriy^ vct'ttXij^, rope kept up 
till start of race, snare (§ 14). 

olcros, kind of osier; Lat. visula, kind of vine; tcr'aT'is, 
woad (twigs used for dyeing) ; iaar-icovq, convolvulus. 

Xfiv*l t girdle. 

fj.>jp-ii>6-o$, cord; Mp'iyy-, bristle (§ 42) ; IX'iyy-, a whirling ; 
"p-iyyes, veins (§ 12) ; ire'ip-ivd-, wicker basket (§ 16) ; Xufi-vp-- 
n'O-o?, labyrinth ; wviyy-, membrane (§ 39) ; aaX-n-iyy- a fish 
(§ 22); ao-rX-iyy-, oarXuyy- (§ 22), curled hair, tendril; 
kvX'ivSw, KuX-ivStojuai, to roll (§ 1) ; aX'ivS'ew, to roll (§ lOj ; 
fiacrr'ty-, whip (§ 38). 

Lat. scd'ix, willow (§ 22) ; ovp-lxps, basket (§ 22) ; Lat. 
saliunca, wild spikenard (§ 22); Lat. juncus, rush ; juniculus, 
old vine branch; jimiperus. 

§ 33. r/.„ /•„/>.„ /'.,/.„ />.,//.,, enclosure. 

Skr. r«£, WMid, circumdare vestire ; 666i>t], fine linen (i.e., 
lit lor clothing): eWea, equipment; evtvvw, to equip. 



bkc. 34.] GROUNDS OF THE SECOND PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 73 

Lat. arena, oats, straw (every grain of oats is enclosed in straw ). 

Goth, vaddyus, wall. 

fiovTi?, -kvtIvy], flask; (3aTiaK>i, a kind of cup; Kap'paT'tvij, 
shoe of undressed leather (§ 4) ; fiaira, peasant's coat of skin ; 
Lat. mdulus, leather portmanteau ; rr6i\ti } leather ; fievdo?, 
woman's dress : /jo/A'arr//, sheepskin with wool on ; ovSwv, Lat. 
lido, felt shoe. 

Skr. pat, ligare vestire ; 7rdro?, a rohe worn hy Hera ; 
Goth, fatha, fence. 

ireSt], fetter; up'TreS-ovrj, cord, snare (§ 22); Lat. per//////, 
shepherd's crook (catch) ; pedica, com'pes, fetter ; prcepedio, 
to fetter (any part of the body ; there is no peculiar reference 
to the feet): impedio; expedio ; compesco, to confine (com- 
p'e.dsco) ; dispesco to separate (by a boundary of each) ; 
avSpd'Trofi'ov, slave. 

ireoa = fierd, in the middle. 

Kptj-7rls, -Sag, boot, walled edge of river (§ 4) ; Lat. creyid'O, 
enclosure (§ 4) ; cre'pid'a, slipper (§ 4) ; dp-rrlq, pa-wis, kind 
of shoe (§ 53) ; Trt'crvyyos, shoemaker (iriS-avyyo?, vii. 7) ; 
ypa'TTis, -$os, slough of serpent (§ 4) ; Kpao-'ireS'ov, edge (§ 4). 

Lat. fid-el'ia, pitcher (§ 11) ; ttIOos, jar (cf. TrtOdicvri = (piSdicvri, 
Jjid', Grassmann). 

Goth, paida, garment : fodr, sheath. 

TrreXea, elm tree (cf. tilia, § 19). 

Lat. fosduSj treaty ; fetiales, ratifiers and guardians of treaty. 

Skr. rid, adipisci, in matrimonium ducere : eSvov, nuptial 
gift ; Lat. ras, -dis, bail. 

Skr. vad'u, bad'u, femina affinis; tjOelo?, trusty (kindred). 

Goth, vadi, earnest, appaj3a>i> ; aeOXov, aOXov, a prize (/aO, 
held in trust) : aeOXos, uOXo?, contest (for prize). 

cuvvfjiai, lay hold of ; vindcx, claimant (died). 

Skr. bad' , band', band, ligare ; band'u, affinis : TrevOepos, 
connection by marriage ; 7r«9, a^irag (i. § 32), all ; uttu-^, 
once for all (aira/tiff, iv. 7); e/x'Tr"?, on the whole (e^-Travrg, 
adv.); Trela-fxa, cable (cf. anrei'Sw, aTrelaw) ; Lat. viedi'pontus, 
thick rope (vi. 35). 

Goth, bindan, Eng. hind (b' and' , Grassmann). 

§ 34. r /'.,, v 2 n 2 , p.ft.,, p 2 n 2 , flexure. 

Lat. vicia, fiiKtov, vetch (flexile) ; vicis, interchange (back 



74 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap, il 

and forward) ; vinca, plant (flexile) : pervinca, periwinkle 
(§ 16) ; vincio, to bind ; Is, tvos, muscle, fibre, strength (fis) : 
vaccrra, wooden trellis. 

Skr. b'ug', flectere ; Lat, sam-bucus, elder tree (§ 42); 
al-lucus, asphodel (§ 50); (3a{3u£=ye<pvpa,dim\ across: Goth. 
biugan, to bend, bow : us'baugyan, sweep (the house ; auskehren, 
Diefenbach) ; boka, Eng. &oo/c (rolled or folded up) ; ibuks, 
retrograde (§ 32). 

Skr. pulc'k" a, cauda (cf. puhJca, § 30) ; pik'Jc'a, cauda. 

irvywv, irvyfxi], elbow, forearm (flexible) ; irvyl), rump (the 
joint). 

Skr. lahii, vahu, brachium : Trrjyys, forearm, middle of bow, 
angle ; Goth, vaihsta, corner (b'aJm, (p>]X v > ' 7ri JX v ' Grassmann). 

Skr. paks'man, pilus, cilium, floris fibra ; aT()u-(pa£i<s, 
orach (§ 20) ; Lat. pexus, woolly, having nap ; ireKw, Lat. 
pecto, to comb; Lat. forpex, curling-tongs (§ 16); Trwywv, 
beard, 

Skr. valcra, curvus ; vaiika, flexus fluminis ; vatikri, costa ; 
eTr'rjyiceviSeg, planks bolted to the ribs of a ship. 

Goth, vaggari, pillow ; Ger. wange, cheek (convexity of 
cheek) ; Goth, vaggs, paradise ; Old Sax. hebhan-wang, the sky 
(concavity ; cf. ayico?, § 9). 

Lat. con'vex'us ; de-vex'us, inclining down; e'vex'us, rounded 
off. 

avx/]v, neck (bending). 

Goth, figgrs, Eng. finger (cf. Skr. pani, manus). 

Lat. bacar, wine-cup ; bacrio, ladle. 

§ 35. p 2 7c 2 , p 2 , p 2 s 2 , p 2 v 2 , v 2 Tc 2 , enclosure. 

Skr. paV ligare; pay^u, pecus ; Lat. pecus, pecu ; pecunia ; 
pec m vl m ium'; pec-ul'or (§ 11); Goth, faihu, property, posses- 
sions. 

Lat. pectus, the chest (enclosing the vital parts) ; Skr. 
paks, arnplecti, capere ; paJcsa, ala, latus, dimidia pars; Goth. 
fahan, to take; fauho, fox (taker); Skr. lopatfaka, i'ox : 
a\ft>7n/£, fox (§ 51). 

Skr. pa, servare, tueri, sustentare, to watch, guard, look 
after (keep and keep up = cherish) ; irdofiai, get, ireiraft-ai, 
possess; dya-irdw, love (ayav, cherish much); efi"7ra-fia>v, in 
possession, the heir; en'ira-ios, possessing (an art or faculty); 



sir. 36.] GROUNDS OF THE SECOND PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 75 

efj.7rd-fyiui.ai, to heed ; 7rwv, flock (tended) ; irolr], Ion. pasture ; 
iro'a, summer; ttoihi'iv, shepherd; iroifxvt], flock. iriar'o?, 
meadow ; Lat. jias-co, to pasture ; pa'bulum, fodder ; past r. 
Trui/uLa, cover, lid. Lat. ne'pos, a spendthrift. 

Tray is, a snare. 

<l)aKe\o$, a bundle ; (patcd?, lentil (pod enclosing seeds) ; 
cupdicr], kind of vetch ; ()pv-(paKTO<;, bar, railing (Spvg). 

Lat. faba, bean (pod) ; favus, honeycomb (enclosing 
honey) ; favisscc, receptacles ; fovea, small pit, the womb, a 
snare. 

Skr. b'ag\ obtinere. Goth, bugyan, Eng. buy. 

Lat. vagina, sheath ; vec'tig'al, revenue (§ 29). 

Old Lat. a n. c ilia, small pot. 

/3avKts, kind of woman's shoe ; fiavicdXiov, narrow-necked 
vessel ; Lat. baxea, kind of shoe ; Goth, pug, puggs, purse. 

mjc 2 , enclosure. 

fxaKeXov, an enclosure; Lat. maceria, id.; fxeyapo v, cham- 
ber. 

/ueydipo), to grudge (grasping) ; a'micio, wrap, cover (§ 6) : 
a'fiaPa, waggon (yoke ; cf. dm'jv)]) ; dfA.d'fxa£vs, vine trained on 
two poles. 

§ 36. p 2 s 2 , v 2 s 2 , /-,;«'.„ enclosure. 

7re<rK09, skin, rind ; Old Lat. pescia, caps of skin, Sal. 
carmen ; 7raard?, porch, hall, inner room. Lat. vestibulum, 
entrance court. Goth, ubizva, porch. 

cpdo-iiXos, kindey bean (pod) ; (pdcrKwXos, wallet ; Lat. fiscus, 
basket ; svfjiscus, folliculus testium arictinorum ; (J)W(t<tu)v, 
coarse linen garment. 

Lat. fascia, a band ; fascis, a bundle ; fascinum, a charm, 
spell (binds) ; fcsc'cmim, qui depellere fascinum credebantur 
(were they supposed to take it themselves ? particip. mid.). 

7riWa>£09, muzzle. dicpo-fivo-Tos, uncircumcised. 

7r/<xo?, kind of pulse (pod); Lat. pisum, the pea. 

Lat. vesica, the bladder. 

Lat. vas, -sis, vessel, implement (fulfilment). 

Skr. vas, sibi induere ; eVw/JU, to clothe (Feo-iVfxt) ; eaO-ys, 
clothing; Lat. vestis (§ 33); Goth, vas'yan, to clothe; eifxa, 
garment ; earn?, fine robe (fit for clothing ; c f. oOopij, § 33). 

Skr. vesa, vestis ; vest, circumdare, vestire ; Lat. vispellio, 



76 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. ii. 

robber of grave-clothes ; vespillo, id. ; vespa, vespillo, burier 

(S 15 >- 

Skr. vye, tegere, vestire. i/xdriov, garment. 

§ 37. vA v 2 py \P 2 ,Pv flexure. There is in sounding i a 
partial closure of the back part of the tongue while the fore 
part is unclosed. 

Skr. uy, texere ; ve, vap, texere ; at'fios, tangled bush ; 
ai/macria, material for tangled bush ; alfiuXog, wily (alfivXo-- 
7rAo/co9, weaving wiles) ; uljulow, skilful ; v<paco, iKpa'va, to 
weave; Lat. vieo, to bend, plait; scvvra, garland (§ 22); 
Goth, hivaibyan, to put round ; vevpan, to crown ; o^-oifi-os, 
purple stripe down the front of the yiriav (raised edge ? cf. 
dyQij) ; Lat. vvmen, osier (§ 38); re'vi'mentum, edging, fringe; 
vlpera, viper; vib'urn m um, a flexile tree (§ 12); ribia, bending 
branch (supported by a fork) ; vibones, flowers of britannica ; 
vibex, stripe, mark of stroke or rod (cf. virga, stripe) ; reprex, 
thorn, bush, briar ; vijno, small kind of crane. 

fiios, a bow. Lat. boa, a serpent. 

'tfiio-Kos, efiivKos, Lat. hibiscum (flexile) ; Ang.-Sax. i/>, yew ; 
Lat. eb'ulum, dwarf elder tree ; opulus, kind of viburnum ; 
oXk-1/3-109, Lat. alcib'ium, a plant = echium rubrum (§ 46, flexile ; 
cf. e'x l0V ) § 9)- 

§ 38. m 2 n 2 , m 2 t 2 ,m 2 .s 2 , flexure. 

Lat. manus (flexile ; cf. Skr. 2 >ri) . 1 ^) ? manwbiee, proceeds of 
booty (manu habeo) ; menvbrum (flexile) ; [xovvos, v-avos, Lat. 
nn i, rile, necklace; /jluviukov, border of a robe ; [xavSaKq, band 
for hay ; Skr. mandala, orbis, circuitus. a-mentum, thong or 
strap for spear (vi. 82) ; ad'/uavO-, Lat. ccmit-, pole for spread- 
ing nets (vi. 82) ; rp^o'V-aves, a plant (flexile, vi. 9) ; 'inavr-, 
strap or thong (§ 22); d/xdva, waggon (yoke; cf. uttj'/v)]). 

jULucTT-i^, whip ; /mdcrdXt], thong. ^aa-ydXt], armpit. fidy- 
yuvov, axis of pulley, net. 

fxiro?, thread ; /uirpu, girdle ; fidra^u, raw silk ; L:it. 
motarium, lint. 

Lat. matta, mat; metclla, basket (intertexture). 

eX'/mtvO-, eX-fiiyy-, worm (§ 10); Lat. rerun-, worm; ver- 
min'osus, full of worms ; vermiwa, writhings from pain (§ 12) ; 
craXafxduSpa, lizard (§ 22) ; Owfxty^, cord, string (§ 22) ; 
/j-tp-p-iQ-, cord (§ 42). 



beo. 40]. GROUNDS OF THE SECOND PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 77 

Skr. paks'man, pilus, cilium (§ 34) ; ro'man, pilus corporis ; 
reXa'/iMoov, belt (§ 18); trWrfjuav, Lat. staimit. thread, warp 
(i. 29) ; vimcn, osier (§ 37) ; a-Ka'fuev'la, kind of bindweed 
(§ 2 8). 



§ 39. ///.,/'.„ enclosure. 

juLui'fipa, enclosed space ; /udvSuXos, bolt. 

fxavova?, woollen cloak; Lat. mantuelis, mantle-like; mantele, 
mantile, tablecloth ; mantelum, mantle; mantica, wallet, port- 
manteau ; mciiil'trn m, foresail (cf. cnriipov, o-iVapo?). 

fi*jviy£, membrane (§ 32); Lat. membrana (§ 17); v-fujp, 
membrane, skin (§ 25) ; Lat. o-men'tum, the caul, enveloping 
membrane (§ 25). 

Lat. mando, to put in charge. 

Lat. munire; mania; fivvtj, pretence (prse tendo) ; afwvco, to 
ward off; 7rd\'fA.vs, king (§ 15); Lat. munus, service ; munis, 
ready to be of service, obliging; munia, duties (functions of 
union); immunis, without office or duty; communis, Goth. 
ga'mains, common ; fivola, /mvma (Cretan), class of serfs or 
vassals ; afAvajuos, son or grandson (one of the family). 

w./.,, /"., s '.„ enclosure. 

Skr. mad' ya, medius ; /xtcro?, middle ; Lat. mcdius ; Goth. 
midya, id.; mith, in the midst; fxerd, with (amidst); Lat. 
meri'dics; mediastinus, common helper (present in the midst; 

cf. irpOfXl')] (T.Tll'Ol). 

Skr. onus, mux, f urari ; mum, mus ; Lat. mus, juu<? } mouse; 
fj.vo-7rupow, a light pirate boat (vi. 20). 

ufxvSpog, dim (shaded) ; /uivSpiavis, disease of the eye. 

§ 40. j//./.,, sjn , I , flexure. 

fiikos, 07^X09, the yew tree ; trfitka^, yew, bindweed, kind 
of evergreen oak (cf. Hex, §10); /uuX?], the armpit (cf. ficur- 
X a ^l, § 38) ; Lat. ala (cf. axilla, § 9). 

/xeXo?, a limb. fxi'iX'coOpov — a/inreXos XevKi'/, a kind of 
bryony; stephano-melis, an unknown plant. 

Lat. mellum, a dog's collar; re'millus, bent back; /ai/XAoj, 
awry, crooked. 

Lat. mylasia, kind of hemp. 

Lat. m nil o, to sew (cf. Skr. murv, ligare). 



78 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. 11. 

Lat. re'mul'cus, pro'mul'cus, rope by which one vessel towed 
another. 

§ 41. w /.„ enclosure. 

fxeXli 1 )], millet (called also t'Xvjuo^. § 11); Lat. milium, id.; 
/atXla, ash-tree (podded seeds). 

/uoXyog, skin, hide, thief; a/ixoXy6$, dark. Goth, milhma, 
cloud. 

d/uaXXa, sheaf of corn, sheaf-band. 

/uluXXo?, pudenda muliebria (cf. vulva, § 11): fivWco, to have 
sexual intercourse with a woman ; juuvXis, -ifios, a bawd ; Lat. 
mulier. 

Skr. mil, nictari, se claudere (de oculis, § 9). 

§ 42. m 2 r 2 , m 2 w 2 , sjn. r flexure. 

/uopyos, wicker creel; juopyiov, kind of vine ; emarcus, kind 
of vine (Gallic word). 

/jujpvco, to furl, twine ; ju;'/puvdo$ (§ 32), /uep'jua 0- (§ 38), 
cord ; wpuy^, crju^piy^, bristle (§ 32j. 

juep'Opv^, a plant, called also geranion (§ 20). 

/uupos, juvpaiva, cr/j.vpo'i, cr/mupaiva, sea-eel; Lat. sam'bucus, 
elder tree (§ 34). 

/uupcro?, a basket (cf. up'(ros, § 12) ; /u.upa£, mingled (cf. 
fipa& § 12). 

Lat. mar-iscus kind of rush (§ 28) ; mcriea, mcerica, kind 
of vine. 

Skr. mar' man, a joint. 

Skr. murv, ligare, nectere ; mu, ligare vincire. 

§ 43. m r , enclosure. 

/j-apirrw, to catch ; /u-uprj, hand ; ev'/uapi'is, easy ; Lat. merges, 
sheaf of corn ; merge, merges, pitchfork (catches). 

Skr. mur, circumdare ; Lat. murus ; a/uopfius, shepherd, 
attendant (guards). 

Lat. margo ; /uopcj))}, form (invests) ; /udp-anrog, bag, pouch 
(§25). 

/uMupos, afxavpos, dark, dim (shaded) ; /j.('>p(pvo$, dark ; fxopov, 
mulberry; auKO-juopo?, the fig-mulberry; moro'diiies, stone of 
colour of leek (vi. 133); Lat. muruhis, black, dark coloured 
(shaded); murum, plant with black fruit; morns, mulberry 



beo. 17.] GROUNDS OF THE SECOND PHASE OF QTTERANCE. 7'.) 

tree; maurella, unknown plant (probably of dark nature); 
morio, dark brown gem. 

§ 44. m 2 p 2 , p 2 m 2 , v 2 m 2 , p 2 , flexure. 

apajn, Lat. am&ij about; a^icpov, harness; aMP'cjj cup, 
cap; ufX7ru^, head-band, cover of cup; a/AX-e^w, to surround. 

a[A7re\o9, vine. 

Lat. pampinus, tendril of vine. 

/3eV/3<f, top, whirlpool (around) ; fto/upu^, silkworm (from 
cocoon). 

Lat. pabo, a wheelbarrow (roll). 

Lat. aumatium, private place in theatre. 

§ 45. WoPo, enclosure. 

efjiorov, I caught. 

Kuo'dfifi'ios, Kep'dfjL/3'v^ Kep'ap.p'f]\ov, beetle (§ 4). 

§ 46. lje v l 2 i 2 , flexure. 

X&xpiog, slanting ; Xeicpoi, XiKpol, antlers of stag ; Xucpctyis, 
cross-wise, sideways (i. 8) ; hucrion, plant cynoglossa ; Lat. 
I 'win us, with bent or turued-up horns; htca, the stag-beetle 
(horned) ; luca bus, the elephant (tusks) ; liqttis, ob'liquus, 
sloping (to meet, ob.) ; Irm'us, Ivm'is, aslant (strengthened 
with m„) ; sub'li'mis (directed up) ; li'men, lintel, threshold 
(across) ; Xt'dTo/xai, go aside, bend ; Ao£o'?, slanting, cross- 
wise ; \oj~ids, the ecliptic, from its obliquity to the equator. 
Lat, luxus, dislocated. 

Xvyo?, pliant twig; Lat. ligustrum, privet; ligo, to bind; 
licium, thread; laqueus ; Xoyyoav, mooring-stone. 

dXtcta, kind of mallow ; aXic-lfi'ios, alc'ib'ium, plant echium 
rubrum (§ 37). 

Lat. alga (flexile) ; legula-, a flap ; otcg)'Aj?£, a worm (§ 2S). 

§ 47. /.,/.'.„ enclosure. 

Aeyw, to gather, pick, choose (things or expressions) ; Lat. 
lego, id., to pick one's way through ; religens, religious ; religio, 
scrupulosity, religion (careful choice) ; intelligo (choose be- 
tween) ; clcg'ans, fastidious ; legio, a gathering ; Ao^o9, a 
company ; X&yvov, a border. 

legumen, pulse, bean (podded) ; siliqva, pod or husk of 



80 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. ii. 

leguminous plants (§ 23) ; Xtjicvdos, flask ; Xdyuvo?, Xdytjvo?, a 
flagon ; Lat. lagena, id. 

Xeicos, XeKavt], dish, pot, pan ; XckiOos, yolk, inner part of 
pulse (included) ; Xolkkos, reservoir, cellar ; Lat. lams. 

Xa^oniai, take, seize. 

XoKKt], cloak. aXXi^, coat ; Lat, alicula, light coat. 

Xvyt], darkness ; jjAuf , shade ; rj\vy>i, shade, darkness ; Lat. 
Incus ; ludus, a fish, perhaps the pike (lies concealed, lucius 
obscuras ulvo ccenoque lacunas obsidet) ; Goth, liugan, Eng. 
lie, ^evSecrOac ; laugnyan, to deny ; ga'laugnyan, to conceal ; 
gaiiginon, to get an advantage by deceit. 

Xmos, wolf (cf. lupus, § 51, raptor). 

§ 48. rJc, flexure. 

Lat. arms, Goth, arh'vazna, arrow (vii. 25, bow-dart) ; apic- 
ev6o?, juniper (§ 32) ; appixos, basket (wicker, intertexture) ; 
appi^aofxai, to cling to (flexile attachment) ; pax<>s, twig ; 
-TrepippaKiSeg, surrounding twigs. 

apKavrj, bars on which threads of warp are fastened (instru- 
ment of intertexture ; cf. irepKava, § 16). 

poiicos, crooked ; Lat. lumb'ricus, worm (§ 50). 

Lat. ruga, a wrinkle (cf. purls, § 56). 

§ 49. r Jc' 2 , r .s o , enclosure. 

Skr. arg , rig , colligere acquirere. 

apaKos, leguminous plant (podded) ; apcucij, a cup ; apd^ova, 
leguminous plant. 

payfa; enclosure, prison ; apicvs, a net ; Lat. rica, veil. 

Lat. area, Goth, arka, chest ; Lat. orca, a tun ; urceus, a 
pitcher ; vpx'h a j ar - pl<ricos, chest, coffer. 

Lat. arceo, to cover, ward off ; arx, citadel, strong place. 

Skr. raks, servare, tueri, regere. 

Goth, rohsns, court, hall. 

§ 50. l 2 p 2 , /.,//'.„ l 2 v 2 , flexure, cavity. 

XiiraSvov, the strap connecting yoke and girth ; X*i(jlvutko$ 9 
fillet, band ; A«/r7r>/t'>/, a waggon (§ 30) ; Lat. lampetra, 
lamprey, a fish like an eel; Lat. limbics, border, fillet, noose ; 
In uihn s, luinb'ri'cus, worm (§ 48) ; o-KuvXinr'ToiuLui, to curve, 
wind (§ 28); acr/raAa/3-o?, lizard (§ 28); a<TK'aXa(3ooT>]?, lizard 



SEC. 53.] GROUNDS OF THE SECOND PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 81 

(§ 28, v. 23) ; aXdfiw, a fisli of the Nile ; Lat. albucus, stalk 
of asphodel, the plant itself (§ 31); alb'uelis, a kind of vine 
(§ 10) ; alansa, shad, kind of lamprey ; lorum, thong ; laurus ; 
lab' in- wu in (§ 12); la/misfit, wild vine (§ 5G). 

Xe/3»/?, kettle, basin. Skr. w£ra, cavum, uterus ; Lat. alvus, 
belly ; alvcus, a hollow ; olvatum, mensuras genus. 

§ 51. /„£>„, Lv 2 , enclosure. 

AoTTo?, Xevrh, scale, husk ; Xocpvls, torch made of vine bark ; 
Xe7T|Oo?, scaly ; XeVa>, to peel ; Xefi'wOos, kind of pulse (vi. 58) ; 
\o(36?, pod, scale, what scales off; Xeir'vp'ov, shell, husk, rind 
(§ 13); \e(3'}ip'!$, slough of serpent (§ 13); /coXAo\J/-, thick 
skin (vi. 5). 

Lat. lupinus (having pods) ; Tiber, bark ; Xw7ro9, Xwx>/, 
covering, robe, mantle. 

\avpa, alley, defile; \<lfipa, cloister; Xafi'up'ivOos (§§ 12, 
32) ; Lat. da'lub'rum, shrine. 

>/Xt\|/-, shoe ; am/Xf7ro9, vjiXittov?, -ovv, shoeless. 

oXirrj, leathern oil-flask. 

Skr. lab', obtinere ; \afx(3di/co (Xa/3-), to take.; \<i<p'vp'a, 
spoils of war (§ 13) ; \>iiui.'/u.a, premiss taken for granted, Lat. 
lemma. 

Skr. lup, furari ; lopay^aka, fox (§ 35) ; «Xw7ro9, aXeo7r>/£, 
fox; Lat. vulpes, fox (§ 11); Lat. lupus. 

Lm„, enclosure. 

Lat. idmus, the elm tree (cf. 7nreXeu, § 33); Irish, leamh, 
elm ; leamhan, elm, the inner bark of a tree. 

| 52. r p 2 , r 7?? , flexure, curvature. 

o-'\^, wicker-work ; SafAa'p'nr'Trem, kind of fig (i. 34, thick 
interlaced); paifios, bent, crooked; pv<pov, crooked; peju.(po$, 
pt'i/uLtpos, crooked beak ; pafxipi], hooked knife ; poju.<pcua, large 
sword ; pw^s, bush (tangled) ; Lat. rumpus, vine interlaced 
with tree for support ; poficpevs, waxed thread of shoemakers ; 
po/uios, po/Aojz, wood-worm ; Goth, r&ip, Eng. rope. 

pe/xfico, to whirl ; p6fx(3o?, pi'iu(3os, what may be turned round. 

Lat. orbis. 

§ 53. r„2? 2 , rjo , r , enclosure. 

Skr. rati, capere ; apiruQa, to take; apirri, bird of prey; 

F 



82 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. h. 

Lat. rdpio, to seize hastily ; uswiyo, to seize the use ; avep- 
eLTT'ofxai, uvepe7TTO/j.ai, to snatch up ; Goth, raupyan, to pluck 
out. 

epvo/uai, puofxai, to shield ; epujULvo?, fenced. 

opofios, the bitter vetch (pod) ; Lat. ervum, id. ; op(po?, 
6p<pco$, sea-perch (scaly ? cf. a-^apvo)?, § 4) ; Ke^'poira, \\eS'- 
poira, pulse (§ 6) ; epef3'w6og, chick-pea (vi. 58) ; epc<pto, to 
roof, cover, crown ; epefios, darkness ; epe/mvu^, dark ; opipvos, 
dark. 

Lat. urbs, city (shelter, protection). 

ap'Tris, pa' irk, kind of shoe (§ 33). 

§ 54. It, Ln , flexure, curvature. 

Xlvov, anything made of flax ; Lat. Uniim, id. ; X/t-, linen ; 
XaiSos, XrjSos, a light garment, bindweed ; Lat. linteus, of linen ; 
Goth. lein, Eng. linen ; Goth, lithus, member ; Lat. litu'iis, 
augur's staff, trumpet (curved). 

eXarlvrj, toad-flax, bind-corn ; Lat. cdnus, alder. 

Lat. lenis, Xi]vog, anything shaped like a tub or trough. 

§ 55. lj 2 , l 2 s 2 , l 2 n 2 , enclosure. 

Skr. lud, tegere amplecti ; hint, lund, lus, furari ; Lat. lodix, 
blanket ; Goth. Huts, treacherous, yot^ ; luton, to deceive ; Lat. 
aluta, leather ; lus'trum, den, forest ; lus'cus, purblind, one-eyed 
(dark, shaded) ; lus'cinia, nightingale (singer in the dark). 

XavQavw (XaQ), to escape notice ; Lat. lateo ; a - X>/0;/9, true. 

aXvcrTUTai — T>]pel ; aXei<Tov, a cup ; Goth, lisan, to gather, 
collect ; Xova-crov, pith or wood of the fir-tree (inside). 

Xddvpos, kind of pulse (pod); XaOuph, a plant; Lat. lens, 
lentil (pod) ; linter, boat, trough ; X/r?/, a door (Benfey). 

Lat. Icena, cloak (cf. yXalva, § 2). 

Goth, laists, trace, 1'ootstep (which enclosed the foot); Old 
H. Ger. llsta, border; Lat. littiis, the sea-shore. 

§ 56. r 2 t 2 , r 2 , r 2 s 2 , l,r 2 , flexure, around. 

"When the flexile point of the tongue with which r is 
sounded is bent back, it forms the dental closure, so that rt is 
specially fitted to express flexure back, i.e., flexure thought 
on the convex side ; but it also expresses turning round a 
fixed point. 



sac. 58.] GROUNDS OF THE SECOND PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 83 

epeo-o-Q), to row (eperyoo) ; cper/mov, an oar ; Lat. re'mus, an 
oar. 

Skr. rat' a, currus ; peS>j, Lat. rlieda, waggon; Lat. rota, 
wheel. 

poSdv>], thread ; poSavds, flexile ; irepippijorjs, bent around ; 
Lat. redo, boneless fish like lamprey ; rudens, rope ; restis, 
rope ; rete, net ; ratis, raft (intertexture) ; retm, plants in the 
bank or bed of a river ; red-, re-, back ? again. 

opS>]fxa, clew or ball ; opSeiXov, pumpkin ; XopSos, bent back. 

purls, a wrinkle ; pvcycros, wrinkled ; ptOos, limb (flexile). 

Skr. ara, rotae radius. 

apov, Lat. arum, a plant (its names imply flexility, as natter- 
wurz, SpaKOVTiov) ; apla, an evergreen tree. 

Skr. ro'nian, pilus corporis (§ 38). 

Goth, raus, a reed; Lat. arund'in-, id (§ 32); ruscum, 
butcher's broom ; Kefr pecans, bryony (§ 6). 

Lat. lab'rusca, wild vine (§ 50). 

§ 57. r 2 n , ? 2 r 2 , enclosure. 

pivo?, skin. 

Lat. irnca, jug (§ 4) ; erneum, placenta cocta in irnea fictili ; 
urna ; Laverna, goddess of theft ; lavemiones, thieves (vi. 96) ; 
lucerna, lamp (vi. 123); tab'ema ; cavema ; cist'ema. 

apvu'iuai, to secure, earn ; julcrO'apvos, juiaOappeco, to earn, 
pay ; Goth, arniba, securely. 

\dpva^, chest, urn ; XdpKos, basket. 

§ 58. n 2 t 2 , ?i .<?„, «.,r 9 , t ji 2 , sji n , flexure, cavity. 

Skr. nadl, caulis, iistula, vena, intestinum (cavity). 

I'tjSv?, any of the large cavities in the body. 

Lit. sinus, curved surface; shvuo, to wind; sinum, sinus, a 
bowl. 

Lat. Una, wine-vessel on table, from which wine was drawn. 

Seivos, round vessel ; Sivq, eddy ; iSvou), to bend ; ey_r(Va, 
adder (§ 9) ; Lat. danae, kind of butcher's broom .(flexile). 

veoo, vrjOto), to spin ; Lat. nco, id., weave ; ncrvus, vevp-ov, 
vevpa, string. 

clyvvQes, stones hung to the threads of the warp (ay- 
perhaps akin to dyoo, vi. 63). 



84 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap, il 

Lat. nodus, knot, point of flexure; nodia, plant = exedum 
(knotty ?) ; Goth, nati, Eng. net. 

vva-ara, turning-point of race ; i>oVto?, return ; vcotos, back 
(reverse side). 

Gotb. nota, stern. 

Skr. anu, post, secundum. 

vdpOt]^, a tall cane-like plant (flexile) ; vdp'raX'os, a wicker 
vessel (§ 18). 

Lat. tran'senna, lattice, snare (§ 20). 

Gotb. snoryo, wicker basket. 

Lat. cox'end'ix, tbe bip (§ 9) ; clacend'ix, kind of shellfish 
(§ 2, shuts on a hinge). 

a'dvOa, kind of earring (ix. 27). 



CHAPTER III. 

GROUNDS OF THE THIRD PHASE OF UTTERANCE, WHOSE EXPRES- 
SIVENESS LAY IN THE CLOSURE BEING MADE WITH THE 
ORGAN, WHETHER TONGUE OR LIPS, IN A RELAXED CON- 
DITION. 

§ 1. v.J.,, v L, softness, relaxation, weakness. 

irXad'apd^, fiXaS'apd?, flaccid ; (pXuo'aco, become soft or 
flabby ; (pXtS-dw, become soft, putrefy ; d(3Xa§-eco$, softly 
(Hesychius) ; 7rXdSos, moisture ; (3dXT)], a pool ; f3Xa£w (fiefi- 
XaSa), to be silly = fxoipaivw ', fiXiTas = lucopovs, dull ; /3Xfro'- 
jaujULjua?, booby (viii. 6) ; dfieXr'epo?, silly. 

(pavX'o?, (pXcarpos, poor, paltry, bad ; onro-(pooX-io$, empty, 
vain, idle. 

Lat. fri'vol'us (§ 2) ; titi'vill'itium, small trifle (§ 11) ; 
VwXefA.es, without relaxation (viffXe-fxes, cf. «/3XeyU?/?) ; Old Lat. 
vallescit =23ericrit (sci- = Skr. fut -sya-). 

/3Xa£, slack, lazy, stupid ; (3Xi]~£pd<?, sluggish ; a/3Xrj^p6?, 
weak, feeble ; a/3Xe-/x?/9, feeble. 

Lat. blandus ; Jlaccus, flabby ; tioces, dregs of wine ; placeo, 
placo (soothing relaxation) ; bellus, goodly, handsome. 

Goth, blciths, mild, merciful ; Eng. blithe; blotan, to serve 
God (propitiate him). 

7to'Xto?, Lat. puis, porridge ; 7roX(^>o?, kind of maccaroni ; 
ireXavos, half liquid mixture; Lat. puljpa ; 7r>;X-o9, clay; Lat. 
pdlius, marsh; 7n]X'aiu.u^, -1^09, kind of tunny fish (v. 22). 

a7raXo'?, soft, tender. Lat. blitum, kind of orach. 

TrXo/jLos, <pX6/u.os, cpXovos, (pXwfxo?, verbascum, a plant with 
woolly leaves. 

Lat. pluma, soft feather, down. Lat. floccus, piece of wool, 
nap. 



86 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. hi. 

Lat. vcllus, fleece ; villus, thick hair ; ovXog, fleecy, thick ; 
'lovXos, down ; Goth, vulla, Eng. wool. 

Lat. ul'igo, moisture ; ul'va, sedge, aquatic plants. 

§ 2. r 3 r s , p B r y r 3 s 3 , rjv,, softness, relaxation, weakness, want 
of substance. 

Goth. U7i"ver'yan, to be angry; tuzveryan, to doubt, i.e., 
pause between two (ver = quietude) ; ga'vairthi, peace ; eopri], 
festival, holiday (FOpTij) ; bpddyw, guest ; Goth, vairdus, host ; 
yerwpas, sojourner (rest in the land, yata) ; Lat. verbena, 
sacred boughs, laurel, olive, or myrtle (propitiatory) ; veratrum, 
hellebore (sedative) ; Lat. e'verriator, qui justa facere defuncto 
debet (c- completeness ; ver, peace to the dead) ; eipyvrj, peace ; 
Skr. kale-vara, cadaver (§ 6) ; Lat. cada-ver (§ 9) ; awpos. (bpog, 
sleep, night ; wpaKiaw, to faint away. 

irpavs, Trpaos, mild ; 7rpa'6vco$, temperately. 
Goth, ga-frithon, to reconcile ; freidyan, to spare. 
irripog, helpless ; trwpos, insensible ; afipos, delicate ; acpav- 
po$ weak ; (pavpos, poor, paltry ; Lat. par'um ; parvus ; 
par'cus. 

fiefipo?, silly ; Skr. barbara, stultus ; Lat. baro, varo, a 
blockhead ; barosus, stultus, mollis ; burrce, nonsense, trifles ; 
fiepeo-xeOos, booby (§ 10) ; fipaSus, slow. 
fipayys, short, few, small ; Lat. brcris. 

L&t.fri'vol-ws (§ 1) ; fericc, holidays; fcralis, pertaining to 
the dead, fatal (rest of death). 

Lat. /races, dregs of olive-oil ; fracesco, to soften, rot. 
Lat. fraga, strawberries (cf. poo£, &c). 

Lat. verbascum, mullein (plant with woolly leaves) ; vervex, 
berbex, wether ; epiov, elpos, wool (f e p) 5 fieipov, woolly ; fiapi- 
■^ol, lambs ; Skr. urna, wool. 

The soft yielding nature of water or moisture. 
Skr. pris, inspergere, irrigare ; prvs, conspergere, effundere ; 
purusa, vir, mas, homo (seminal effusion); 7ropvos, a catamite; 
Umbrian, persnis = penis ; Lat. prurio (cf. mictitrio) ; pror'iga, 
stallion's groom (cf. auriga) ; pers'ltes, species of tithymalus, 
a plant with a milk-like juice. 

7rpov/uLvov, Lat. prunum, plum (juicy). 

7T(ip<yaK(k, 7ropS-aKO?, wet ; Trpw^, -Kog, a drop, dew ; Lat. 
portu'laca, porcilaca, purslane (juicy, vi. 92); porcastrum, id. 



beo. 3.] GROUNDS OF THE THIRD PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 87 

(cf. oleaster) ; precice, kind of grape vine ; precianus, kind of 
pear. 

I^pe^o), to wet ; fipexmos, fipcyiua, the upper part of the 
head (the last to harden) ; brochon, gum, which exudes from 
the bdellium ; Lat. imbrices, gutter tiles ; ambriccs, ridge 
tiles (the rain is in the former, on the two sides of the latter, 
ii. 44). 

opX^> testicle (cf. ncfrones) ; op'fiivov, kind of sage, clary 
(juicy, and viii. 20, fragrant). 

Skr. vris, pi u ere, irrigare ; epa-rj (pepa*]), dew ; airo'epcre, 
washed away ; evpco?, mould, dank decay ; vp'n'/p, washer. 

acpopSiov, motion at stool {airo-fOpSiov). 

Skr. vris, irrigare (semine) ; vrisa, taurus, vris-ab'a, taurus 
(vi. 96) ; vrisana, scrotum, testiculus; vrisni, aries ; Lat. verres i 
male pig. 

Skr. ris'db'a, taurus (vi. 96) ; cLpcrijv, appyv, epcnjv, male ; 
eppaos, ram, boar ; Lat. arie's, ram (arre). 

upaa-^U, apea-^i], opecr-^d?, av poo-g'x? , vine laden with grapes 
(juicy, § 13) ; pd^, pu>£, -yo?, a berry (§ 13) ; Lat. raccmus, a 
bunch of grapes. 

S 3. m..I.„ relaxation, softness. 

Skr. mlai, marcescere; /uaxXepo?, weak, subdued (Hesych.) ; 
/jLuXKt], numbness (loss of power and life) ; fx&Xvs, feeble, 
sluggish ; /mi\(pai, falling hairs ; a/aaXog, soft, slight, weak ; 
a/uBXvs, dull, weak ; d/uL(3X[cnao, to bring on a miscarriage ; 
u/jL^Xoofxui, to be abortive ; u/ul(3Xvu>(T(t(o, to have weak sight 
(cf. oacre, vi. 124); Lat. molemonium, a plant that promotes 
vomiting. 

fxeXSco, to melt ; Goth, gamaltcins, loosening. 

/ueXeos, idle (without substance of utility) ; dve'fxwXios, vain 
(cf. iveos, &c, § 5) ; /uuXXos, slow. 

a> jmeXe, familiar address (unoccupied). 

Lat. re'mel'lgo, she that delays or hinders. 

fiaXcuco?, fxaXOaicos, soft ; /maXucrcrco, to soften, relieve ; 
it.aXa.yji, Lat. malm, mallow; mollis; jmaXXog, wool; n?]Xov, 
sheep; you/Van-;/, sheepskin (ii. 33); Lat. muUicius, soft; 
HietX-lo-a-co, to soothe ; Goth, milds, tenderly affectioned ; Eng. 
m lid. 



88 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. hi. 

§ 4. in t b r , relaxation, weakness. 

juoop-6?, dull ; Lat. more, foolishly ; morion, a narcotic plant ; 
morio, an arrant fool ; momar, Siculi stultum appellant. 

Lat. marceo, to wither, droop ; murcidus, slothful 5 micrrus, 
shirker of military service. 

murgiso, callidus morator, an advocate who spoke to gain 
time. 

Skr. mri, mori ; mriti, mriUju, mors ; martya, mortalis, 
homo; fxopros, (3poros, mortal; Lat. morior, mortuus ; 
/napaivw, cause to die away ; Goth, maurtlir, Eng. murder. 

Lat. morbus. 

Lat. mora. 

Skr. mris, to forget, neglect, bear patiently ; mrid, to be 
gracious, pardon. 

The soft yielding nature of water or moisture. 

Skr. mris, irrigare ; Lat. mas, maritus (cf. vris, &c, § 2) ; 
Goth, marzus, marriage ; Eng. marry. 

ixapiyrj, pudendum muliebre. 

Lat. mergo (cf. Skr. mag'g', § 25) ; mergus, diver. 

§ 5. m 3 n 3 , m 3 , n 3 , want of substance. 

Old Lat. noneolce, papillae quas ex faucibus caprarum 
suppendent. 

iuav6$, loose, slack, scanty ; Lat. manes, ghosts (unsub- 
stantial) ; mania, mater Larium ; /xercc/xaVio?, vain (vanity in 
the midst) ; Lat. meivdicus, beggar (pleading want, died) ; 
Skr. manak, parum, paulum ; Lat. man'cus, defective. 

Lat. mini's, -a, -um, deficient; mina(ovis), smooth-bellied, 
no wool on belly; mina (mamma), lacte deficiens. 

p.ivv6$, small; juipu'copog, ■ short-lived (vi. 8); Lat. minor; 
ixivvdo), to diminish, perish ; fxlvwOa, a little (-vv — ran ; cf. 
vanus) ; Lat. miivister (-tcr correlative, vi. 9, strengthened with 
s-) ; Goth, mins, less. 

fxeMv, jueroTepo?, smaller, less ; Skr. mi, perire. 

vavvos, c«co?, a dwarf; vavvapiov, a prodigal (substance 
lost); Lat. dim. suff. -inn us. 

vevos, silly, dumb; veviiiXos, foolish, silly; Lat. lev en n a 
homo = levis homo ; eveos, speechless, useless, stupid ; uvea), 
still, silent (cf. aKecou, § 8); iveco, empty; Lat. inanis ; ave-- 
/uuioXios, vain (§ 3). 



sec. 6.] GROUNDS OF THE THIRD PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 89 

Softness. 

/uvios, juvupog, juvoco9, soft ; /xvlov, moss ; /ulvoos, soft down ; 
/Avouves, soft hams. 

a/uvos, lamb; Lat. amnacum, a herbaceous plant. 

Relaxation, gentleness. 

Skr. mand, dorm ire ; manda, paucus, tardus, stultus ; man- 
day, cunctari ; mant'ara, languidus ; nai'Spayopw?, narcotic 
plant ; Goth, afmaindai, defatigati. 

Old Lat. mdnus = bonus ; man'suesco, to tame, grow mild 
(viii. 5) ; Goth, un'mana'riggvs, wild, fierce (vi. 94). 

m.Jy n 3 t , relaxation, softness. 

Skr. mat' , habitare. 

Lat. cata'mitus, scortum masculinum (§ 9). 

Lat. mitis ; medcor (soothe, relieve) ; yUOToV, lint for dressing 
a wound. 

Irish, maoth, tender, soft; math, good ; Goth, maithms, gift. 

fxaoao), to be moist, relaxed ; Lat. madeo ; tK'fxd?, -dSos, 
moisture (vii. 48). 

fxaOuXh, a sort of cup ; Lat. matula, pot, chamber-pot. 

vot'is, moisture ; votos, south wind ; notion (votiov), cucumis 
silvaticus. 

Goth, natyan, to wet. 

§ 6. /,'.,/.,, relaxation. 

Skr. Mam, defatigari. Lat. clem' ens, gentle. 

Skr. glai, defatigare, contristare, to be loth ; ykavo?, v,*eak ; 
yXilvooTa, bad, worthless. 

/c/AXo?, ass (lazy ?). 

/cyXew, to charm, bewitch ; eKrjXos, euKtjXos (e/voyXo?, § 27), at 
one's ease; (3av'Ka\'uw, lull to rest (§ 27); aikXov, an evening 
meal (afiKKov, § 27). 

Lat. traivquil'lus (§ 13) ; Goth, hulths (yisari), to be propi- 
tiated ; Lat. in'quil'inus, lodger, sojourner. 

Goth, ana'qval, rest; Ang.-Sax., cvclan, necari ; Eng. quell. 

Skr. kalevara, cadaver (S 2). 

Lat. halo, helwcus, elucus, under effects of debauch ; heluo, 
glutton. 

yaX^vtj, a calm ; Bap-yi'/Xua, harvest festival (summer rest, 
vi. 133). 

■^aXdco, to slacken; x a 'A'?> light-minded, unmixed wine 
(intoxicates). 



90 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. hi. 

KoXeKavos, koXokuvos, lank. 

^\/o), to be warm, delicate; xXiapo?, lukewarm; \1ap09, id., 
gentle ; ^Xiaa-jma, Xlaa-fxa, fomentation ; y^Xiaivoo, to warm ; 
XXtSi}, softness, luxury. 

Skr. Mid, lmmectari (relaxation of moisture) ; KXeirop's. 

§ 7- ^W relaxation, gentleness, weakness. 

Skr. -)(ram, defatigari. 

Skr. g'ri, conteri, consumi, concoquere, digerere, senescere, 
to become frail, rotten, old, broken up, digested ; g'ri, senes- 
cere ; g'arat' a, ready to fall, old ; g'arat, senex, innrmus ; g'aras, 
g'ara, senectus ; yepwv, an old man ; ypavq, old woman ; 
yepaios, old ; yepcoia, council of elders (Skr. g'ara) ; yepav- 
<)pvov, old tree ; yi}paiua, yt'ipeiov, down on seeds (hoary) ; ytjpa?, 
old age; Skr. g'var, regrotare ; g'ur, contritum esse, senescere, 
occidere ; g'urv, occidere. 

Goth, quairrus, ?/ttio?, gentle. 

Kopevvv/j.1, to satiate. 

Lat. cicur, tame. 

Kapo$, heavy sleep, torpor. Skr. tiara, asinus (lazy ?). 

Skr. hri\, attenuare ; Lat. cracens, slender ; crodO'tilus, 
valde exilis (Fest.) ; Skr. kri%a } tenuis macer, comp. Jera^yas, 
sup. Icrasista ; icplvov, a lily. 

Lat. gracilis, thin, slender. 

Skr. hrasva, brevis, comp. hrasiyas ; ^ejO»/?, -^epeicov, -^e'pcoi', 
inferior. 

I 8. X' 3 , i y relaxation, stillness, want of substance. 

Skr. g'ya, tabescere, senescere, to be oppressed, to grow old, 
also to overcome, to oppress (thought in the effect) ; g'ai, 
perire ; hay, defatigari. 

Lat. jaceo, to lie (yay) ; lulvco, to warm, melt, cheer, heal, or 
save ; laofiat, to heal. 

Skr. x~i, jacere dormire ; Ker/nai, to lie ; 6peo"Koto?, dwelling 
on the mountains; Koirr}, bed; KOCfi'dw, to sleep; KWfxa, deep 
sleep; Kefifxa, lair of beast; Lat. qui'esco ; Goth, haui'tha, 
quietness. 

0/009, unreadiness, sluggishness. 

aKi-pog, weak, faint. 

cucfiv, softly, stilly (accus. adv., i. 2) ; axewv, -oucra, still, soft ; 



sec. 9.] GROUNDS OF THE THIRD PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 91 

<\k<c\os, peaceful, still ; ukos, remedy, relief ; aiceofiai, to heal, 
cure; aicacrica, gently (redupl., wcncr-UKa, cr, adverbial, i. 9). 

tjica, softly, gently. 

i'larcrcov, ecrcrwv, less (>]iCfj.ov) ; iJkhttos, least. 

§ 9. /.■„/.„ k.s., i.s„ k.,v.„ relaxation, stillness, decline. 

Skr. kit, habitare ; heta, domus, habitatio. 

Lat. bwcet'wm, place for oxen ; husticetum, place for tombs 
(vi. 40); olenti'cet'um, stinking place; -etum, suffix of place. 

Goth. hctJtyo, chamber ; haithi, uypog, Eng. heath (a place 
open for dwelling in) ; haithno, Eng. heathen. 

Goth, haidus, Eng. -hood, manner, nature (the settled ; cf. 
(loth, sidits, >/#o?). 

kiSvo?, uKiSros, weak, faint. 

Lat. catccmitus, scortum masculinum (§ 5). 

Skr. -)(ad, cadere, perire ; xat, x anc h asgrotare, tabescere ; 
I'andala, man of the lowest order; \at\ X"t'< pigrum esse. 
Old Lat. cussiliris = ignavvs (§ 34); Lat. cado, cadaver (§ 6). 

Skr. kgi, habitare ; kse'tra, field, campus. 

Lat. caster ia, place where sailors rested ; seli'quas'trum, seat 
(cf. sella). 

afjLCpCKTMv, -voov, dwelling around ; kti^m, to build ; cuktitos, 
well built; opi'KTiTi]?, dweller on the hills; kti\o$, gentle, 
tame. 

Skr. hsiv, habitare. 

Lat. civis ; Goth, hciva-, house. 

Skr. ksi, Jcsai, perire ; Lat. exrlis, small. Lat. cesso. 

Skr. ksudra, parvus, debilis ; k'ut Jc'unt, parvum; debilem 
esse; hunt', mutilatum, pigrum esse; hunt' a, segnis, tardus, 
piger. 

Skr. hya's, heri (-s adverbial) ; Lat. heri, hes'ternus. 

■)(6e'9 e^Oes, yesterday ; x@ L X° ? > of yesterday (^0 inter- 
mediate between hy and hs). 

Goth, gistra,- dagis, Eng. yesterday. The roots hya or x@ e > 
and lies or gis, are akin to ksi, perire ; the k being aspirated, 
and in the former the s softened, and the idea being what has 
passed away. 

£e-vo?, guest; Lat. hosyes, guest (v. 41) ; Goth, gasts, Eng. 
guest. The roots are like the above, with the double letter 
resolved in Latin and Gothic ; the idea being rest. 



92 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. m. 

5 10. sjc , s , relaxation, weakness, decline. 

Lat. scutilus, tenuis, inacer (cf. Skr. ksudra, § 9) ; (3epe- 
a-^eOos, booby (§ 2). 

crKe\i(pp6s, <TK\)]<ppos, thin, slight. 

a-^o\i), leisure (cf. § 6). 

Lat. segnis. Goth, siggqvan, Eng. sink. 

o-^a^o), let down, let go. 

Skr. sal, perire ; saya, vesper ; Lat. se'rus, late ; Skr. so, 
finern facere. 

a-ac^os, squeamish, sickening; Lat. saucius, hurt, sick; 
Goth, siuks, Eng. sick ; Goth, sauhts, sickness. 

§ 11. t , t Q v„, tjc., t n , v a , relaxation, weakness, decline. 

Tvrdo?, tvvvos, little ; twQu^w, mock, scoff (make little of) ; 
[iivvO'a), /ulvuvO-a (§ 5); Lat. todi, todilli, small birds; titi'- 
villitium, a very small trifle (S 1). 

Lat. tener, soft, delicate, tender ; Skr. tandrd, lassitudo, 
segnities ; Lat. tenuis, thin, little, fine, weak (want of 
substance). 

Skr. dl, perire, evanescere ; (Una, consternatus, miser ; Seio?, 
Seo?, fear, awe ; Servos, terrible ; a- Seta, security, indemnity ; 
Ser\os, cowardly, miserable ; SeiSw, to fear (redupl. ; cf. pert'. 
SeiSoiKa, SeSoiKa, SelSia, SeSia) ; Slo), to flee, frighten away ; 
SiOfxat, to frighten away from self ; SeiSiacro/u.a.1, make afraid 
of self ; €vSii]juLi, to pursue (ev = engagement in) ; Lat. di'rus. 

SeiXrj, the afternoon, SeleXo?, adj., of the afternoon (Skr. dl, 
decline -f- e\}], sunshine, vi. 131). 

Skr. d'vds, decidere, labi, perire ; Ov/fcncco, to die (6uv), 6ava- 
tos, death ; Goth, divans, mortal ; Eng. dwindle ; Goth, dauths, 
dead. 

0a<HT(Tw, to sit (Oafumro) ?) ; Ou'k'os, Oco'k'o?, seat. 

Sav'oo, lau'w, to rest; lo'ficopos, dull-spirited (viii. 3); Lat. 
inrhrticc, truce (rest inserted); in'dus'trius (in-, neg. ; Skr. 
dosa, nox; tvs, contentum esse ; tumllca, taciturnus ; Lat. taceo 
(quietude) ; Goth, thahan, to be silent. 

fipwSu's, slow (§ 2). 

aSot]v, to satiety (aSpjv?), uSijv, id. ; aoop, satiety, loathing; 
aart], surfeit, loathing, distress; ciSew, to loath from satiety; 
uSi'ifjicw, cast down; uco, to satiate (aS/ru>?); arui, is satiated; 
«ro9, uutos, insatiate. 



sec. 13.] GROUNDS OF THE THIRD PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 03 

TariKog, terrible ; Lat, titer, loathsome, hideous. 
tcedet, it causes weariness or loathing. 

S 12. /./.„ s a LL, relaxation of warmth, tenderness, weakness. 

OoXttoo, daXvco, to soften by heat, warm, cherish ; OaAvicpos, 
hot, glowing. 

ctTaAo'?, tender, playful ; aTaWco, utituXXw, to treat tenderly, 
play ; njXuy'eTos, cherished ; Goth, thlaq'vus, tender ; thlaihan, 
embrace, comfort. Lat. iivdulgeo. OeXyw, to enchant, re A/xa, 
swamp (soft). 

tuXis, damsel marriageable ; Lat. tahrsio, invocation on 
bride's entry. 

Lat. talvpcdo, to be weak in the feet. 

Goth, dads, foolish; Eng. dull, dolt; Goth, dvalmon, to be 
mad. 

Lat. stultus, foolish, silly ; stolid us, dull, inert. 

Old Lat. stlcmbus, slow. 

S 13. t.r , s./j\., relaxation of full satisfaction, of torpor, 
softness, crumbling, moisture, weakness. 

Skr. trip, trimp, Primp , satiare, exhilarare ; rep-jra), to satisfy, 
delight ; fxao-Tpo7ro$, pander (viii. 2) ; Lat. triumpe, invoked 
by Arval priests in procession; triumphus ; Op'afxftos, hymn 
to Bacchus; SrOvpa/ufio?, id. (Skr. div, ludere + Opafxft, akin 
to triiap). 

Goth, thrafstyan, to comfort. 

()6p-7rov, dinner. 

Lat. torpeo ; tranquillus (§ 6) ; tardus. 

SapOui'co, to sleep; Skr. drai, dormire ; Lat. dormio ; 
draucus, effeminate. 

Lat. doris, anchusa languidior ; aSdpKt], salt efflorescence ; 
Lat. adarca, spongy gi*owth. 

rspyv, tender ; repdfxcov, soft, tender ; Lat. tiro. 

a-repyw, to love, have pleasure in, be satisfied with (relaxa- 
tion of enjoyment). 

Spvirira, over-ripe olive ; Spd(3>i, a plant with leaves like 
laurel, but soft (Facciolati). 

Lat. tropis, the lees of wine ; Tpuj*, -yo$, id. (sediment, 
droppings). 



94 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. hi. 

repefiivOo?, turpentine tree (i. 18, exudation) ; dr-rapuyo?, 
crumb of bread (dp'rdpayos, dropping of bread ; dpros). 

Opl-Sa^, lettuce (soft, juicy); ai't^a^A?;, purslane; <pe\\'- 
dvSpiov, kind of parsley ((peWos, stone ; cf. ireTpo-cri\ivov). 

Skr. draksa, uva, vine, cluster of grapes (pd£, payds, § 2) ; 
Irish, dearc, a berry ; dSpdiyi')], avSpa^wi, dpSpa^Xi], wild straw- 
berry, arbutus ; Scopdnivov, apricot ; /u.ayu-<)api$, seed of the sil- 
phium (juice much used, vi. 31); fipocraWis (ii. 10), kind of 
vine. 

Tpuy^vo?, o-rpvyvos, Lat. strumas, plant with berries of a 
vinous flavour ; atrusca, kind of grape. 

Skr. drud, mergi ; Spohi), Spurt], bathing-tub, bath ; Lat. 
dureta, id. (Span.). 

fipoaro?, dew ; SopiWos, SopvaXog, pudend. muliebre ; fxao"- 
TpvXetov, brothel (viii. 2) ; Goth, ufartrusnyan, to besprinkle. 

Goth, driusan, to fall ; drausna, drauhsna, crumbs (drop- 
pings). 

Lat. strltto, to be weak in standing ; strigo, to rest in work- 
ing ; strigosus, meagre (without substance) ; a-rpevyofxai, to be 
exhausted, distressed. 

§ 14. s»p B , s v Q , s Q m Q , r Q m a , relaxation, want of substance, 

•J ji o 6 6 6 6 6 6 

decay, softness, moisture, rest, quietness. 

a-Kpi'6?, o-HpXos, o-t7raAo9, defective ; crt<paw, hollow tube ; 
tTTapvos, o-wavds, scarce; ijirav'ia, want; anrivos, lean, thin. 

afievvv/jii, to quench, exhaust ; cra/3«/eo9, rotten. 

(T)'i7rc'\ to rot ; (rairpos, rotten. 

<roiJLip6<i, spongy, loose ; Goth, svamms, sponge. 

anroyyos, crcjidyyog, sponge ; crcpaKO?, a moss, sage; cr^a/ceAo?, 
gangrene, caries, mildew ; crcpdyvos, a moss. 

aafia-pixn, cra/xa^/^/, eru/r/fy/x'/, pudendum muliebre (cf. 

(3peX M , r ig°; &c -> § 2 )- 

Lat. subo, to be in heat, to brim (moisture) ; crvfids, (rvft- 

dXXa?, lustful ; <rudvia, wantonness. 

Skr. svid, sudare ; Lat. sudo ; ISiw, iSpoao, to sweat ; i§o$, 
iSpdos, sweat ; Eng. sweat. 

Skr. svap, dormire ; Lat. sopor; inrvo<s, sleep; Lat. somnus. 

Goth, sveiban, to cease. 

a-iy//, silence (cr/r iytj ; Ger. schweigen)', crioo7r>'i, silence 
(quietude). 



bec. 17.] GROUNDS OF THE THIRD PHASE 01 UTTERANCE. 95 

Skr. sum, consolari, blandiri, sedari ; i"ifj.'epos, tame, gentle. 
Skr. ram, so delectare, stand still ; Crram, quiescere ; ypefiu, 
gently; Goth, rvmis, rest. 

§ 15. t 3 2^ 3 , s 3 t s p s , t 3 r. . f.,m.,, relaxation, of softness, moisture, 
decline, of loss of power. 

Lat. tofus, tuff-stone (of earthy consistency) ; rocpieov, tuff- 
stone quarry. 

ri(pog, pool, pond, swamp. 

$€U(d, to wet, drench ; Seicra, moistness (perhaps dcesa, from 
a root, dvis, cf. dvis, Sis, i. G, which would be a stronger form 
of Skr. vis, conspergere) ; Sialvco, to wet ; aSiavrov, maiden- 
hair fern (does not take wet). 

tuvtXo?, mud, dirt. 

Ovdo), subare (§ 14); Ovana, wantonness; Skr. d'ava, vir, 
maritus (cf. purusa, § 2 ; mas, § 4). 

Skr. devara, derri, Lat. levir, Scujp (Satf)]p), husband's 
brother (deva, probably means husband, from a root div, akin 
to §ev(ti, Selo-a, &c, and -ra or -ri, a suffix of kindred ; cf. tri, 
vi. 9). 

Lat. tabco, to waste away. 

0a,u/3o9, Odirog, Ta(po$, amazement ; re6t]7ra, I am amazed. 

Goth, daubs or daufs, Eng. deaf ; dobnan, to become dumb ; 
dumbs, Eng. dumb. 

Skr. stub', immobilem fieri ; (TTv<p'eSav6s, rvcp'eSavos, a 
stupid fellow ; rv(pos, stupor. Lat. stupeo. 

Skr. tarn, dolore affici, tabescere, to be stunned, exhausted, 
powerless ; Lat. timco. 

» 

§ 16. tgkp t s n , relaxation of liquid. 

Ti'iKco,to melt, ri'iyuvov, Tay^vovJiyavov, frying-pan. reyyoi, 
to moisten, shed, soften, dye ; Old Lat. at'tegrare, to pour out 
wine in sacrifices ; Lat. tingo, linguo, to moisten, dye. rivuyos, 
shoal water. 

OprSa^, lettuce (soft, § 13, juicy). 

§ 17. S g £ 3 , s 3 , relaxation, quietude. 

crra^co, to drop ; arayoov, a drop ; crraXuia, crraXv^a), to drop ; 
crrlXt], a drop ; Lat. stilla. Relaxation of yielding to gravity. 



96 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap, hi. 

craOpd?, rotten, unsound. 

craTivt], war-chariot ; ado-ai = kuOktui. 

Skr. sad, seclere ; Lat. sedco, to sit ; sedcs, seat ; sedo, to 
settle ; sido, to sit down ; possideo, to possess ; possido, to pos- 
sess oneself of (potis) ; e^o^ai, to sit ; ecta?, seat ; e'S'eOXov, 
ground ; '/£&>, to seat, sit ; ISpuco, to seat ; Goth, sitan, Eng. to 
sit ; satyan, Eng. to set. 

Goth, sutliyan, Eng. to soothe ; sutis, mild. 

Lat. sodalis, comrade, boon companion ; Irish sadhail, plea- 
sure, good house. 

Skr. as, sedere ; lifxai, to sit ; ija-vx'o?, still ; Lat. anus 
(asms). Old Lat. asa, Lat. ara, altar (Curtius, cf. eSpai, Od. 

III. 7). 

Skr. as, esse ; elp.1 (eo-juu), to be ; idco, Ep. eidco, to let (-aw 
transitive, eo"doo) ; Lat. s - ^m, esse, cram, cons-ens, prccs'ens, ens 
(cscns) ; ovcrla, being (etr'ovTia). 

Lat. srwo, to let, leave ; svtus, lying situate. 

Goth, azet'crba, easily. 

§ 18. s.J 3 , l 3 , relaxation, quietude, softness. 

Lat. solor, to soothe. 

Lat. sella, eXXa, seat ; solium, seat ; selvauastrum, kind of 
seat or stool (§ 9) ; ex'silium, ex'sul, con'silium, consul, consulo, 
'jirccsul ; Goth, salyan, to abide, to offer (propitiate); e'Xeo?, 
pity ; 'IXao?, propitious ; Goth, anasilan, to be still ; Lat. soleo ; 
Goth, slavan, to be still, silent ; slepan, Eng. to sleep ; Goth. 
silda-leih, amazement (relation, i. 26). 

Lat. sileo, silvcern'mm, funeral feast (root of sileo + that of 
ccena, cesna, x. 4); eXX'o?, eXXo\J^, -otto?, mute (ty, voice); 
eXXefiopos, hellebore (fiopd, food, sedative to eat) ; eXlvvoo, to 

take rest. 

Eng. slough, slob ; Old Norse, slapp, limus, lutus. 

eXo?, marsh, meadow ; eXecTTnV, marsh lands (vi. 40) ; eiXvs, 
morass; iXus, mud; elXcicpivris, pure, clear (tcpiM, mud sepa- 
rated); creXivov, parsley (eXed0p€7rroi', II. ii. 776); Lat. silaus, 
apium palustre. 

S 19. IJ", rjc.„ l.„ /„•<;.,, relaxation, softness of liquid. 

Xe'^co, to lay ; Xeyo/xcu, to lie ; Xe^o?, a couch ; Xo^o?, a 



sir. 20.] GROUNDS OF THE THIRD PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 97 

lying ;~aXoYOS, spouse; \6yjxti t lair, thicket; lego, to commis- 
sion, demise (lay) ; lex, law (settled, lay down the law) ; 
supel'lex, furniture (super'lectilis, what lies on, i.e., on the floor) ; 
lectus, a bed ; pollingo, to lay out a corpse (pro lingo). 

Goth, ligan, Eng. lie. 

Lat. licet, it is allowed (relaxation of restraint) ; lieeo, to be 
for sale, to offer at a price (cf. Eng 1 . let = let go the possession) ; 
liceor, to bid, to price ; polliceor, to promise (pw-liceor) ; Goth. 
leihvan, to lend. 

Xayapos, slack ; Xuyyul^w, Xoyyufy, to slacken ; Xayoov, 
flank ; Lat. laxus. 

Lat. langueo. 

Xvto, to loose; Lat. luo, to release; .str/ro (iv. 19); lues, pin- 
ing disease ; Goth, fra'liusam, Eng. /W ; laus, Eng. /oose. 

A)/yco, to cease. 

Skr. It, solvere ; Xoi'fxos, plague ; Lat. le'twm, death. 

Lat. liquco, to be liquid, to dissolve, hence to clear ; liquor ; 
col'Ucice, col'liqu'ice, elices, drains ; e'lixus, thoroughly boiled, 
soaked through ; lixo, to boil ; lixivus, made into lye. 

XiySos, melting-pot or mould. 

(TKv(3e-XiT>i9 (ou'09), wine in Galatia which has run from the 
grapes without being pressed (probably a Galatian, i.e., Celtic, 
word = Irish subh'lach, subh'led, expressed juice, of which the 
first part is siibh, juice, and the second akin to leagh, high, to 
melt, liqueo ; lack then corresponds to lixivus, which wine made 
in this way was called in Latin, mustum lixivum). 

Lat. deiicice, deiicatus, de'lecto, obiecto ; Goth, leikan, Eng. 
to like ; leikeis, lekeis, physician (soothes) ; Eng. leech, id. 

Lat. luxus ; poliuceo, to serve up (pro. and root of luxus). 

Lat. reprices, waterings of garden (§ 24). 

Lat. rigo. 

Goth, rign, Eng. rain (cf. f^pe^w, § 2). 

Xd-vvrj, soft woolly hair, down. 

apdyj'}], cobweb, spider ; Lat. arauca, id. 

ptjyos, peyo?, blanket ; apye'Xo(poi, the feet of a sheepskin 
(vii. 38). 

S 20. Ln , r a n Q , Lm a , rest, softness, laxitv, wet. 

O 3 3' 8 .3 8 8' ' ' * ' 

Goth, afiimuoi, to cease. 
Af/fo?, wool ; Lat. lana, wool. 



98 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. hi. 

apvos, lamb ; prju, sheep, lamb ; upvig, -iSos, festival at Argos 
in honour of linus (qu. Xtjvog ?) 

Goth, lamb, sheep, lamb; Eng. lamb. 

Lat. laminm, dead nettle (without sting). 

Lat. lemures, ghosts (without substance ; cf. larva, § 34). 

Lat. lentils, pliant, viscous, sluggish ; lenHscus, mastich tree 
(i. 18). 

Xlfx-vrj, lake, marsh ; Xifi'Tjv, harbour, creek ; Xeifi'wv, moist 
grassy place ; Ae//ra£, meadow, garden ; Xe/ifva, water-plant. 

S 21. Jcji., kjn , m.„ softness, relaxation. 

a-vyij, foam, down ; ^voo?, foam, down. 

Lat. agnus, lamb. 

KrjjiA.o?, cctton weed. 

Skr. x a,n > se ^ari ; KafjLvw, work one's self weary, be worn 
out. 

Lat. com/is, kind; can'dacus = suavis mansuetus. 

uyavo?, mild, gentle, kindly. 

Skr. kana, tenuis, exilis, parvus ; kcvos, empty ; Skr. x'unya, 
vacuus, inanis ; a-y^unya, totus, universus (a- neg.) ; Goth. 
hauns, humble, of small account ; xaui/09, loose, flabby, empty. 

KvaxTcro), to slumber. 

Goth, hnasqvus, soft. 

§ 22. & 3 7? 3 , p % , relaxation, softness. 

Skr. hap a, tragheit, laziness (Benfey, Gr. W. ii. 159) ; Kt}(pi'iv, 
a drone ; Kwcpo?, dull. 

Lat. hebes, dull. 

kottos, trouble, fatigue ; khttos, a7ro9, fatigue. 

Sj-n-e'Savos, weakly. 

V7Ti09, gentle. <?7r>/"n/9, courteous, kind. L&t.pius; pwpi'tivs. 
iraidv, 7rai(*)i>, iraii)oov, the healer, hymn to him. 

Lat. favco, to favour ; foveo, to cherish. 

iravd), to stop, cease. 

5 23. //,/', weakness, softness of moisture. 

n;-ecWo9, weakly ; initio?, weak, silly, young ; ^Xia^ojj id. 

Lat. nebulo, a worthless fellow. 

Skr. ninv, irrigare ; Lat. nimbus, rain, rain-cloud. 

»>c<i>oo9, kidney ; Lat. nefrones, testiculi. 



sice. 20]. GROUNDS OF THE THIRD L'HASE OF UTTERANCE. 99 

§ 24. rJ, r g , soft yielding nature of moisture, relaxation. 

Skr. unlc, madidus, humidus ; upt)<a, to water. 

palvw (eppaSarai, 3rd pi. pf. pass.), to sprinkle. paOu'fiiy^, 
a drop (§ 25). ptjrli')], resina ; Lat. rcsina ; O. H. Ger. rl&an, 
cadere stillare. 

Lat. ros, dew; reprices, aqua qua horti irrigantur (§ 19). 

Goth, rasta, mile (stage, rest) ; Ang.-Sax. restart, Liig. rest. 

Goth, ram, house. 

§ 25. mje., m, g s s , softness, want of substance, soft yielding 
nature of water or moisture, relaxation. 

Lat. macero, to soften, weaken ; mdceo, to be lean, meagre. 

Goth, miiks, muka-, soft; Eng. meek. 

Skr. mis, conspergere ; mih, effundere, prassertim mingere ; 
o/juvew, to- make water; yuot^o'?, an adulterer ; Lat. mingo, meio, 
-ere, mio, -are, to make water. 

Ski-, mag'g', masg', mergi (§ 4) ; Lat. immussulus, young of 
the sea-eagle. 

paOd'iuiy^, a drop (§ 24). 

Skr. muk', solvere liberare dimittere ; mah, to give awoy, 
make a present ; mag' a, gift, present. 

5 26. pj„, p.s a , p„, relaxation of inactivity, of want of force, 
of pleasure, of softness. 

Skr. pat, cadere ; irlirrw, to fall ; 7t6t/ulos, what befalls one. 

-rrdayw (eiraOov), to receive an impression ; Lat. pat'ior ; 
passim, at random, without direction. 

Lat. fatim, af'fatim (ad'fatim), enough (relaxation of satiety); 
fatlgo, to weary ; fatisce, to break up, grow weak; fat mis, 
foolish, silly ; fessus, weary. 

Lat. fato, root of confuto, refvto, to make destitute of force ; 
futilis, worthless, vain; Goth, hauths, without natural power, 
dumb. 

TruOo), to rot ; Lat. puteo, to be rotten ; putidus, puter, rotten. 

<p6ew, (f>6loo, ipQ'ivoo, to decay; (p9d)], decay; (pOelpo), to corrupt. 

Lat. petilus, thin, slender. 

(3dSo/nai, to love, have pleasure (Hesych.) ; fiaoas (Hesych. ), 
fiuTaXo?, cimedus ; Lat. betizare, to languish ; beta, beet (lan- 
guidior tenera beta- — Catull.). 

7r60os, longing, regret. 



100 GREEK, LATIN, AND OOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. mi. 

o\^/e, late (delay, decline). 

Tra<TT-el\}], last day of the year (cf. 61X17, sunshine, vi. 131). 

Skr. bad' ira, surdus. 

ireiruov, ripe, mild, tender; TreTrroa, ripen, cook, digest; 
irea-arw, id. ; Lat. popina, cookshop ; e\l/w, boil, smelt, steep 
(7re\|/w ?) ; ecpOos, cooked, languid ; otttos, roasted, broiled, 
baked ; oirrdw ; lir'v6<s, oven (twtvos ?). 

(pdcTKOi', a moss or vegetable like a(p(LKO<;. 

$ 27. r./.„ r. .<?.., r .., soft yielding nature of water or moisture ; 
relaxation of rest, of weakness ; softness of wool. 

Skr. uda, aqua ; und, madidum esse ; vSoop, Eng. water ; 
uSo?, id. ; vSpa, Lat. hydra, water-serpent; Lat. vadwm, watery 
bottom ; pal'ud-, marsh (§ 1) ; Goth, vato, water. 

vw, to rain ; Lat. uvens, moist ; uva, bunch of grapes ; u'dus, 
moist; hirmor; hwmidus. 

Skr. vis, conspergere. 

Skr. vas, kabitai-e ; vastu, domus ; aa-rv, city (facrri/) ; oi>i, 
village (yas'ya, vaya) ; yov, chamber (yasyam, vayam) ; virep-- 
wiov, upper chamber; oa-rpcfxov, stable (ii. 21); e(3aa) = eaw 
(feo-aw, e/raw). 

Goth, ins, at ease. 

Lat. ves'per (time of rest, vi. 27) ; ea-irepa, evening ; Eng. 
west ; Lat. vesjnces, dense shrubberies (from vesper, dark). 

Gotk. visan, to be, remain; past, vas, Eng. was; vis, a 
calm ; vizon, to live. 

Skr. us, aegrotum esse ; Lat. vescus, weak, small. 

u-ea-a, I slept {afeaa) ; awrew, to sleep ; evSca, to sleep ; 
eirvi), a bed; e m Krjho$, euvcifAoy, at rest (§ 6); Lat, o'tium ; 
fiuvfidoo, to lull asleep, to fall asleep (redupl.) ; fiaVKoK-dw, lull 
to rest (*$ 6) ; 0-1/0 '-fiuvvos, pigsty ; oukXov, an evening meal 
(apacXov, § 6). 

aa>'TO$, linest wool, used as we use "flower," to denote the 
best of its kind; Skr. avi, ovis ; oi's, sheep; Lat, oris (av, 
softness of wool) ; oravTrrj, grease of wool (i. 15) ; Goth, avethi, 
tiock of sheep. 

§ 28. p.J* y p.ji.,, i:,k v relaxation, soitness. 

Lat. piger, sluggish; pigeo, to feel reluctance, dislike. 

ftaKcXo'i, eunuch ; fiavicos, nice, affected. 



bkc. 31.] GROUNDS of the third phase of UTTERANCE. 1 hi 

eiKw, to yield (petKw) ; Ger. weichc/i, id. 

Lat. focus, drone bee. 

Lat. bigerrica, woolly (cf. fiupiyoi, &c, § 2). 

Lat. fcex, dregs (cf. ercbdico?, crdiuKeXos, &c, § 14); fungus 
(cf. cr<p6yyo<;, § 14) ; fungidus = cro/uupo? (§ 14). 

Skr. parlka, lutum pulvis. pak' to cook, digest. 

71-/1/09, dirt ; Goth, fani, dirt. 

Skr. uks, conspergere ; uksan, bos, taurus (cf mas, § 1, 
apcrrjv, § 2, Szc.) ; Goth, auhsa, Eng. o.r; uypos, liquid, soft. 

§ 29. »„v OJ » , ?>.,»>,,, c'ui. v.n a , relaxation of deficient sub- 

•J -'■oJJJJ J«J Jo 

stance or force. 

irav-poi, few ; 7ruv-pog, little; Lat. paxi'ci ; pawlus, little ; 
pawx'illus, very little; paws'illulum, id. ; pws'us, pwl'us, little 
boy ; pws'a, little girl ; pws'illus, very little (c and s strengthen 
the ground with a similar expressiveness, §§ 26, 28); Goth. 
/avSj Eng. /ei#. 

Lat. pup'us, a boy ; pup'a, a girl ; ^?a?/jp er, poor. 

fiatos, little. 

Lat. pum'ilus, diminutive; punvula, kind of vine; punvcx, 
pumice-stone (from its lightness and want of substance. The 
Irish word for it is mion'cMoch, light stone; wno?i, little = 
ww, &c, § 5). 

Skr. vama, laevus, sinister ; vamana, brevis, pumilus, nanus. 

Lat. vanus, empty ; Skr. una, deminutus, minus, debilis ; 
una'vi%ati, novem-decim ; Goth, vans, wanting; Eng. wane. 

§ 30. nj , njo, n . relaxation, rest, refreshment. 

I'vOos, dumb ; i>oo6i]S, sluggish. 

Skr. nad, cadere ; nada, arundo tibialis. 

vtfSvfjLos, Homeric epithet of sleep ; Old Norse, nadhir, rest ; 
Ang.-Sax. nedhan, to sleep. 

Skr. nlda, nidus, lair ; Lat. nidus. 

Goth, ga'nisan, to be saved; nasyan, to save ; Ger. genesen, 
to recover; vos'tos, sweetness, pleasantness. 

Goth, ansts, favour. 

ewp'/s, kind, gentle. 

§ 31. njc , n 3 v 3 , n % r , relaxation, insensibility, waiit of sub- 
stance. 

vco/cap, sleep ; jwy^A?/?, sluggish. 



102 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. nr. 

Skr. ndkTc, necare, destruere ; veKpos, dead ; veicvs, a dead 
body ; Lat. neco ; veic'rap, the wine of the gods (death-guard, 
ii. 21 ; cf. afj.3poana). 

Goth, naus, a dead person. Lat. naucum, trifle ; nvgce. 

vapKrj, numbness ; vapKicro-os, daffodil (narcotic) ; ovap, a 
dream. 

§ 32. l^j , ?y> , relaxation, want of substance, yielding to 
gravity. 

Xairapos, slack ; a\a-Ka(w, to empty ; \aira6ov, kind of sorrel 
which acts as an aperient (laxative) ; Aaxj^ai^, kind of wild 
cabbage (alvum lenit et mollit). 

\ei(3co, e'//3co, let flow, drop ; Lat. libo, id. ; lijppus, blear- 
eyed (dropping) ; labo, to totter, waver ; labor, to glide, fall. 

\w(paco, to rest, abate. 

Skr. alpa, parum, paulum, exiguus. 

Ae7TTO?. fine, thin, weak. 

peTTco, to sink ; poTrakov, poirTpov, club (heavy end) ; epenrw, 
to tumble ; KaXairpo^, shepherd's staff (ii. 2) ; crKij-pLir-rco, to 
prop (vi. 63). 

§ 33. l 3 t 3 , l.^Sy relaxation, soothing. 

Lat. lito, to do a propitiatory act ; Ang.-Sax. lidlisyan, 
mitescere. 

Lat. lassies ; sub'lest'us, infirmus tenuis ; Goth, lasivs, weak. 

Goth, lots, lazy ; Eng. late, last ; Goth, let an, leitan, Eng. 
let (permit, let go). 

XoicrOos, last (kooricrOos ?). 

Lat. lethusa, white poppy. 

aXOaia, mallow (§ 3). 

§ 34. l.j)' y l, 3 , r y rj s , relaxation, want of substance or force. 
Lat. lar, dwelling, home. 
Xeipos, thin ; Xetpiov, lily ; Lat. lilium. 

\>ipo9, Lat. lirce, trifles ; Old Lat. cussiiiris — ignavus (§ 9). 
Lat. larva, ghost, mask, skeleton. 

Lat. lora, thin wine made of grapes that have been already 
pressed. 

Lat. varus. Goth, riurs, corruptible. 

apaios, line, slight ; upnfxei'os, worn out ; ap'tcrrepa, left 



skc. 34.] GROUNDS OF THE THIRD I'll ASK OF UTTERANCE. 103 

hand (-icrTepos, correlative) ; peia, easily, lightly ; pa'6vp.os, 
light-hearted ; pa'Slos, easy ; a'ppwros, unrelaxed. 

ejow'fft), relax effort. 

pao'ivo?, slender. 

Goth, roths, easy. 



CHAPTER IV. 

CROUNDS BELONGING TO THE FOURTH PHASE OF UTTERANCE, 
WHOSE EXPRESSIVENESS IS IN THE PARTING OF THE ORGANS 
AFTER CLOSURE. 

§ 1. t,, tfc, t iVi , y 4 , t^, partition. 

Skr. da, day, dd)(, das, dare ; SlSoofxi, to give ; Surpov, gift ; 
Lat. do, dano, to give ; do'num ; do's ; Sdvos, gift, loan ; Lat. 
dardaivarius, second-hand dealer. 

Skr. day, to divide, participate ; Saiw, to divide ; daifioov, 
god (as distributor of fortune) ; Sals, a meal (shared) ; Salwfii, 
to give a feast ; Sa'tTco, cleave asunder. 

Scrnjp, divider ; Sao-fxo?, division of spoil, impost. 

Goth, tahyan, to scatter. 

Skr. di%, largiri. 

Lat. de ; dis-, di- ; Goth, dis-, id. (d is t in Sax., z in Ger.) ; 
Sid, through, division, succession ; Siafyfxai, to set up the 
warp ; Siacrfxa, the warp (division of the threads into the two 
sets through which the shuttle goes) ; Siarro?, a sieve. 

<)tu>, Sevoo, to want ; Sto/aai, Seuoiual, to want, beg ; Set, there 
is need. 

t>]tuu>, to bereave. 

Skr. -d' a, -d'yam, suffixa partitiva ; ScoS&ca'Oeov, having 
twelve ingredients ; 600/1, penalty. 

Lat. tesca, tesqua, sequestered places. 

§ 2. ^ 4 w 4 , partition. 

Te'/xwo, to cut ; T/utja-ig, cutting, division ; tojuu'i, cut ; rfi^yo\ 
to divide ; raft-las, dispenser ; up'Ta/ui.0?, butcher, cook (i. 26) ; 
Te'/««X 0? > a slice ; re/uevo?, land set apart ; To/ii-oupos, TOfi'apos, 
priest at Dodona (perhaps guardian of refxevo?, ii. 13); Lat. 
templum, place set apart, piece of timber ; coniempl'or, view as 

104 



bkc. 5.] GROUNDS OF THE FOURTH PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 105 

from an augur's station ; ex'templo, on the spot (out of the very 
place). 

Lat. ton'de'o, to clip {-de-, § 1). 

§ 3. »j/",, partition. 

Skr. nema, dimidius, theil (Bopp, V. G., ii. 62). 

I'efxo), to deal out, to pasture (giving share to each) ; vc/ach;, 
Lat. nanus, a glade ; l'o/xo'?, pasture ; vo/mos, custom, law 
(assigned right), measured strain ; vefxeo-is, retribution. 

vco/mau), to distribute, manage ; Lat. numus, piece of money ; 
nunverus. 

§ 4 - n ±> ? 7 ? 4' W A> 7 \ s i> ? W m i> reraotion » negation, stripping. 

Skr. na^', to be lost, vanish, come to nothing. 

avev, without, away ; avevOe, id. ; apt?, Bosot. for avev ; uva-, 
av-, a-, neg. ; Skr. «-, an-, neg. ; avcuvoficu, to deny (-ati'-, 
verbal suffix); ai/a'eATrro?, unhoped; ava'eovos, without presents; 
ava"7rvev<TTO$, breathless ; u/u'cpaa-ia, speechlessness ; ayKopis = 
uKope<TTov', Skr. aivd'a, blind (vi. 127). 

Goth, inuh, inu, without; Goth., Eng. un- ; Lat. in-, neg. ; 
Goth, un'tha-, off (i. 1). 

ai»]-, neg.; vn-, neg.; Skr. na, no, non ; Lat. ne, ni ; Old 
Lat. ne'nu (rednpl.), ne'nwm (accus. adverb), ningulus = nullus ; 
Lat. non; Goth, ni, not; ne, not; Skr. ma, md'sma (-srna, i. 
32), ne, prohib. ; /jli), not. 

apveofiai, to deny. 

Skr. nis, nir, ex ; evaipw, to make away with, destroy ; 
evapa, spoils. voo"(pi, apart ; Old Lat. nesi, without. 

Old Lat. negvm, not (accus. adverb) ; negumo, to deny ; Lat. 
nego ; Slav, nagu, naked ; Skr. nag'na, naked ; yv/xvoq, naked 
(for veyv /j.v6$) ; Lat. nwdus (negudus); Goth, naqvaths, Eng. 
naked. 

Lat. ne'quam, worthless (-quam, indefinite; cf. quis'quam, 
i. 5). 

§ 5. vjc r v., w, separation, remotion, singling. 

Skr. vik', vis, separare ; fieucas, (3eK<i?, eKag, far (f ez/ra?) ; e£, 
eK, Lat. ex, e. o'l-^o/mai, to be gone, oiyco, to open. 

Skr. vi, remotionis, separationis prepositio ; vin r t, sine; Lat. 
re-, priv. ; ve'to, to forbid (-to, verbal termination). 

Skr. vahis, bahis, extra, foras ; ov-%!, °v K > °v> n °t I Lat. vaco ; 



"LOG GREEK, LATIN, AXD GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. iv. 

Goth, uh't'eigs, at leisure, unoccupied; uhteigo, opportunely 
(at an unoccupied time) ; uht'vo, empty time, interval of quiet. 

The elements vi, vin, expressing separation, the former 
strengthened with -va (§ 6), seem to have furnished roots for 
unity. From viva might come Zend aeva, Skr. elect (by 
change of w to k), olo? alone, 'io$ one. From vin might 
come olvo?, 6V09, the ace; Old Lat. emus; Lat. unus, -ien~s, 
-ie's, numeral adverbs (s adverbial, i. 9); Goth, aim; Eng. 
one ; Skr. na'van (na one + van deducted) ; Lat. no'vem ; evvea ; 
Goth, niun ; Eng. nine. 

evwis, bereft. 

§ 6. p^, pfa, 2Y± ■ 'VV l\"i< l \ n V v fv 'V separation, reso- 
lution. 

Skr. apa, ab, a-wo \ Lat. ab, absque (§ 8), airs (strengthened 
with s of similar meaning); Goth, af, from; Lat. ab'avus, 
ab'amita, ab'nepos (ab, great-great-, remotion) ; Skr. apara, 
alius (-ra transition, vi. 9) ; >)7rep-07r'eus (o^), a cheat. 

Skr. pik'Y, scindere; Lat. pce'min'osus, full of chinks; Skr. 
piV, to divide meat; pi^'ita, meat cut up. 

OTn'i, a hole; 07rea?, an awl. 

Skr. pale', pan'k\ explicare, to explain, 10 cl. expandere, 
extendere ; paiikti, linea, series ; pan k' 'an, quinque (a definite 
series, see below). 

Skr. b'ag', dividere ; b'aga, portio ; b'rui'g', frangere. Lat. 
pagus, a district. 

Lat. frango ; pi'iyvv/ni, to break (fpiiyvv/xi) ; pijyfxiv, the sea 
breaking on the beach ; Goth, brihan, Eng. break ; Skr. vrarfk', 
scindere, abscindere. 

aypujui, to break (f«7) ', ukt)'/, broken corn, groats, meal ; 
Lat. vo'mer, ploughshare (vag'mar, § 1G). 

Skr. vat, rant, vancl, distribuere, dividere. 

irivTe, Lat. quinque, irefxire, Goth, fimf, Eng. Jive. The last 
four seem to imply an original vanva, the first ranted with loss 
of second v. From the v, or rather w, came qu and it. But 
the meanings are so similar, and the cerebrals and palatals so 
close to each other, that vant seems to be only another form of 
/></,/'//, from which pan'k'an came, the second syllable of the 
numeral having been originally van, expressing separation of 
the counted series. 7rf/x7ru£a>, to count (7r^7re). 



si:c. 7.] GROUNDS OF THE FOURTH PHASE OF UTTERAN* !E. 1 1 1 , 

The element vant or va, expressive of division or distribution, 
is to be seen also in Skr. X"X rt " 1 ^ ever-recurring (vi. 65) 
sa/rva quivis (§ 7), oij^avr-, rpi^uvr-, Sicilian coins = two and 
three ^iXkoi, Lat. triens, quadrans, sextans, octans, v being 
dropped in the latter. 

Skr. vid'a'vd, vidua (yidf , separation, strengthened with va) ; 
rjtOeos, bachelor (fi6efo<i) ; ~LdX.vidu.us, Goth, viduvo, Eng. widow; 
vidwoairnS) orphan; I6pi$, eunuch; Goth, vithrus, Eng. wether ; 
eOpis, id. 

X'lpa-cpi?, -ISos, widowhood (§ 9) ; (pelSofiai, to spare. 

Lat. dicido ; dividuus, divisible, divided; Iduo, to divide; 
idus, middle of the month. 

odveios, foreign, strange. Goth, tit, Eng. out ; Goth, us, 
Ger. aus ; Lat. vastus, waste, vast; Goth, auths, desert. 

§ 7. /.y> 4 , Z' 4 , .y/ 4 , -y/> 4 , s 4 , division, singling. 

ko.uvo$, a lot (division) ; kovtos, short; Skr. k'un, to cut off. 

Skr. ay{, dividers; a\a, pars portio ; Lat. art us, a definite 
length, standard unit of length =120 feet ; acn'wa, unit of sur- 
face = actus quadratus (Skr. a/%, strengthened with -ra, § 6) ; 
acna, id. ; atcaiva, a ten-foot rod ; Lat. v/ncia, ts (division, on 
the duodecimal system). 

Lat. as, assis, unit of weight and of measure ; dccussis, ten 
asses, and the number X, with which that piece was marked. 

-/a - ? 7roXXa'/c<9, &c. ; Skr. Jce'vala, totus solus (ii. 11). 

-/cor?, av$pa'K(x-$, man by man (s adverbial, i. 9) ; avSpa'Kas, 
man's portion ; Skr. -xa's, X a - a 'X ( ' s > ^7 hundreds ; cKarepos, 
each of two, (-Tep- step of transition between two, vi. 9) ; 
tA'a<xT09, each {-err- singles out from others). 

/<• = unitv, with dva two, seems to have formed an element 
Tcsva for three, whence came ksvdksva for sis, Zend /tsyas, Skr. sas, 
Lat. sex, e£ (f 6 <~), Goth, saihs ; Skr. sa'pt'an, Lat. seyt'em, e-irr-a 
(sa three -\-pt four, i. 4), Goth, sibun, Eng. seven; Skr. as't'an 
(as six + tv two, i. 4), Lat. octo, 6ktu>, Goth, ahtau, Eng. eight. 

Skr. da'x'an, ten (dva, x'""> second division or unit) ; Lat. 
decern ; deni, by tens; Scku, Goth, taihun, Eng. ten ; Skr. X" f "^ 
€ko.tov, Lat. centum (d<'X"uda-^a/i abbreviated, -fa, -rov, and 
-turn being demonstratives in which the number is thought 
as an aggregate) ; Lat. cand'etum, area of 100 feet (iii. 9). 



108 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. iv. 

Goth, -lif (ain'lif, eleven, tva'lif, twelve) is a remnant of da^ah, 
softened and abbreviated by much use of a duodecimal count 
(cf. Litli. -lika); Skr. vi^a'fi, twenty (dvi'^an'ti, -t- demons, 
-i dual) ; Lat. vi'gin'ti, fiei/cari, eeiicocri, ecKo<Ti, Goth. tvaitigyiis 
(tigus = decas) ; Skr, trisect (trv\(nvt, -t demons.), Lat. tri'- 
ghvta, Tpid'Kov'Ta. In e^Soju^yKOVTa, oy^o'rj'Kovra, and evev)'y- 
Kovra, ordinals are used, the counting of these large numbers 
being facilitated by noting the last ten instead of carrying in 
mind all the tens. In Gothic the numerals for 20, 30, 40, 50, 
are formed with the masc. noun tigvs dexas, those for 70, 80, 90, 
are formed with the neuter noun fehund, a decade. In hunda, 
100, there is an abridgment from taihun-tehunda. 

Akin to xccn, expressing unity, is san, sam, sa, in the 
following words ; Lat. sin'g'ulus (g euphonic) ; sim'plex (ii. 14); 
a-7rAoof, simple (ii. 14); cr7rrr£, once for all ((iVa/a?, a = sa, 
ii. 33); Skr. sa'krit, semel (§ 9); sar'va, quivis (§ 6); Lat. 
se'squi, lh, one and a fraction (§ 8); Lat. senvcl ; Goth, sim'le, 
once ; eh, one (ev'9, (rev?) ; fi'a, one (sam'ia), fio-po?, alone ; 
Goth, sin'tcins, sein'teins, daily (teins must mean day, Skr. dina, 
dies) ; sin'teino, always (every day) ; sinths, single occurrence 
(ainamma sintha, once; tvaim sintham, twice); us'sindo = 
Ixu\i<tt<x (singled out) ; sundro, singly ; Eng. sunder. 

% 8. \, Jc/ r Z 4 -V V'V K n V V'4' s 4 m 4' VV division, separa- 
tion. 

/ce<w, Keico, KeaZ ft), to split, cleave. 

koQ-ovoos, dock-tailed (ovpd) ; -x@ a > partitive suffix ; Sr^da, 
in two parts. 

Skr. Jc" id, scindere ; kutt, to split, divide ; kiSuXov, onion 
(scales) ; x^pov, groats (hulled). 

crp(iTft), to split : o"X'^ ' t° split open ; o^aA/?, a forked stick ; 
(tkiWcx, sea-onion ; aylvos, id. ; er^i^aAyUo?, splinter ; o-^t^], 
anything formed by cleaving; o-)(eSia, raft. Goth, skaidan, to 
divide ; dis'skreitan, to tear asunder. 

(TKiSva/xai, fTKeSdwu/ixi, iceoaioo, to disperse. 

koctklvov, sieve (redupl.) ; k&o-kiov, refuse of flax (separated 
fragments). 

<TKop7rl{o), to disperse. 

Lat. scindo ; sciitdtda, scandida, shingle ; aa-KavrTjs, poor bed, 
bier; Lat. sanda'pila, cheap bier or coffin (ii. 15); cravraKov, 



sec. 9.] GROUNDS OF THE FOURTH PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 109 

saudal-wood ; auvSuXou, crajuftaXoi', wooden sole ; <xcmV, board ; 
Lat. scuta, scutra, flat tray or dish. 

Lat. seques'ter, sculna, one who holds a thing apart (as in 
trust) ; Lat. ab'sque ; sequins, secus, rather apart ; Lat. se'squi, 
1|; se'squioctavus, 1^ (se, 1 ; squi, fraction); Zend, t'ri'sva, \ ; 
jj/urcrus, \ (i. 32) ; Skr. vi'm, on both sides (i. 6); visuva, equi- 
nox (two equal parts) ; vimvant, in the middle ; ylcryue, equal 
(fhtfos), icros, eiixo?, id. 

arKoXv7TTco, to dock ; <tkoXXus, tuft (docked) ; crKoXo'Kpo?, 
short-horned (Kepas) • <TKoXw6pos, low, mean ; Lat. sicilicus, \ 
of tV (reduplicated division, scvscil'icus ?) ; Goth, slcilliggs, Eng. 
shilling (cf. Dan. skillemynt = scheidctnilnze — Diefenbach ; Goth. 
skilya, the shambles (division) ; KouKyX/xara, parings of leather 
(redupl.) ; Lat. cusculium, grains scraped from a kind of oak 
for a dye ; quisquilice, refuse (separated fragments). 

^«Tt(o, y^arivu), to want ; Lat. Juan/. 

Goth, gaidc, want, deficiency. 

Skr. \is, relinquere ; Goth, us'haists, in want. 

Lat. cedo, to give up, give place, change place or condition. 

§ 9. It r , separation. 

Skr. Jcarala, wide open. 

Skr. hrit, findere ; -krit'vas (i. 9), -hrit, suff. of numeral 
adverbs ; Jcrit'sna, totus omnis universus (i. 32). 

Skr. k'lrna, scissus ; x'rt> rumpere, dirumpere, diffringere ; 
Ke'ipw, to cut off ; Kovpu, cropping ; Kopcrevg, a barber ; uKep- 
o-e'KOiArjs, with uncut hair ; cricapi, a mite (indivisible) ; u-Kapei, 
in a moment ; a-icapi'/?, atom. 

Kplvu> y to separate, distinguish ; aTroKpivo/nai, express one's 
own judgments ; vTroKplvo/j-ai, suppress them ; Lat. ccmo, to 
distinguish ; ccrto, to contend (make trial of superiority) ; 
cri'men, matter for judgment; dis~ crimen, separation ; crvbrum, 
sieve. 

vavicpapos = vavKXtjpos. 

Lat. careo ; cassus, empty ; curlus, short, mutilated. 

Lat. gradior, gradus ; Goth, grids, step (grad* = Lat. grad, 
Grassmann). 

■)(etp'as, chap, crack ; X'|°' a ' ? > ^. > X''/ ra ' uo ' 9 > c ^ e ^' hole. 

X'7/>o?5 bereft ; X M P ' 9 > apart ; x>/jO(r^nV, widowhood (§ G) ; 
X^p 1 "^, poor. 



110 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap, i v. 

§ 10. I'J ^ Ig division, loss, remotion. 

Skr. kal, numerare (succession of parts) ; kald, pars. ; kXuid, 
to break; KXtjpos, lot (portion); Gotli. hlauts, Eng. lot. 

koXos, docked ; koXoj36$, id. ; Kka.iJ.fi6s, mutilated ; koKovw, 
to dock ; KoXd^oo, to check ; Lat. calamitas. 

Skr. Jcila, inanis ; Lat. ccdebs. 

oXXv/ui, destroy, lose; ouXlos, destructive; Irish, caUlim, I 
lose, destroy. 

Lat. pwcul, afar (prq-cul). 

S 11. "k.. l\n,, opening, unfilled division. 

*j 4 4 4 *- •— t 

yu'<TKoci, to gape ; X ao? > chasm, infinite space ; y^acrfxa, chasm ; 
X^'ck, chasm, separation; x e *'"' cleft; yrfM, a gaping; 
yj't-' < C l Jiai i withdraw ; Skr. ha, relinquere ; x^ T0? ' want. Lat. 
egeo, vgenus; ex'ig'uus (ex-eg). 

valvco, open wide ; x "'' 05 '' chasm ; x aj/ '" 0? s wide-mouthed 
fish ; ^i^'pa, wide gape ; '"X^"- ^'XP v f P 00r - 

X«^"Ao9, x ai ~'^ £0 ?5 with gaping intervals. 

teacup, KardSa?, /fij'Toy, cleft, cavern. 

>X«, partitive suff. ; rpr^a, <^''X a > i n three parts, in two. 

Lat. Mo. 



§ 12. s/p., sm^, separation. 

Skr. spat, sp'ant, findere ; sp ut dissilire, se aperire ; sp itnd, 
se expandere ; sp'unt, ridere, deridere ; sp ittt, spernere ; sp it, 
despicere. 

Skr. sitii, ridere, subridere ; smaija, astonishment (open 
mouth), pride (cf. spit)] Lat. miror ; (o-)juLeiSdw, to smile; 
O. H. Ger. smielen, Eng. smile. 

rr—aSwv, tear, rent, rag; <x7racW, eunuch. 

Lat. spat'iwn. 

Goth, spilda, table (cf. Ger. Apulia, split; Lat. spelta, spelt). 

Lat. sapinus, pinus enodis dirlisa ; sappium, kind of pine; 
sponda, the frame of a bedstead (split wood ; cf. Ger. span). 

Lat. spcrno, to sever ; dsspise ; spargo ; a-ire'ipa, to sow ; 
cnropas, scattered. 

<T7rc'o?, cnn'iXato?, a-n-ijXvy^, cave, cavern (§ 13) ; Lat. spelunca, 
specus. 



bbc. 16.] GROUNDS OF THE FOURTH PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 1 1 ! 

5 13 - /'/i' ! /v 'Vi' separation. 

Skr. bil, b'il, vil, findere ; bal, abscindere ; irrjkvy^, rent, 
cleft (§ 12); TrijXvi, far; Old Lat. polteo = ulteriore ; irXaTus, 
wide ; Lat, lotus ; stlata, broad boat. 

Lat. pilo, comptlo, to plunder; fi\iacru), to plunder; Lat. 
populor, lay waste ; Lat. poli'menta, testiculos porcorum castra- 
torum. 

§ 14. p r., v r , r , r.m., separation, amplitude. 

Skr. 7'///', 10 cl., jacere, projicere, extendere ; prit u, latus, 
ampins; prit'vi, prit'ivi, terra; prit die, separatim ; prat , 
Atm., extendi, expandi ; TrepOco, to waste, ravage. 

Lat. pratum, meadow, open place. 

Lat. 2 )ars '> Goth, /era, part; Lat. portio ; privus, privo, 
privatus. 

Skr. b'ritf, ^' r(( X> ca( 3ere, elabi, caus. ejicere ; vrig', relin- 
quere. 

<pupu>, to sever; (papaos, a part. Lat. forum, open space; 
frustum, piece. 

Lat. furca ; vp^j, fork. 

Lat. earns, divergent ; Skr. uru, magnus (compar. variyas) ; 
uric, femur ; urm, terra ; evpv$, wide. 

Lat. area, open space. 

Goth, braids; Eng. broad. 

Goth, rums; Eng. room. 

§ 15. p t , pji, separation, opening out. 

Skr. pat, ire, caus. findere ; panel, ire ; patra, folium. 

Lat. pat co ; pando ; ireravvvixi i to spread out; irera\ov, a 
leaf; 7reracro?, broad-brimmed hat ; ireTacrtov, ham, fore-quarter 
of pork (broad, flat) ; irkra-KVov, broad flat cup (ii. 6) ; /uda"- 
TreT'ov, leaf of the silphium (i. 20) ; TriTvtjfii, to spread out ; 
irirava, an extended line. 

Old Lat, ex'patare, in locum patentem se dare. 

Skr. bid, findere; Lat. findo, finis {fid'nis). 

§ 16. m^, division, separation. 

Skr. marya, finis, terminus; reic-juap, manifested mark or 
boundary (vi. 12G). 

lueipw, to divide; u/ueipw, /mepSco, afxepSw, to bereave; fxo'ipa, 



s 



1 12 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. iv. 



-J ■"-*■■-■«"'-' 5 



part, fate ; juopos, fate ; /u6p<Ti/u.o$, fated ; ju.epo\ls, dividing the 
voice (by articulation), a bird (breaks of song). 

Goth, market, boundary ; /uopyiov, land measure. 

Goth, ga'maurgyan, to cut short. 

Lat. merce'don'ius, merce'din'us, intercalary period (vi. 57). 

Lat. merend'a, luncheon (intermediate refreshment, juep- • 
cf. pra'nd'co, vi. 101). 

Lat. merits, meracus, unmixed. 

ij'/u.ap, i]/uiep-a, day (svecmar, sunny part, vi. 131) ; 0. H. Ger. 
sumar, Ang.-Sax. sumer, Eng. summer (sun'mar, id., vi \'o2). 

Lat. wmer, ploughshare (§ 6). 

§ 17. //' 4 , r 4 7,- 4 , lj>^ r iPi , / 4 r 4 , parting, abandonment, open- 
ness. 

\ayyavw, receive a share. 

Lat. linquo (liq-). 

Xe'nrw, to leave; Goth, laiha, leavings; af'lifnan, to remain 
over. 

Goth, ga'levyan, to offer, give up; lew/an, leivyan, to betray, 
give up. 

Skr. rah, relinquere, deserere ; la, ra, dare, epTy/uog, desert, 
void. 

6p<pavo$, bereft ; Lat. orbits, id. ; Goth, bvraubon, to bereave. 

Skr. rile, to remove, empty, free, leave. 

Lat. rictus, opening (of mouth) ; rrma, a cleft, chink ; 
rimor, to lay open, pry into. 

Lat. largtts, abundant, large ; largior, to give bountifully. 

§ 18. ,s 4 r 4 , sj 4 , tj v / 4 r 4 , separation. 

crea-tjpu (a-a'ipw), grin (open lips) ; crapS-a^w, to laugh bit- 
terly ; craowj/, lewd fellow, pudend. muliebr. ; cn'ipuy^, a cleft. 
Lat. sors, lot, share ; sortior, to draw lots, to share. 
(tvXuco, to strip, take off. 
Goth, dails, part (cf. § 1). 
T>/Ae, t>j\ov, far off. 
urep, without, apart ; arap, avrap, but. 

§ 19. s 4 , */,, -s 1 // 4 , removal. 

Lat. se-, sed-, apart; sed, sedum, but; s'.ne, without; sin'- 



sic. 20.] GROUNDS OF THE FOURTH PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 113 

cerun (i. 23); scditio (putting apart; cf. conditio, patting to- 
gether, i. 1); surdus, deaf, indistinct (sewdus, ix. 27). 

Lat. so-cors (vi. 6); so'brius (x. 10); w/ro (iii. 19); so-Zms. 

Skr. .s/r//, farari. 

Goth, stilan, Eng. .s/m/ ,- Lat. stellatura, deduction from sol- 
dier's provisions. 

a-repew, to deprive ; rrTepujuai, to lack. 

Skr. sft>/«&j parvus, paucus (cf. Ger. stuck). 

§ 20. / <4 r 4 , Z 4 ^ 4 , /' 4 , division. 

Lat. caupOy huckster (retail) ; /ca7r>/\of, id. ; Goth, katqwn, 
to trade. 

Lat. cocio, broker, haggler. 



H 



CHAPTER V. 

GROUNDS BELONGING TO THE FIFTH PHASE OF UTTERANCE, WHOSE 
EXPRESSIVENESS IS IN THE CURRENT OF BREATH THROUGH 
THE ORGANS. 

§ 1. k 5 , k 5 p 5 , lc b n b , \m h , k,v 5 , 7c0 5 , \i# kfo motion. The 
mutes, being explosive, are fit to express in this phase motion 
with force or suddenness ; the nasals, owing to the unconfined 
passage of breath through the nose, give in this phase a sense 
of unimpeded or of undirected motion, and the absence of 
tension or fixed position of the lips in v gives to it a similar 
expressiveness of indefinite or wavering motion ; y or i sub- 
joined to the guttural causes the current of breath to be felt 
strongly over the tongue, and may thus give a stronger sense 
of motion. Initial a and ai express motion strongly (§ 25) by 
the open current of breath. 

Skr. ga, ire. 

Skr. leak, vacillare (redupl.) ; k'arik', vacillare, tremere, to 
hop, spring ; kijk\o<;, wagtail. 

Skr. hank, ire. 

Skr. X a X> saure 5 X a X a ' l e P us - 

Goth, gaggan, to go; ga't'vo, street. 

Kiveui, to move ; uKivayiJ.a, measured movement (-ay- gives 
force to the root); k'lvSu^ nimble; kivSu'vo?, danger (Skr. da, 
vexare, <W-, vii. 43, run risk) ; koAw, to hasten ; Kuvdap-vX^w, 
to quiver (§ 11). 

Skr. kap, leup, kep, se movere, vacillare ; k'apala, tremens, 
celer, vagus ; kapi, ape ; K?)iro<i y /ci//3o?, Kdiros, ape ; Lat. caper t 
goat ; K€7r(po?, light sea-bird ; Koi)<pos, light, nimble. 

Skr. Imp, to be in commotion, ebullition, anger. 

Skr. ksip, jacere, mittere ; ksipra, celer ; kmp, dejicere, to 

throw; Lat. dis'sipo ; Old Lat. suixd =jacit ; iu7rrco } to send, 

in 



sec. 1.] GROUNDS OF THE FIFTH PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 115 

throw ; Old Lat. convptum, an oblation made by sprinkling 
flour (kovis-iutttco) ; 'iw^\r, small fish. 

Skr. hi, jacere, mittcre, excitare ; hetu, causa. 
Skr. gam, ire; go/figa, the Ganges; gamb, g amb, "k amb, 
k'amb, ire; kamp, tremere ; Kafxacrcrw, to shake; Kafxa^, reed, 
shaft ; Kajuao-ijves, kind of fish ; /ce/xct?, young deer ; -^Ifxapo^, 
he-goat, young goat ; kio/ul'os, a revel ; Lat. com'issor, to revel. 
Skr. hu, to pour an offering ; x e ' w > to pour (XF e «°, f ut - X eu<Tft, )5 
Lat. haurio (desiderative of hau = x^f) ; x e: V«j°"°?, place for 
letting out bilge-water (cf. afxdpa, § 8) ; x o} 'h pouring ; x.wvo?, 
mould, melting-pot ; avro-y/mvos, rudely cast ; X''^ a ' X UT ^ 0l/ >' 
what is poured; X 1 '^ ' 9 ' X^°' ? > i alce 5 Koxyoo, pour copiously; 
Goth, giwt'an, to pour ; gund, pus. x^°M«'? to be in violent 
emotion. 

Ktco, to go ; Lat. cieo, to put in motion ; cow do, contio, an as- 
sembly ; ci'to, incite ; ci'tus, quick ; solli'dtus, troubled (ii. 23). 

Skr. ag\ a/fig, incipere, propei-are ; o^auVi/, a deer; Lat. 
axis, Indian deer ; ayyeXos, a messenger ; Skr. ag', ire, con- 
jicere ; ag'a, caper; al£, -709, id.; Goth, aivals, suddenly, on 
a sudden (ana-aks). 

cuye$, high waves ; aiyiaXos, beach (on which the waves 
precipitate themselves) ; aiyl?, a rushing storm ; aly virion, 
vulture (ii. 7) ; a'lyivOos, the hedge-sparrow (quick movement, 
§ 29) ; alyiQuWoi, the titmouse (§ 7) ; aiywX-ios, night bird 
of prey (ii. 11). 

Skr. aJc, an'k' , ire. 

Skr. ax'u, celeriter ; wkv?, swift ; Lat. ocior, quicker ; vel'ox 
(§ 10) ; cel'ox, swift ship, cutter (§ 4) ; -wp-oKVY], the swallow ; 
Trp-6%, deer (§ 9) ; Old Lat. di'ox, a fish (§ 24) ; Skr. atfva, 
equus ; Lat. equus ; 'ikko$, "nnroq, horse ; ix'Ou?, ^ sn (§ ^4) 5 
Lat. agdso, equlso, groom (Skr. a^ra + yas operam dare, vi. 108). 

Scuk-ovos, servant (§ 26) ; ScdiCTcop, epithet of Hermes ; 
J^-aK-opos, priest or priestess ; Scie/coo, to pursue (§ 20) ; I'WK'fi, 
pursuit. 

Kvftepvuo), to steer (sinuous motion ; cf. rub r, § 23) ; Lat. 
gubemum, a rudder. 

Lat. aqua (§ 25) ; Goth, alira, river (§ 25) ; (k-ea'j/o? (akixr- 
nas), ooyi'iv, toyevo?, ocean (waving) ; Irish aigcin, ocean. 

Goth, aihva-tundi, the plant horsetail (Skr. «x' m + tv/ndi 
vi. 57). 



1 1 G GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. v. 

Skr. g'u, festinare ; g'yu, ire; cfinv, exkilarare, to quicken. 

Skr. k'yu, cadere elabi, to stagger, move out of place, lose ; 
h'yut, Tc'ut, stillare, effundere ; k'yus, relinquere. 

Lat. gutta. 

Lat. (in alio. 

Skr. lived, vacillare ; yfaXog, lame. 

Lat. ceveo, to move the haunches back and forward. 

Lat. cavilla, quibble, trick ; KofiaXa, knavish tricks ; ko{3<1- 
X09, rogue ; «-a/3aA.X?/?, nag ; Lat. caballus, id. (move quickly 
about). 

Skr. y^ut , X'nit , claudicai'e ; Jc'und, k'ot, 1c od, Jc or, k' 51, 
claudicare. 

§ 2. s,k., k.t,, k.s r , motion ; the current of breath without 
closure in s gives a sense of undirected motion or of unim- 
peded motion, the mute of force or suddenness, § 1. 

crKivSacpo?, KiSa(pos, wily ; KiSdcpt], fox ; crKipacpos, trickery, 
cheating, dice-box (-a<p in these from a(p>] ? nimble touch) ; 
KivaSos, fox ; KiSapis, an Arcadian dance ; cnavSdpios, name of 
a dance ; aruuvvig, dance of Satyrs ; <x/aVa£, nimble ; atclvap, 
the body ; a-Kiyyo?, kind of lizard ; o-koqSuXos, water-lizard ; 
<T/coV/3jOO?, tunny or mackerel. 

Skr. skand, salire, scandere, to spring, to squirt ; Lat. 
scando, to climb; sctcla, ladder, staircase; scateo, to spring 
forth ; scint'illa, spark ; crKaipoo, wTicaipw, to skip, frisk ; criap- 
Taw, to spring ; cr/capls, do-icapls, worm in the intestines (Ger. 
springw%T7ri) ; crKapog, a fish ; crKapoa'jULvcrcrw, KapSa'/uva-crw, to 
wink (i. 28). 

€7rc<TKvpos, a game at ball. 

Goth, schieten, Eng. shoot. 

UKUT09, light boat ; uktuipco, virep'tKruivo/Jiai, to move 
rapidly. 

Lat. hcnl/'s, kid ; Goth, gaitei, Eng. goat. 

Skr. sk al, titubare, vacillare, peccare ; Lat. scelus ; ctkcoXov, 
stumbling-block. 

Lat. cscillo ; cor'uscas, waving (§ 5). 

Skr. kmb , conturbari, commoveri ; ksvel, se movere, to 
spring, hop, play. 

oto«o?, left (hand or side), awkward, oblique (imperfect 
direction); Lat. sccecus ; crKacwpia, a trick (ii. 12). 



!■] GROUNDS OF THE FIFTH PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 1 1 / 

Goth. slcevyan, to travel. 

(tki'itttu), to hurl ; o-kijttto?, hurled. 

5 3. sjv., s.p,, s., s.m., undirected motion, unconfincd motion. 

Skr. su, effundere, to press out juice ; savana, juice, libation ; 
so'ma, juice, the moon (irregular movement) ; Goth, saivs, Eng. 
sea; svumsl, svumfsl, pool; Lat. pro'sum'ia, reconnoitring-boat 

(cf. swim). 

cravpo?, lizard : crau\o$, affected in gait ; Skr. savya, sinister 
(§ 2). 

Lat. sinister (compared with 0. II. Ger. winistar would 
suggest an original svinister, svin expressing undirected motion, 
and -ster transition to a correlative, vi. 9, the idea of the left 
being correlative with the right). 

Skr. svag, svang, ire, se movere. 

Goth, af'svaggvyan, to render doubtful ; svegnyan, svignyan, 
to sway ; svare, in vain (miss aim). 

aeiw, to shake. 

crevco, crovju.ai, move quickly ; Skr. su, incitare ; crofted), move 
with irregular force ; vfipis, wanton violence. 

Skr. spar, vihrare ; spur, to hasten, flicker, break forth; 
cnraipo), ua-iralpw, airo'crirapQajCw, to gasp, struggle convulsively ; 
Lat. sparus, arirapos, sea-bream ; acnra\o<;, fish ; wnraXieus, a 
fisher; eiXvcnrd-ojuai, to wriggle along (ii. 10); elXvcfidco, to 
roll along. 

Skr. spal, vacillare, trepidare ; cnpdXXw, to make to totter. 

(TCpvTio, -^co, to throb, beat violently ; <T<paSdYw, to writhe, 
struggle ; cr^a'/ceXo?, convulsive struggle. 

<T<pei'S6i'>], a sling, throw ; a-irwOyp, a spark. 

(Tirei'Sto), to pour a libation ; <nrd'Ti\ij, thin excrement (§ 7). 

o-Tr'epyoo, to put in rapid motion ; (nrvpOify, to dance. 

Goth, spaurds, sprauds, racecourse; sprauto, quickly. 

cnraruXi], wantonness, riot. 

crjuLapis, small sea-fish ; (r/jLrjv'os, swarm of bees, beehive. 

5 4. k r L, irregular motion, rapid motion. In the utterance 
of I the current of breath inflected with free passage over the 
loose sides of the tongue gives a sense of variable indetermi- 
nate motion or of free rapid motion, the mute gives force or 
suddenness, § 1. 



118 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. v. 

Skr. leal, ludere ; Ml, ludere (tie feminis amantibus). 

Goth, kalkyo, harlot. 

ko XaP, a flatterer ; alicd XXco, to flatter, wheedle. 

KoXa, a dance ; /caXa/3/?, dance ; icoXafio?, KoXafipos, song for 
the dance ; KoXeco, to go ; cv'koXos, easy, kind, nimble ; Suo-ko- 
Xos, discontented, troublesome ; (3ovkoXos, cowherd ; OetyicoXos, 
priest (-koX-, from KoXeoo, the going about of character, habit, 
or occupation) ; Goth, frerheds, freedom ; slcchals, a striker ; 
kuXtti], a trot, gallop ; /cccXX/a?, an ape ; Lat. cluna, dura, an 
ape ; concilia, lizard ; KaXXap'as, kind of cod-fish ; k6X-v[x(3-os, 
swimmer, diver (§ 22); Goth, us'hlaupan, to leap up; Ang.- 
Sax. hleapan, Eng. leap. 

Skr. leal, agitare, vibrare, to drive ; leal, vacillare ; Lat. culpa 
(cf. scelus, § 2); cillo, to move; Skr. Jcel, vacillare; Lat. daw 
dus, lame ; Goth, halts, lame ; Eng. halt ; Goth, hlciduma, the 
left (cf. § 3) ; holoii, do violence ; Ang.-Sax. hoi, calumnia ; 
Lat. re'cello, spring back, throw back ; percello, to overthrow ; 
pro-cello, throw forward; pwcella ; calvor, to trick, deceive; 
calumnia ; clivius, unlucky (cf. lavus). 

yXoids, trickish ; yXoujs, vicious horse ; irpovyeXeo), to mis- 
use, insult (§ 9). 

Skr. gal, deiluere ; gala, aqua ; kulya, flumen. 

XeX'iS-wv, swallow (§§ 24, 18 ; Ger. schivcdbe, schwal-, and ^eX- 
express irregular motion). 

kXovos, violent confused motion ; KXaSdui, to shake ; kXuoos, 
young branch (cf. KpdSq) ; KXoTO'ir'evoo, change back and for- 
ward. 

Lat. celer ; eel ox, swift ship (§ 1) ; /ceX - *??, courser, light yacht. 

KeXevOos, way, journey C§ 14) ; a'KoXovOos, attendant (i. 32). 

§ 5. k r i\, irregular motion. In the utterance of r the current 

o 5' ° 

of breath broken by the vibrating point of the tongue gives a 
sense of variable indeterminate motion, and its free passage 
gives a sense of rapid motion. 

Skr. k'ar, incedere, peragrare ; kfi, Jcar, to gush out, shoot 
out, scatter; Jcurd, kurd, gurd, gurd, ludere, to spring, hop; 
yopi)-eX-i(a) } to play ; KopSa^, a dance ; KopS'uXos, water-lizard ; 
KopSvX)), young tunny-fish ; KpoKoS'etX-os, crocodile (Kopnop- 
$-eiX, ii. 10 ?) ; KpaSdco, to brandish, shake ; KpaSq, a twig (§ 4) ; 
Lat. corusc-us, waving (§ 2); crisso, move the haunches back 



bbc. 6.] (JROUNDS OF THE FIFTH PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 119 

and forward (cf. facesso) ; Goth, hrisyan, to shake; Kapicaipco, 
to shake, vibrate; Lat. guerquerus, shivering. 

Skr. k arb, ire; tcaoTrai, worms (cf. serpo); Kpanr'dXt). 
drunkenness, its dizzy sickness; Lat. crapula, id.; Kopvfias, 
Ki'pfias, frantic dancer, frantic drunken person ; Kapiraia, dance ; 
Kap7T'u\i/ui.o?, rapid; upanrvos, rapid; Lat. curro ; cemtus, crazed ; 
cerro, gerro, triiler; gerres, kind of fish = ftaiviSeg. 

Lat. Ilu- /'it J/o, the swallow (§ 18). 

§ 6. s.r.. Z. /,, r.. /•./•.. irregular motion, rapid motion. The 

*J D O O O o *— ' ■*■ 

expressiveness of r (§ 5) is strengthened by that of the free 
current of breath in a spirant, or by the force of the mute, § 1. 

Skr. sri, ire, to run quick, glide, flow; suras, lacus ; sarit, 
Mumen; Lat. serra, sacred name of Tiber; serum ; dpds, oppds, 
watery part ; 'lap, sap ; Lat. serra'culum, rudder (instrument of 
motion on fluid). 

apo$, water ; Scepdco, to strain through ; e^-epdw, pour out. 

Skr. sru, x'ru, fluere ; asm , aVru, ay^ra, lacryma ; asra, 
sanguis, lacryma (§ 25); Sdnpv, tear (vi. 126); Lat. lacryma 
(dacryma)] Goth, tagr, Eng. tear; Lat. cruor, cruentus ; Skr. 
krura, wouuded, bloody, raw ; kravis, kravya, raw flesh. ; Kpeas, 
flesh ; Lat. caro. 

'X^'i ' "^'/° 0f > serum of blood or milk ; Skr. ndrilcera, cocoa- 
nut (§ 8). 

Lat. rut), to rush ; uvgruo, coivgruo, to run together ; Old Lat. 
rii'tuba, perturbatio (§ 24) ; epcaew, to rush forth ; pwofxai, to 
move with strong agitation ; pew, fut. pevaw, to flow ; epce>), 
pv'fxi], rush ; pvd-/u.6$, succession of proportionate parts as an 
undulating movement. 

Skr. X«ru, missile (spear or arrow) ; y'ara, arrow; Kepavvus, 
thunderbolt. 

Skr. srig', effundere ; asrig', sanguis ; Old Lat. assir, blood 
(§ 25) ; aijma, blood (aa-r/xa). 

Skr. srip, ire, gradi, to sneak, creep ; Lat. serpo; ep-n-w, to 
creep. 

Skr. sriv, ire, to miscarry ; ri, fluere ; Lat. rivus. 

<TUp(3>) = TUpj3)]. 

Lat. sarda, pilchard or sardine (cf. sprat), 
fida-crap-a, fox, bacchanal, courtesan (§ 20). 
Skr. vat'sara, annus (vi. 34, recurrent period). 



120 CREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. v. 

§ 7. s I , tl 5 , l 6 , irregular motion. The expressiveness of / 
(§ 4) is strengthened by that of the free current of breath in a 
spirant, or by the force of the mute, § 1. 

Skr. salila, aqua ; <rd\os, tossing ; a\io?, idle, erring ; cre'XXa), 
to sling (Benfey) ; Lat. sttlum, open sea, current of a river ; 
saVebra, uneven ground ; a'X? //, the sea, hence abstracted as 
masc. salt (cf. irerpa, a rock ; Trerpos, a piece of rock) ; Lat, 
sal ; insula (in the water) ; Goth.-Eng. salt. ala-aXcov, hawk 
(§ 25) ; £aX>7, surging of sea ; OdXaa-cra, sea ; aTao-6a\'os, 
reckless (§ 11); TavOa\-vfy), to quiver, shake (§ 26); alyi- 
0a\\-o9, titmouse (§ 1); 6(p-6a\-fx6s, eye (OaX, its movement, 
vi. 118). 

TiXdw, to have a thin stool ; otto'tiA*, thin excrement (§ 3). 

attilus, kind of sturgeon. reXfioo, to cheat. Goth. tMiuhan, 

to fly. 

o-oXoikos, awkward. daeXy^, rudely licentious, outrageous. 

irpova-eXtco, to misuse, insult (§ 9). cro'Xo?, ball of iron for 
throwing. 

Goth, af slant hi/an, to be perplexed; thlahsyan, to terrify 

(cf. Tapd(T(T00, § 11). 

KoacvWto (vi. 124), to look gaping about ; okk-u\\o<;, the eye 
(vi. 124); SevS'lXXu), turn the eyes quickly (vi. 126); 7XXo?, 
the eye (vi. 124). 

eAXo'9, e\\6$, young deer; aWofxui, to leap; e<pid\r^, 
nightmare ; Lat. salio ; solar, kind of trout ; salrno, salmon ; 
sala'putium, a tiny man (vi. 40). 

ra'AAco, to send forth, to fly ; £eAAo>, to throw. 

5 8. m r , n r , in, I., irregular motion. The expressiveness 
of r (§ 5) or I (§ 4) is combined with that of the unconfined 
undirected passage of the breath in the nasals. 

Skr. vura, oceanus. Lat. mare, Goth, marei, sea; dfiapa, 
conduit, channel ; ya-fiapos, P lace for letting out bilge water 

jxvpo), to ilow ; fjLvpiKq, tamarisk (thrives in marshy ground, 
§ 34) ; fJ.opp.vpw, to boil (redupl.) ; fxopfwpo?, a sea-fish. 

Skr. vara, aqua; vapos, flowing, liquid; vtjplrrj?, sea-snail. 
Skr. narikera, cocoa-nut (§ 6). 

afiapr-uvco, to miss, err ; Goth, marzyan, to trip, cause to err. 
/udpyos, mad. 



sec. 10.] GROUNDS OF THE FIFTH PHASE OF UTTERANCE. L21 

Goth, malsks, headstrong, wayward ; fiifiaWwu, Macedonian 
name of Bacchantes. 

§ 9. v r_, p r , irregular motion, rapid motion (§ G). 

Skr. vari, aqua; ovpia, water-bird; ovpov, urine; Lat. 
v.rhia ; v.rlnor, to dive ; fioopevs, kind offish ; y/ip'vW'os, stone 
of sea-green colour (vii. 38) ; Lat. ber'ttia, plant like water- 
cress ; Irish, bior, water; biorar, watercress; j3pva = /xvpiKi] (§ 8). 

afipoT-afy, to miss (indirection) ; afip'afits, kind of iisli 
(§ 22) ; )3e/uL-{3pds, a kind of anchovy (§ 23). 

Skr. rrit'a, frustra, by chance (indirection). Lat. viverra, 
ferret (irregular motion) ; opevg, ovpev?, mule ; Lat. veredus, 
a light fleet horse (§ 24) ; Goth, vraton, to travel ; eppoo, to 
limp, go to no purpose (/reppco) ; fieppw, fugitive. 

Skr. vrag ', ire. Lat. varius. 

Lat. fraus (indirect) ; frustra (d changed to s before t). 

Skr. V ram, vagari ; bab'r, ire, errare ; e\e-<paip-o/ut.ai ; cheat, 
drive about (feA, § 10). 

<ppt/UL , a<TcrofJi.ai, to jump about ; (ppvacra-ofxai, to prance ; 
Lat. ferentarius, light-armed soldier. 

Lat. fer'us (cf. Qi'ip) ; fevox ; (pvp, JEol. for B/jp ; Lat. furo ; 
Goth, biari, beast. 

Skr. pru } ire, to spring up; 7rpu'\'i?, war-dance; TrpvXeeg, 
warriors ; Lat. proelium ; /3|OiraA-//m/?, performer in a war- 
dance (/ gives more motion) ; irep—epo^, vainglorious ; Lat. 
perperus, heedless, wrong; pramts; irpovaeklw, to misuse, 
insult (§ 7) ; irpovyeKeoo, id. (§ 4). 

Goth, frcis, Eng. free. 

Lat. burricus, small horse ; burdo, jennet. 

irp-oK'vt], the swallow (§ 1) ; 7ro*o£, a deer (§ 1). 

Lat. properus, quick. 

cKpap, quickly ; aupi, quickly. 

§ 10. rj. t , p>J b , irregular motion (§ 7). 

Goth, valdan, to rule, to sway ; us'wdugyan, to drive hither 
and thither ; viltheis, Eng. wild ; Lat. velites, light troops (skir- 
mishers) ; eXe-ipaip-o/uLai. cheat, drive about (ral + Vr, § 9). 

7ra\)], wrestling ; tt«AAco, irai— uAAon to swing ; 7ruAa<xerci>, to 
shake; §vo'7ra\-i{oo, to knock about (§ 26); 7reAe/AiTa> 3 to shake; 
TToAe/xo?, war ; Lat. pdpulus, poplar (redup.). 



122 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. v. 

£V(^>eA)/?, violent. 

7ranraXdo), to be subtle ; xAa^eo, to make to wander ; xAayi/, 
wandering ; Lat. palor, to wander ; a7rAa/c«o, ayU7rAa/acnca), to 
miss ; Goth, tveifls, doubt (wavering between two). 

Skr. j>j/U, natare, volare, transilire, to waver ; TrXew, to sail 
(irXefco, TrXevcrw) ; Lat. £>Zw0, to rain ; Goth, fludas, Eug. flood ; 
ireXayog, the sea. 

Lat. Jim, fico (fluid motion) ; fluto, to float ; flustra, pi., sea 
in a calm. 

Lat. /cks, a cat (prowling about). 

(3a\io$, swift; /3oir/3aAo?, fiovftaXis, kind of antelope ; /3oAtV 
O09, wild ox ; dj3oXo?, horse ; /8oA/^, female slave (Cretan) ; 
(3aXXipo$, kind of fish ; Lat. Zw/Zo, PaWlfy, to dance ; Goth. 
jdins'yan, to dance ; Lat. bclua. 

Skr. irt/, opulentiam perturbare, impedire ; fiXuir'Tw, to 
disable, hinder, damage (/3Aa/3) ; (3\a-o"<l»m<a (or adverbial, 
i. 9). 

Lat. /alio ; <p>]Xos, delusive. 

Lat. vel'ox (§ 1). vfilo, to fly. 

§ 11. t b r b , s b t h r b , irregular motion (§ 5). 

Skr. d'ara, stream, gush, drop. 

Skr. dm, currere, fluere ; Lat. an'druo, to run back (vi. 110); 
Skr. dm, fugere, to run, hasten ; dram, ire, to run hither and 
thither ; SiSpdaKw, to run away ; Spa-7r-ert]S, a runaway ; eSpa- 
fxov, ran, Ipajxovixai, fat. ; Spdfxo?, a course. 

S6p%, SopKag, XPP& <' J° K09 > kincl of deer ( cf « "^'J' § 9 ) 5 ^°/°" 
/ca<5i^o), bound like a deer. 

Skr. foar, faw, festinare ; rdpavSos, reindeer or elk ; Lat. 
turma, troop of cavalry. 

6/jp, wild beast ; cn'ip, Lac. 

rapdarau), to stir up, to trouble ; rapyalvw, id. ; Tapx'l, trouble ; 
TOpvvt], stirrer ; drapr^pog, mischievous (doubled root) ; UTao"- 
OuX-o?, reckless (rap + 6uX. § 7). 

Opdaaco, to trouble, destroy ; OpiaQa, to be in prophetic rap- 
ture; Qpia'i, nurses of Apollo; repOpevs, a juggler (doubled 
root). 

Lat. anvlruo, to dance about ; pwtervus, wanton. 

orpvuw, to rouse up ; orpvpds, orpaXeo?, quick, nimble. 

Odp-Wfu, OpuxTKU), to leap ; 6op(k, semen genitale. 



sec. 13.] GROUNDS OF THE FIFTH PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 123 

TL'p/3)], disorder, throng; Lat. turba ; 66pv(3o$, tumult, 
trouble ; Goth, drobyan, to disturb. 

rdpfi'os, fright, alarm; Lat. trepidus, agitated. 

Skr. tras, tremere ; Tpew, Tpeloo, Tpe/uioo, Terpe/xaivo), to 
tremble ; Lat. trcmo. 

TaprupiXw, to shiver; rdprapos; Lat. terrco ; ex'tril'idus, 
dauntless. 

a'Tup'jUi vk'tos, unwincing (i. 28) ; Tap/mv^o/uai, to wince (i. 28). 

Tavdap'u^a), to quiver, shake (§ 20) ; KavQap'vYo), to quiver. 

Lat. cowstemo, ex'sterno, to terril'v. 

§ 12. l r , irregular motion (§ -0- 

aXea, an avoiding ; aXij, wandering ; uXeo/uut, to avoid ; 
aXe'oop'i'}, shunning, shelter (ii. 13) ; dXevoo, to keep away ; 
aXvoo, to wander in mind, be distraught; aXus, listlessness ; 
aXvircrco, to be uneasy ; aXutai, disquiet ; Lat. alucinor, to wander 
in mind ; aXiTeco, to sin, offend. 

i]Xos, astray ; *iXaivuy, to wander ; '/jXiOa, in vain (i. 2) ; 
}}Xi6io$, idle, vain, random ; j)Ae - //.aro?, idle vain (viii. 2). 

iXainw, to drive ; iX>)XdSaTo, 3rd pi. pluperf pass, of 
eXauvct), from a stem eXai-, the i being hardened to S (Curtis). 

aioX'os, quick moving, changeful (§ 23) ; diX'ovp'os, cat 
(waving tail, ii. 10). 

Lat. alea, die. 

Skr. la!, lascivire (unrestraint, indirection) ; Ilia, ludus (femi- 
narum amantium ; cf. kil) ; Xlpos, bold, lewd. 

S 13. r.s., r., I r r r , I,, irregular motion, rapid motion (SS 1, 

O 5 5 5' 5 5 5' ~ *■ VOO ' 

5,0). 

Skr. ris, ire; Goth, (drzis, astray; Lat. erro ; Goth, reiran, 
to move as in an earthquake. 

Skr. ri, rl, pervenire ; Goth, aims, messenger; Eng. errand ; 
v7r-}ip'£T>]s, attendant (also by a later derivation from epenis, 
under-rovver) ; Old Lat. eri'tudo = servitude 

Lat. liver's, inactive ; in'ers'ittnlo, inactivity. 

Skr. ara, celer ; Goth, ara, eagle; op-vi$, bird (§ 29); ayop, 
eagle Cypr. (§ 23). 

Lat. va'ler'ia, kind of eagle (§ 23) ; Irish, Jiuiar, eagle 
(/=r); Ger. ad'ler, eagle. 

Lat. aqui'la (§ 23). 



124 CREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. v. 

§ 14. ZX, Ifo rfo irregular motion (§§ 4, 5, 7). 

Skr. lad, las, ludere (lad, 10 cl. jacere) ; Lat. Inch ; lascivus ; 
Skr. lut, lid', se volutare ; Lafc. Intra, otter; Skr. hid, agitare ; 
lot, lad, land, mente captum esse; Xva-aa, rage, madness. 

eXevOepos, free ; Lat. liber, free (Old Lat. loebems, cf. ovOap, 
uber, § 34) ; Lat, lustro, go round, wander over ; eXevQeiv, eXOeiv, 
to come or go. 

XiT-apyos, running swiftly (§ 16); Gotli. laithan, to go, 
come ; Old Snx. lidhan, moveri, procedere. 

Lat. /ft/f.r, a liquid. 

Goth. Ufa, hypocrisy ; lists, cunning. 

Skr. rud, flere, to lament ; rudita, wet with tears ; rudira, 
sanguis (fluid motion ; cf. asra, asm, § 6), adj. bloody, red ; 
epvQ-pos, red ; Goth, rauds, red ; ga'riuds, venerable ; ga'riud'ya, 
shamfacedness ; povcrios, reddish ; Lat, russus, red (rud %-). 

§ 15. l 6 p 5 , l b v b , l b m b , VV r.v b , r r m b , r.n,, irregular motion, 
quick motion (§ 4, 5, 6, 7, 8). 

Lat. lymplia, water ; lymrpho, to make mad or crazy. 

Lat. raho, to rave, be mad ; rabies, madness. 

Lat. rejpo. pinros, whey. 

Lat. kerns, Xaios, left. 

Goth, arryo, in vain, to no purpose (indirection). 

piTTTco, to throw ; pnn'i, rush, impetus ; Lat. repens, sudden. 

plfxcpa, fleetly. 

XeV/5o?, galley with sharp prow (fast) ; Ae/3/a?, kind of fish ; 
Xai^tjpo?, nimble. 

eXacpos, deer ; eXctfppos, light, nimble ; Xefi>]pi<?, rabbit ; 
Xe7ropL$, hare ; Lat. lepus, id. 

Skr. rin, ire ; arna, waving, flowing ; Goth, rinnan, to run, 
flow. 

fj 16. /./.•., Lih, rjc, irregular undefined motion ($ 4, 5). 

c) b 5' b- 1 - b' b o D . xtw 

apyos, nimble, 'ipypixcu, to come or go ; opyeo/xai, to dance ; 
opylXos, wren (cf. Tpo-^lXog, id., from Tpey^o)). 

oXk-vcov, the kingfisher (§ 18) ; rt/ra/o, id. (§§ 24, 18) ; aXicy, 
elk ; Lat. r//<rs, id. 

Lat. lacerta, lacertus, lizard, fish ; alacer, brisk, gay, active ; 
/",-■, fraud; Irish, Kwgr, lame; liugadh, creeping; liugaire, 
cajoler. 



3EC. IS.] GROUNDS OF THE FIFTH PHASE OF UTTERANCE; L25 

Skr. lag , la/kg , salire, transilire ; lag'u, quick, levis ; \ayw9, 
hare; Goth, laikan, to spring ; eAa^Jy, small ; Lat. levis (cf. 
fipaxys, brevis) ; levo, 1o lighten, lift; Goth, luftus, air; leihts, 
Eng. light ; leitils, Eng. ////A* ; Irish, lugh, little, swift, active. 

Xa'/xos"-, XiKvov, winnowing fan or shovel for throwing the 
corn against the wind ; Skr. li)(, ire, parvuin esse ; 'leyti, par- 
ticula. oX/yoy, small. 

§ 17. r.f v v b s., indirection, also haste, expressed by the free 
current of breath in the spirants. 

erog (f eroy) = fxamiv ; eVcoytoy, in vain (vat-vas); Tavcrtos, 
TfjUcrios, aucrios, Dor., idle, vain. 

Lat. vatcs, soothsayer ; vatica herba, henbane, which causes 
giddiness and madness ; uoa-Kua/uLos, id. (vds) ; Goth, rods, pos- 
sessed, Saiiu.oi'i<^6fjLei>os. 

Lat. mto (cf. meiden, § 21). 

Lat. vit'ium. Goth, vithon, to was?. 

(3ovto-[ao<?, water plant, rush ; Irish, haothan, unsteady ; bco- 
thel, waving. 

ev$-laio$, an opening to let out fluid (fluid motion) ; vck'vS'- 
aXoy, larva of silkworm (§ 28, vS, wriggling). 

■^s'euSa), to beguile, belie (§ 20) ; y^-vS'pus, untrue ; \|^i/'0'oy, 
untruth ; ^satwQ-os, false (§ 20). 

/3e'^f, air, water. 

Lat. vado, to go hastily. 

§ 18. v & n 6 , p^h, undirected motion, expressed by the free 
current of breath in a spirant combined with its unconfined 
passage in a nasal, or less vividly with substitution of a soft 
mute for the former. 

Skr. vana, aqua; Lat. venetus, sea-coloured; unda ; aiovdoo, 
to moisten, foment (perhaps = fovdw or aipovaoo) ; ^awv, -oVoy, 
fish (irregular motion); oKk'vcov (§ 16; vov, irregular motion); 
Lat. alced'o, id. (§§ 16, 24) ; Lat. hir-undv, the swallow (§ 5) ; 
orcowos, bird of strong flight (twofold expression of free motion, 
§ 23) ; TToareiS-Sov (§§ 20, 2 1). 

Skr. b ant, fallere, decipere ; (peua^, a cheat, (peiuKt], iryvlict], 
false hair, wig. 

Skr. pant , ire; Lat. acipcnser, sturgeon (§ 19). 

Lat. /undo, to pour; fans; f inula, sling (cf. o-<pevodi'>i, § 3). 



126 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap, v. 

§ 19. p.t , motion, the breath being passed through the 
mutes, and the closure of one of them or both relaxed to give 
it wavering or indirection. 

Skr. pat, volare ; ireTOfxai, "nrraixai, to fly ; TTTe'pov, feather, 
wing; Eng. feather ; -wrepU, feathery fern; ttt'IXov, feather, 
wing (dim.); ttot>/, flight ; Lat. penna, feather, wing (petna), 
Old Lat. pesna ; prccpes, swift of flight ; 7rroa, irrola, flutter, 
violent agitation of fear or other passion ; tttwtvm, to cower, 
to go cowering about ; 7tt(o^o'?, a beggar, beggarly ; tttw^, a 
hare ; 7rTa/a<7yUo?, shyness, timidity ; tttvov, winnowing fan or 
shovel (tossed the grain) ; 7rrvpco, to startle. 

fiSvXXw, to be afraid. 

Lat. pvdco, to be or make ashamed (cowering flutter). 

TTTe'Xa?, wild boar (rush). 

-tt.'O'?/^, 7i\'6) - >7/co9, ir'.Q-oov, an ape (active irregular motion). 

Skr. pat' a, aqua ; cikki-k^o-lo 1 ?, sturgeon (ii. 9, hooked swimmer, 
perhaps from the hooked spines on its back and sides). 

(poiTc'uo, to go to and fro, wander ; Lat. furti, perf. ; futis, a 
water-vessel ; effutire, to blab out. 

7TOTaim6?, river. 

Lat. blto, ht'to, to go. 

§ 20. p T s r , motion with unimpeded force, indirect irregular 
motion, expressed by the jet of breath in the mute, combined 
with its free current in the spirant. 

Lat. festinus ; coivfcstim ; irai'cpda-crw, rush wildly about, 
wave violently (redup.). 

fiaa-crap-a, a fox, bacchanal, courtesan (§ 6) ; Irish, baos, 
folly, levitv, water. 

Irish, aidh'bheis, the ocean (aidh, great) ; /3oV-7rojOo? (waving 
ferry). 

7roa"eiS-(iov (§§ 21, 18). 

Lat. piscis, Goth. Jinks, Eng. fish. 

a(pv(T(TCt), to draw liquor (rush of a fluid) ; a^uo-yero'?, what 
is carried down by a stream. 

■^/•eufru), to beguile, belie (§ 17); •^•vSpo^, untrue; \|/-J0o?, 
untruth ; y]saivu6-o$, false (§ 17) ; ^alp-w, to quiver. 

ya\*9, -loos, quick motion. \j^a 5 e\!/!u, play. ar\^a, quick 
(§ 25). \^(WKp6?, nimble, swift (§ 32). 



sec. 22.] GROUNDS OF THE FIFTH PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 1 27 

§ 21. in J mn , wis,., undirected or swerving motion, ex- 
pressed by the nncontined passage of breath in the nasals, 
combined with its force in the mutes or its free current in the 
spirants. 

Skr. mad, ebrium esse, gaudere, to revel ; Lat, madulsa, a 
drunken man ; Skr. mand, mand, gaudere. 

Skr. mat', man?, commovere, agitare ; juoOos, tumult of 
battle ; yUotW, unrestrained. 

Skr. mad' u, vinum, potus inebrians ; /ueOu, wine; [xc6>], 
strong drink, drunkenness ; imeOuco, to be drunk. 

Lat. matus, wo////*, drunk. 

Hutum, to dally, loiter ; fidrijv, in vain, at random ; fidrTa- 

fio? = jULOLTaiO^. 

Skr. mit'i/d, falso ; Goth, ga'maids, deformed; maidyan, 
to deform, change. 

Lat. mit'to, to send, let go (displace); Ang.-Sax. mld'an, 
Ger. mciden, to avoid. 

Lat. mentior, to lie ; mend-ax, false ; menda, fault, mistake. 

Lat. mano, to flow, spread. 

Goth. mUsa-, Eng. mis-. Goth, misso, one another (inter- 
change). 

§ 22. mv , m-p,, m., undirected or disturbed motion (8 21). 

Lat. moveo. afxeu-o^ai, take the place of; a/mel/Sco, change 
place, change. 

Lat. mwto ; maluus. 

Lat. amhulo, to go about, walk. 

Skr. ami' as, ambu, aqua; Lat. ambicheja, wild endive, intu- 
bum (amhu + hdh, crescere ; cf. Virgil, Geor. iv. 12, potis gau- 
derent intuba rivis) ; o/x/3-^oo?, shower ; Lat. imber, id. ; ko\'- 
v/j.fi-oq, swimmer, diver (§ 4). 

/Acty, in vain, idly (-s adverbial, i. 9). 

Lat. anvnis, stream, river, torrent ; a/xla, sea-fish ; aftp'afxfct 
kind of fish (§ 9). 

e^ivg, water-tortoise ; th/A'cc/^'?, young tunny (th/Ao?) ; afirj, 
water-bucket ; ctfxvlou, a bowl ; ajtilg, chamber-pot. 

Skr. ml, ire; mi, jacere; me, mutare; mvna, piscis ; fxahrj, 
kind of small sea-fish ; Mal-avSpos, winding river ; Lat. mco ; 
tra-mes, path across (vi. 9); Tpa-/jLi$, rpa-fiij, line dividing 
scrotum and crossing to anus (vi. 9); iW-yucrw/y, sluggish 



128 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. v. 

(uSara) ; tjud-w, to draw fluid (t-, desire, vi. 108 ; cf. haurio, 

ifi-iris, gnat (vii. 41) ; 0. H. Ger. impi, Ger. invme, bee, 
Ang.-Sax. aem'mettc, em'met, ant, Ger. amcise. 

Skr. malt, mentis errore affici, niente capi ; muhus, identi- 
dem ; muhurta, momentum, liora (recurrent). 

§ 23. vjp , v. o , r/_, p 5 , p 6 m 6 , p 5 n 6 , undirected motion, free 
unrestrained motion, expressed by the free current of breath in 
a spirant or vowel, or its unconfined passage in a nasal. 

Skr. vep, tremere ; Lat. vappo, a winged animal (movement 
of wing) ; ywioXos, moth ; j/V/aXo?, ague ; rjiridX^, nightmare 
(terror); Skr. vap, spargere, seminare ; vip, conjucere, to be in 
swinging motion; Goth, vepna, Eng. weapon; ae^a, bow- 
string, bow (af€fx/uLa, what is let off with sudden move- 
ment). 

Skr. raV r, ire, se movere (§ 1); Lat. vibro ; vafcr, sly (indi- 
rection. 

oT/aa, spring, rush; kuS-oi/uos, turmoil (vii. 11). 
Skr. vi, avis ; Lat. avis (§ 25) ; oioovos, bird of strong flight 
(ofiwv, § 18); aier'os, eagle (afi + § 24); ayop, eagle Cyp. 
(y = F, | 13); Lat. aqui'la (v hardened to qu, §§ 25, 13); 
Valeria, kind of eagle (§ 13) ; awgur {an = av, vi. 4) ; aroX'o?, 
nimble, changeful (afi + § 12); Skr. vyada, insidious, serpens 
(sinuous motion); oia^, -a/co?, olrfiov, rudder. 

adu), to mislead (a/raco) ; ur'tj, bewildei'ment (avdra, JEo\. 
(tfUTij) ; dr-v^o/uLUL, to be bewildered ; dr'eco, to be reckless, to 
sin against ; cnr-dr'}], guile (misleading away) ; dea-r(ppo)v, silly 
(apetji-cppoi', vi. 22); acnraAa/3-arr>/?, lizard (ii. 28, ii. 50); 
yaX'eooT'r]?, kcoX'cot'ijs, kind of lizard (viii. 4). 

cnr'aip'io-KOi), to beguile ; o<pis s serpent (sinuous motion). 

Skr. ap, aqua. 

Skr. vay, pay, ire ; ri, to drive, set in motion ; eju.7raio?, 
irpocnraios, sudden ; Lat. vio, go, travel ; via, way. 

(3eju.-(3pds, a kind of anchovy (§ 9). 

Skr. parrib, ire; ire/x'Trw, to send (tv causative); Sua-TrefKJ)'- 
eAo9, rough, stormy (sea, bad to cross). 

€J~-a7rn>>i$, epui(pi'>}?, on a sudden (cf. eV irpoa-n-alov, suddenly); 
('aj)i'O), cucbvrjs, suddenly ((p due to nasal). 



sec. 24.] ({ROUNDS OF THE FIFTH PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 129 
5 24. t/i\, tjc r , t.s R , ijc r , i r , i.t.. i.s., i.v., forcible or undefined 

5 5' 5 5" 5 5' 5 5' 5' 5 5' 5 5 5 5' 

motion, expressed by the jet of breath in the mute or its free 
current in the spirant or vowel. 

Skr. d'ui, ludere ; dn, ire ; data, nuncius ; in'du, drop, spark, 
moon (§ 27) ; Siepog, nimble, liquid ; Old Lat. di'ox, kind of 
fish (§ 1). 

Skr. d'ar, currere ; Oeoo, to run (Oeua-ofxai) ; Ooog, swift ; Outo, 
Qvvoa, to rush; QifeWa, hurricane, whirlwind (ii. 10); Ouvvog, 
tunny-fish ; cy^Ovg, a fi'sh (§ 1) ; aiOvla, a water-bird, fish (§ 25) ; 
6u<T<Tw, to shake ; ardurrcrco, to quiver (§ 25) ; Oucravog, a tassel ; 
Ouiag, a frantic woman, Bacchante ; Olacrog, a band of revellers ; 
rOv/ufiog, Bacchanalian song or dance ; Skr. d u, agitare, com- 
movere ; sin'd'n, river, sea, the Indus (§ 27); doupog, moving 
forcibly and irregularly ; cfOupco, to play (§ 25) ; Goth, dius, 
wild beast. 

Skr. fakii, in haste ; Ta^yg, swift (Curtius). 

Skr. tur, tvar, properare. 

Lat. rwtuba=perturbatio (§ 6). 

Skr. div, jaculari ; di/tr, aggredi, to break out on ; yug', 
jaculari sagittas ; yu, arcere. 

Siiceiv, to throw, cast. Sicncog, a quoit. 

Skr. is, to throw, hurl ; im, sagitta ; 'log, sagitta. 

Lat. jacio. 

Irish, eite, wing ; cithear, boat (irregular motion) ; yeX'lSwv, 
swallow (§§ 4, 18) ; ai-er'og, eagle (§ 23) ; Ger. adicr, eagle (§ 13). 

Lat. alced'o, the kingfisher (§§ 16, 18) ; ver'ed'us, light fleet 
horse (§ 9) ; Troo-eiS'aiv (§§ 20, 18). 

Skr. ■£, ire ; Lat. co ; et/ui, to go ; or/nog, a way, path ; Skr. 
yd, ire proficisci ; ui/mi, to send (redup.) ; eaig, sending ; evfiog, 
a(peap.6g, letting out, swarm of bees, &c. ; Lat. Janus, janmt, 
passage ; Goth, iddya, I went. 

The element ai or aiv expresses in the following words the 
idea of the motion of time, whether to a limit or not. 

iraX'ai, formerly (7ra\iv-ai) ; iiT'ei, when (ext-et) ; arei, 
always ; aiiv, aieg, id. (-ev, -eg, adverb, endings, i. 2, 9) ; ecru, 
eirev, then (-tu, -rev, demons.) ; aravijg, artjv'i'jg, everlasting 
(vi. 37) ; Skr. dyus, setas, vitas tempus ; al'wv, an age (vi. 37) ; 
Lat. cevum, an age; cetas; w tenuis (cf. scmpitcriuis, vi. 9); 
Goth, aivs, time ; ayuk'duih, eternity (Grimm supposes ayuh 
— aivuk, an adj. from aiv; for duth see vi. 57). 

I 



130 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. v. 

§ 25. a r , motion forth, a.i., strong motion. 

O 5 '55 ° 

Skr. a'tfru, (V)(ra, asm, lacryma ; a'sra, sanguis, lacryma ; 
rcsan, sanguis (§ 27) ; asrig', sanguis (§ 6) ; Old Lat. ossir, id. ; 
a-J-fia, blood (§ G). The primitive idea of blood and tears is 
what comes out and trickles. 

Lat. a'qua; Goth, a'hva, river (§ 1). 

Lat. a'vi's; a'cer'os, eagle ; a'quvla (§ 23) ; woi', egg (wfieov, 
Hesych. ; co/rfoy, avium = bird's) ; Lat. ovww (§ 18); ovov, the 
sorb apple ; oi/ot, oa, o7>/, the sorbus (Ger. vogel-beere). 

'cfwv, a fish ; ai'ov'da), to moisten, foment (pour on water) ; 
aiOvtraw, to quiver ; aiOvia, a water-bird, fish ; alo-aXuiv, hawk 
(§ 7) ; af'^a, quick (§ 20). 

a'dvpco, to play. 

Skr. a, ad. 

| 26. t.n b , t b i 5 , irregular motion, expressed by the jet of breath 
in the mute combined with its unconfined passage in the nasal, 
or its free current in the vowel. 

Skr. danr, d'anv, ire, to run; Soveu), to shake; $6va]~ : a 
reed; Svo-7raX-ify), knock about .(§ 10); Lat. thensa, tensa, 
carriage on which the images of the gods were drawn at Cir- 
censian games. 

Tivd(r<ra), to shake ; rav6up-v(o) (§ 11), ravQaX'vXu) (§ 7), to 
quiver, shake. 

Skr. d'inv, exhilarare, ire (cf. div, § 24) ; dl, volare. 

SraK-ovog, servant ; Sroacroop, epithet of Hermes ; ^-aK-opog, 
priest or priestess (Si + uk, two roots for speed, see § 1 ; cf. Irish, 
teachda, a messenger) ; Srwicoo, to pursue (§ 1) ; icokij, pursuit. 

§ 27. s.n 5 , i b n h , unimpeded motion with an unchecked con- 
tinuity, or irregular undirected motion, expressed by the free 
current of breath in the spirant combined with its unconfined 
passage in the nasal, which latter suggests either absence of 
check or absence of direction. 

Skr. snu, fluere, stillare ; Goth, snaivs, Aug.-Sax. snav, Eng. 
snow. 

Skr. a'san, sanguis (§ 25) ; Lat. san'ies, watery blood or dis- 
charge ; Lat. sangu'is (gu represents the v or w with which 
this root is strengthened); Old Lat. ancwn'ulentoe, feminsB 
!iiiiistruosa3 ; sentina, bilge water (what leaks in). 



beo. 29.] GROUNDS OF THE FIFTH PHASE OF [JTTERANCE. 1 31 

Goth, snivan, to go on ; sniumyan, to hasten. 

Skr. sua, lavari, se lavare, se baigner (unimpeded movement 
in the water). 

craivoo, to wag the tail, shirk (irregular motion) ; travvlov, 
tail, penis; Lat. sanna, mocking gesture; crawa?, a fool. 

ecrcn/i', the king (queen) bee (mjv perhaps expresses tin; 
notion of swarming, cf. ot>u>o?, § 3, and is strengthened by e<r-, 
cf.- assir, § G). 

Skr. si in f n, river, stream, sea, the Indus (§ 24). 

Skr. iin/ii, drop, spark, the moon (§ 24, irregular movement) ; 
in, to penetrate, drive; ina, able, king, the sun (unimpeded 
movement) ; indra, Indra (god of the thunderbolt). 

5 28. n/ih, n r p r , njc^, n r , unimpeded motion with unchecked 
continuity, or irregular undirected motion (§ 27). 

Lat. nix, nivis, snow (§ 27, descent of flakes); ningo, to 
snow (redupl.) ; ninguis, -is, snow ; vlcpa, snow. 

Lat. navis ; nave; vavs, a ship; vdoo, to flow; veco, to swim 
(vevuw, vefoo) ; m'/^co, to swim ; m/^to?, flowing (unimpeded 
motion). Nqrtunns. veojuai, to come or go; circa'nea, bird 
that flies round. 

Skr. ?%', lavare (free washing movement of the water) ; 
wTft), wV-Ta), to wash ; virpov, potassa, soda (used for washing) ; 
Lat. nigina, a plant. 

veic-vS-a\o$, larva of silkworm (§ 17, irregular motion) ; Skr. 
/in]' , se movere. 

Lat. per'nix, nimble ; covnix, crow (ix. 6, cf. -wp-, § 29) ; 
coturnisc, a quail (ix. 11, ix. 4) ; spinturnix, a bird of ill omen 
(ix. 3, ix. 4). 

§ 29. n r f r , n.s., unimpeded free motion, or irregular motion 

*^ ■*■ 

(§ 28). 

Skr. nada, fluvius ; nad, to swing, tremble, vibrate. 

vtjcros, island (as if floating). 

vr\(j<ja (y>]Tia), vijrra, duck ; Lat. anas, -lis, id. ; Ger. ente, id. 
(swimming.) 

Skr. nat, to dance, represent dramatically, gesticulari ; 
Goth, iiin/f/ii/aii, to dare ; /3o' - racro9, wild ox. 

Lat. ■natiiwr, to be busy, disturbed; 0. II. Ger. hnatta, 
vibrare ; evocri^Owv, eivoacyaios, earth-shaker. 

Skr. nud, mittere, agere, depellere, to thrust, turn out. 



132 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. v. 

aiyri'Oo?, hedge-sparrow (§ 1). 

6p-i'i?, -fOo?, bird (§ 13 ; cf. -wic-, § 28). 



§ 30. vk, ih , free undirected motion expi-essed by the free 
current of breath, in the spirant or i, combined with its forcible 
passage in the mute. 

Skr. rig, agitari, tremere, to hurry, shoot up ; vega, celeritas ; 
vag ', ire; vakak, ire; Lat. vagor ; vacillo ; vexo, to disturb 
violently, trouble; vexillum, banner, flag; eucij, without plan 
or purpose, rashly, at random. 

aicT<Too, to dart ; aiW], rapid motion. 

o^Xof, an irregular crowd, trouble. 

Goth, vigan, to shake, toss; trigs, way (where people go 
back and forward); vagyan, to move; vegs, tossing, wave. 

Skr. ig, ing, se movere vacillare ; eg', tremere, to move ; 
aiyeipo?, poplar. 

i^a\6g, bounding. 

§ 31. m k , free undirected motion expressed by the uncon- 
fined passage of breath in the nasal with its forcible passage 
in the mute. 

Skr. malcak, male , maul; man'k' ', ire, se movere ; ma,)>], 
properare ; maks'ika, musca ; maksa, a fly; Lat. masea, a fly; 
jjLv'ia, id. (/xva-'ia). 

Lat. mieo, to move quickly in a vibrating or quivering manner. 

S 32. p,v., vJ,\, free motion. 

Goth, fugls, bird; Eng. fowl, (fug = tti>x — <puy, cf. 7ri6 = 
<t>iS, II. 33). 

(pevyw, to fly ; (ftv^a, flight ; Lat. fugio. 
^/auK-pos, nimble, swift (§ 20). 

§ 33. t 5 m 5 , s 5 t b m 5 , irregular motion (§ 20). 

Skr. tamara, aqua; Lat. tamarix, the tamarisk tree (cf. 

/J.UpiK}], § 8). 

Lat. temere, at random; temetum, intoxicating drink; Urth'u- 
lentus, drunk; abs'tem'ius, sober. 

are^ftw, to confound, perplex ; crrenifta), to shake, agitate. 

Skr. tumula, turbatus, confusus, tumultuosus ; Lat. tumvl'tus. 

afi/jLoX'tj, uncertainty. 

SdfiaXos, a calf; Sdju.a\i$, a heifer; Lat. dam%, a deer; Irish, 
damh, ox, deer. 



CHAPTER VI. 

GROUNDS OF THE SIXTH I'HASE OF UTTERANCE, WHOSE EXPRESSIVE- 
NESS LAY IN THE FIRST BREAKING OF THE BREATH THROUGH 
THE ORGANS, OR IN THE PRESSURE OF THE BREATH ON THE 
ORGANS. 

This phase of utterance represents outgo, transition, growth, 
production, increase, pressure, impact, tension, force. The 
pressure is caused by the resistance which in every consonant 
is given to the current of breath in order that the due utter- 
ance may be made ; and in every consonant the breath breaks 
through this resistance, which confines it, so as to give a sense 
of outgo. Even in those in which the breath passes most freely 
there is a sense of pressure, or of the kindred elements, impact, 
tension, or force, in proportion to the strength of the current 
which the organ confines or represses to make the utterance. 
And while the breath may be strengthened in the utterance 
of any consonant to give this expressiveness, a strong current 
belongs more naturally to the vibratiles than to others, as it is 
needed to produce with distinctness the vibration of the tongue. 
In the vibratiles also there is a special sense of the breath break- 
ing through, by reason of the flexile condition of the tongue 
as the breath passes over it, so that the vibratiles have a 
natural expressiveness in both parts of this phase. But in the 
spirants and nasals too the passage of the breath involves a 
sense of movement which may give a special expression of 
outgo, growth, production, or increase. In this phase of utter- 
ance the labial consonants have a special expressiveness by 
reason of the visible outbreak of the breath through the lips 
as they open to let it pass, and by reason of their visible 
swelling out as the breath presses on them. The dental con- 
sonants have a distinctness owing to the muscular activity and 

133 



134 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. vi. 

free application of the point of the tongue, which fits them to 
express distinctly the tensions and transitions of this phase. 
These observations may be sufficient, along with those which 
are made on the expressiveness of the grounds in the first eight 
sections, to elucidate that of the remaining grounds in this 
chapter and of elements added to them in various roots. 

§ 1. l\r., upspring, upgrowth, outgrowth; the breath break- 
ing through the closure of Jc, and making for itself an easy 
passage over the flexile point of the tongue in r, so as to get 
from this a stronger sense of pressure yielded to. 

Kpiji't], Kpovvoq, spring, well-head. 

Skr. X'ira, %'iras, Zend, -tfara, caput ; Kupa, Kciprj, the head ; 
KapaicaWov, hood (ii. 2) ; Kapyvov, the head ; Kpas, -aro?, the 
head ; Kpaipa, the head, top ; icapavos, head, chieftain ; Kopvcpi'i, 
head, highest point (§ 62) ; Kop-v/mfi-og, round head (§ 78) ; 
Kp-a/ui^t], cabbage (§ 78) ; Kpw(3v\o<?, knot of hair on crown of 
head ; Kpo-ra(p-o<;, side of the head (i. 33) ; xopvs, helmet 
(thought as top), head ; Kopvircrco, equip (with helmet or top), 
raise the head ; KopvSos, the crested lark ; Kopvirru), to butt 
with the head (icopv(p)]) ; KopvirriXos, KopurriXog, one who butts 
with the head ; Lat. cer'nwus, headlong (ii. 6) ; pro'cer'us, tall ; 
cerebrum, skull, brains; cervix (i. 8). 

yepapos, majestic ; yepa$, gift of honour ; Skr. garv, super- 
bire ; yapvpiuoo, id. ; ayepw^os, lordly. 

Kopa-)], the side of the forehead (swelling round) ; Kopcrtov, 
bulbous root; Kipaos, Kpio-aos, swelling of vein. Lat. eweur- 
bita, a gourd (redupl. ; cf. cucumis); acro'corium, a bulbous 
plant (aitpos + Kop) ; Kopvvrj, a club. 

ayyovptov, a water-melon. 

yapyapedoP, the uvula ; yapyapa, heaps, plenty ; yoyypos, 
excrescence on trees; ayapiKov, kind of tree fungus; Goth. 
akran, fruit; Lat. grinnus, heap, hillock. 

Skr. giri, mons. 

Lat. grandis. 

Skr. Vron, coacervare ; y^roni, clunis, buttock, club, hip; 
Lat. dniiis, buttock ; k\ovi$, os sacrum. 

Lat. acervus. 

icopOvs, a rising, a heap; KopSvX-t], club, lump (§ 10). 



BKC. 3.] GROUNDS OF THE SIXTH PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 135 

Kopirofj top/mo?, trunk of a tree, log ; Lat. corpus ; icapm?, 

rod; Lat. carpi mis, the tree hornbeam; Kapiros, fruit. 

Kupfieig, pillars ; Kvp(3acri$, hat with peaked crown. 

Kopos, Koupos, a boy, sprout of a tree ; Koprj, Koupt], a girl ; 
Kvpcrai>ios, Lac. for veavlas, a youth. 

Kepains, Kpao-Ti?, ypaari?, green fodder ; Lat. gramen, grass ; 
gcrmen, sprig, offshoot ; germanus, sprung from the same father. 

Goth, gras, Eng. grass. Lat. herba. 

§ 2. k.l , upgrowth, outgrowth ; the breath breaking through 
the closure of k, and making for itself an easy passage over the 
flexile sides of the tongue in /, so as to get from this a stronger 
sense of pressure yielded to. 

koXcovos, a hill (cf. Skr. ){ron, § 1); Lat. collis ; cdsus ; 
ante' cello, &c. ; Goth. Mains, a hill; Jdaiv, tomb (agger). 

KaXa/uLo?, Lat. calamus, reed; KaXa/ut], a stalk; Lat. culmus, 
a stalk; culemna, a pillar; culmcn, top, summit; caulis, stalk; 
kuvXos, id.; Lat. colnmcn, summit, pillar; KoXodxev, summit ; 
KijXov, shaft ; ki'/Xow, shaft of a well, he-ass ; kolXov, logs, timber 
(growth of wood); Lat. colus, distaff; KeXeos, the woodpecker. 

Lat. clava, knotty branch, club; kXovo?, ranunculus (cluster 
of tubers at crown of root). 

ayXis, yeXyi?, head or clove of garlic ; ayaXXi?, a bulbous 
plant ; avayaXXlg, pimpernel ; ayaX-Xo^'ov, the bitter aloe (vii. 
31); Lat. galla, oak-apple, gall-nut; galbulus, nut of cypress; 
glans, the fruit of forest trees; ydyyXiov, a tumour under the 
skin ; yXovrog, the rump, pi. the buttocks ; Lat. glisco, to swell ; 
gleba. clod, lump. 

ki'iXi], tumour; Lat. ccecilia, kind of lettuce. 

XXoa, the first shoot of plants ; xXcopo?, ■)(Xoep6s, pale green ; 
XiXos, green fodder. 

Lat. olus, anciently helus, potherb ; hclvclla, olera minuta. 

KoXocrcros, gigantic statue. 

§ 3. /.;./;, /.' ( / , production, birth. 

Skr. garb' a, uterus, foetus, brood of birds, fruit of plants ; 
ypo/uLCpa?, sow (cf. scrofa). 

Goth. Icalbo, Eng. calf. 

Goth, niwklahs, new-born. veo'ylXos, new-born. rp'-yX>], 
mullet (breeds thrice). 



136 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap vi. 

Goth, kilthei, the womb ; Ang.-Sax. cild, Eng. child. 
KeXwp, son ; Skr. kal'db'a, catulus elephant! (§ 9G). 
Skr. hip, kalp, fieri ; -kalpa, similis. 



§ 4. k,r„ tension, pressure up, pressure clown, pressure into 
or against another body, impact ; the breath pressing against 
the root of the tongue in k and then coming with forcible 
irruption on the point of the tongue in r, which, by its resist- 
ance to it in order to produce the utterance, gives a stronger 
sense of pressure or impact. 

Skr. gur, tollere; guru, gravis; Lat. gravis; Goth, kaurs, 
heavy. 

eiriXapeco = eirr^apeco, to weigh down (j^=ji/). 

Lat. hordus =fordus, pregnant. 

Lat. cartihulum, stone table on one foot ; Irish, carrthadh, 
coirthe, pillar-stone. 

Lat. cam's ; curulis, pertaining to a chariot ; carrus, waggon ; 
carpent'um, two-wheeled carriage or chariot (§ 40) ; icappov, 
car. 

tcpe/maoo, to hang up (pressure on attachment) ; Kpijfivos, 
hanging edge; Goth, limmyan, to crucify. 

Skr. x rat > ficles 5 rframb', confidere ; Lat. certus, sure ; 
cre-do (i. 1); Old Lat. sardo = intelligo (kindred root like x'' l '> 
sru, v. 6). 

Skr. y^ur, firmum esse (pressure resisted) ; tfura, heros ; 
Kvpos, authority, confirmation ; icovpiSios, wedded, lawful ; Kvpio?, 
having authority, valid ; Koipavo?, ruler ; eirUovpos, helping ; 
Skr. x'i' e ''X um (*• 31 ' connected by marriage); hotpot, Lat. 
so'cer, father-in-law. 

Skr. g'arafa, durus, solidus. 

Lat. qu&rcus, oak. 

Goth, hardus, Eng. hard. 

Lat. grossus, crassus, thick, solid. 

Lat. crc-bcr, crowded, many close to each other. 

Farxpwjg, very pressing ; Xl "*^ to assail, to be eager, press- 
ing ; X( J(iW > to i m P art what is necessary (what is to be), or 
what is needed (force of need or necessity, objective or sub- 
jective) ; x( >} 'h is necessary ; x/° e "*> want, use ; Xl° e ' 09 > want, 
debt ; XP e ">> want > necessity, fate ; xP^^ a > niatter °f interest ; 
X/HiiTM, help, succour (needful service). 



sec. 6.] GROUNDS OF THE SIXTH PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 137 

Lafc. haruspex (§ 120), hariolus, soothsayer (har-, what is 
to be); awgur {avis + har), 

Skr. x' /''''//"> cornu ; Lat. cornu ; Goth, haurn, Eng. horn; 
<)cKpaio$, SrKpoos, Si-Kpui>o$, forked ; wXt-Kpuvov, point of elbow. 
Kepas, horu ; Lat. corwseo, to butt with horns ; cervus. 

yeppoi', rod, stake. 

KepKis, rod, pin ; KepKer^, anchor. 

Kvpicrcrtt), to butt with horns ; icvpew, to hit ; Kvpijfiafyo, to 
butt with the horns. 

Kpovoo, to strike ; avrCKpu, right opposite ; Kporos, striking. 

S 5. /. • / . / /„ r,v., l.v., s.t R Lp r , h.t a , Je.s R , h R p., pressure, ira- 

o 6 6' 6 6' 6* 0' 6-* 6' 6 6 6-* b' t) (>' o 6' b* 6'_ L 

pact ; the force of the current of breath in / increasing the 
sense of pressure or impact, like that of r in § 4. 

Lat. calx, the heel ; calco, to tread ; callis, path ; KoXerpao), 
to trample ; Lat. cidcita, cushion, bed (pressed) ; -A«£, with the 
foot (pressure) ; Xd^co, XaKrl^oo, kick, stamp. 

Lat. callus, hard skin, hardness (pressure resisted) ; /eo\-\o\|/, 
thick skin (ii. 51). 

Goth, hlathan, to load. 

Goth, gild, tax (obligation) ; gilstr, id. 

Goth, galga, Eng. gallows (pressure on attachment, § 4). 

Skr. Mia, Jcalu, certe (pressure resisted). 

Lat. claims, nail (pressure into). 

neXXoo, oneXXoo, to drive on. 

kooXvco, to hinder (pressure against). 

Skr. gall) , fortem audacem esse. 

Lat. celeber, crowded. 

KoXdirrw, to strike ; KoXacpa, box, buffet ; tcoXXafiify, to 
play buffets. 

pairi^o), to box, cuff. Lat. alapa, a box. stloppus, a slap. 

k6ttu{3os, a game of hitting with wine ; kocto-os, a cuff. 

Goth, haupatyan, to cuff. 

ko-tttco, to strike; kott'is, a chopper, cleaver; Goth, haifsts, 
h< 'ifts, strife. 

kv(3>)Xi$, an axe, cleaver. 

S 6. hj\, /,./., /.\.s\, 7c„, force, force effectual, sustained, exalted, 

b 6 6 6 6' b 

intrinsic ; the expression of force being similar to that of pres- 
sure in ^ 4, 5. 



138 CREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap, vl 

Kpdros, strength ; Kparvf, strong ; Kpelcrcrwv (KpeTiwv), 
stronger ; Kpelwu, Kpewv, ruler ; Skr. ksi, regere, dominari ; 
h-palvoo, to rule ; Kuppwv, stronger (Dor.) ; Kapra, very. 

Skr. g'i, g'ri, vincere. 

Skr. kri, facere ; crco ; Old Lat. cerus, creator ; cresco (in- 
ceptive of crco) ; Kpalvic, to accomplish. 

Skr. leal, to do, make, effect, provide, realise. 

Skr. h'al, sustentare, nutrire ; koXov, food ; Lat. columis, 
incolumis, safe, sound, whole ; Goth, hails, Eng. hale. 

Goth. hUpan, hlcibyan, Eng. help. 

Skr. g'agri, gar, vigilare ; eyelpw, to awaken, eypero, 
eypijyopa; ^co'ypeoo, to revive (§ 102); 'dypv7rvo$, sleepless 
(iii. 14). 

■^aipw, to rejoice (exalted force of life) ; X"i°' ? ' f avour > grace, 
gratification, thanks ; ■ycipp-r], spirit of battle ; ^opro^, feeding- 
place, food, fodder ; Lat. hortus, garden, vegetables ; hortor, 
horior, to encourage; Old Lat. horctum = ho nam • horc'onia, a 
species of Campanian vine. 

Lat. grains ; grates, thanks. 

Skr. x'/7, fortuna, felicitas, venustas ; y^reyas, melior ; tcpi'r- 
yvo$ (§ 107), good, true (intrinsic force). 

Skr. hricl, cor (force of life) ; fceap, K^p, KapSla, the heart ; 
Lat. cor, Goth, hairto, Eng. heart; Goth, halrthra, bowels. 

Goth. Mas, cheerful. 

Skr. Mad, gaudeo lastor, to refresh ; Ke^Ka^a, I am in 
exuberant spirits ; )(\ap6s, cheerful ; Lat. hilaris, merry ; 
i\apo$, id. ; Goth, gailyan, to make glad. 

yaXepos, cheerful. 

§ 7. Jcj' , Z.*./,, tension of desire or solicitude straining for 
its object, tension being expressed like pressure in § 4, 5. 

Lat. carus (demand greater than supply), enra. ccervmo/tia, 
religious observance. 

Goth, har a, Eng. care. 

Skr. grid, desiderare, 4th el. ; aypi'/Oero, wollte (Benfey). 

Skr. hary, amare, precari. 

Goth, gciro, desire; gredus, Eng. greed (g rd , Grass- 
mann). 

y\l^o/mai, to desire eagerly. 

Lat. colo, to bestow on an object care, attention, observance. 



si:c !».] GROUNDS OF THE SIXTH PHASE OF UTTERANCE. L39 

§ 8. /,;./■,., r 6 , y 6 , /;/•,/,, & 6 , tension of length reaching to a 
limit, or of length with less sense of limit, tension being ex- 
pressed like pressure in §§ 4, 5. 

Skr. Wira, longus (de tempore); icatpos, due measure, due 
time, opportunity. 

topa, any limited time or period ; Lat. hora ; &po9, time, a 
year; fxivu-wpos, short-lived (iii. 5) ; evvewpos, nine years' time ; 
vvKT-up, by night ; Lat. Ifornvs, of this year (h = this) ; -emits, 
-urn us, suffix of time. 

yjpovos, time ; Lat. chordus, late, 6\]siyovo?. 

«X/° f i even to. 

Skr. I'd! a, tempus ; Lat. intercalo, ccd'enclce (§ 58); Goth. 
hcdis aiv, slowly (air, time). 

Goth, hvcila, time; Ang.-Sax. Iirilc, Eng. while ; Goth. 
tin-dan, to pause. 

t6-k(i, then ; 7ro/va = 7roVe ; avT'iica, immediately ; T'tjVfKa, 
then (§ 37) ; yvl'ica, ir'riv'i'Ka, when (-t- loc.) ; Trpo'ica, forth- 
with ; Lat. anti'guus (§ 110). 

§ 9. / r , ;/ / ?*„ */., upgrowth, outgrowth, increase to a limit, 

•j 6O'OO0 0t> ia ' ° 

transition. 

Skr. trlh, crescere ; Tep^vos, -rpe^v'o?, a twig ; 6pl^, rpi^og, 
hair. Lat. ter'mes, living wood (§ 35). terra, va-rep-a, the 
womb (§ 80) ; Skr. stri, femina. Lat. turio, a shoot, sprout. 
OpiyKog, the coping (topmost course). Lat. turgco, to swell. 

arpaKTog, spindle, arrow. 

aOi'/p, the beard or spike of an ear of corn, ear of corn ; 
aOdpa, groats ; aOap)']?, young-womanly (blooming). eOeipa, 
hair, mane, crest ; eOelpw, to raise a crop, dupiro?, stalk, dpova, 
flowers or herbs. ai>6epeu>i>, the chin (beard). 

Skr. taru, arbor; taruna, adolescens. Lat. torus, protuber- 
ance, bulge. 

Lat. struo (struc'si), to pile up, erect; strues, struix, heap, 
pile ; struma, a swelling. 

crrepvov, the breast, chest ; arepvovyo 1 ;, broad-swelling ? 
Skr. stana, mamma ; (TTrjvlov, ctt>]0o?, breast. 

Lat. trixis, the plant Kporwv (§ 1). 

Lat. stirps, the lower part of the trunk of plants including 
the roots, stock, race, origin. 

Goth. (Itaurp, land ; Ang.-Sax. thorpe ; Ger. dor/, village. 



140 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. vi. 

Skr. tp, transgredi, trajicere ; tar, to pass over, to bring 
over ; -tcr, -rep, step of transition from one to another, correla- 
tion, as alter, uter, Trorepos, trepo?, and -tri, -tcr, of nouns of 
kindred in which it is sometimes reduced to -ri, &c, but still 
expresses correlation of kindred, pater, mater, &c, matertera, 
aunt bv mother. 

Lat. trans; rep'/ua, Teppovv, end (to which transition is 
made) ; rep-Opov, end ; Lat. termo, limit ; terminus, id. 

Lat. tra'mes, path across (v. 22) ; Tpd-fxi?, rpa-firj, line 
which divides the scrotum and crosses to the anus (v. 22). 
The element tr expresses transition defined by the root to 
which it is suffixed ; Lat. con'tra (transition between terms of 
mutual approach) ; iivtra ; hvtrare ; in'ter ; in'terior ; ex'tra ; 
ex'trare, to go out from; pcnetrare (ii. 31); ex'ter, ex'terior ; 
cvtra, cvter, cvterior ; ultra; ultra, remote or independent 
direction ; rc'tro, back direction ; Goth, tha'thro, Eng. thither ; 
Goth, hiclre, Eng. hither; Skr. aniar, inter, intus ; an'tarain, 
interius ; evTepov, intestine. 

Suffixes of realisation akin to Skr. trih, tarn, &c, -T>ip, 
-rwp; Lat. -tor, agent; -rpov, Lat. -trum, instrument; -turn, 
-turns. 

Suffixes of time thought as growth to a limit, Lat. -atrvs, 
trvatrus, quinqu'atrus, septim'atrus, decim'atrus, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 
10th day after the ides; -turnus, diwturnus, Saiurnus (§ 64), 
longi'turnus, of long duration ; -ternus, ccternus, semprternus. 

§ 10. tj 6 , upgrowth, outgrowth. 

OdXXa), to flourish, bloom ; daXXo?, a young shoot ; daXia, 
abundance ; T>iXe6dw, to flourish ; TevOaX-ls, knot-grass (§ 
53). 

SeXcpvg, the womb; ifSeXcp-d?, brother; SeXtp's, dolphin 
(viviparous) ; SeXcp'a^, growing pig (-aic, growth ; SeXcp, pro- 
duce of fecundity) ; d/j-vytidX-t}, almond (§ 31) ; do-(p6SeX-o$, 
king's spear (lily-like plant, § 68). 

rvX>], swelling, lump ; t^Ao?, knob ; Lat. tutulus, hair worn 
piled up in a cone. 

Kop-SvX-7], club, lump (§ 1) ; TupSuX-ov, an umbelliferous 
plant, aristolochia (tuberibus radicis rotundis, ii. 20. Faccio- 
lati, s.v.). 



sec. 11.] GROUNDS OF THE SIXTH PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 1 1 I 

| 11. t jr., pressure, up, down, forward, against, resisted. 

Skr. (Cri, sustentare, servare, tenere, ferre ; d'ard, ctaram, 
d'aritrl, terra ; d l arma, jus (the upholden, established) ; </' ris, 
sustinei'e, audere, resistere ; d'ras, tollere ; dptjaKo?, religious 
(upholding, observant); duparos, courage; Goth, ga'daursan, 
to dare. 

Opaofxai, to sit ; Opovos, seat ; Opijvv?, stool. 

Skr. turv, to overpower; Tvpawos, master, absolute ruler. 

Skr. drih, dark, to make fast; dm, timber; druma, tree; 
dan/, piece of timber; daruna, hard, strong; 3 pug, the oak, 
any timber tree ; Sopv, stem, tree, shaft ; Splos, copse, wood ; 
SevSpov, a tree (redupl.) ; Goth, triu, Eng. tree. 

Skr. d'ru, fixum esse ; d6epi'/$, fast, firm ; aOpoos, crowded. 

Goth, trauan, to trust ; triggvs, true. 

Tpecpco, make firm, thick ; Tapcjyu?, thick ; Tpodjis, stout, 
large; TpocpuXl?, fresh, cheese (ii. 10). 6p6fA{3o?, lump, clot, 
curd. Goth, tliarihs, strong, thick. Lat. trabca, a rich robe 
(thick). 

Tvpos, cheese. 

Lat. ob'turo, to stop up; rcivro, to unstop; turunda, pellet 
to stuff in ; eiriravpos, fast ; eTrcrappoOos, €7rippo6o<?, helper. 
Goth, threihan, to press; -thraihns, Eng. throng ; thrascfbaltJi", 
rashness (§ 18). 

Lat. durus ; duro, to harden, to resist change. 

Lat. traho ; trudo. 

Goth, dragan, Eng. drag (d'rag* Grassmann). 

Skr. drag 1 , niti ; Spdw, to do. 

Goth, d 'rciban, Eng. drive. 

rpaireoo, to tread (grapes) ; aTpairos, a path ; Lat. tripudium, 
dance, hopping of grains (§ 40). 

Goth, ana'trimpan, to press upon. 

Goth, trudan, Eng. tread. 

Lat. trabs, beam (support) ; Tpa/unris, a ship ; Tpairt^, a 
beam ; rpoTris, keel ; TpaTceCa, table. 

Goth, ga'thaurban, to need (force of necessity, § 4) ; tharbs, 
necessary ; tl/arba, needy. 

Oepayp-, 6epa7rwv, an attendant (cf. Skr. d ri, careful service) ; 
cfdepuj^ai, make light of, nihil curare. 

TpvT-dvtj, balance; Lat. trufina (pressure of weight). 



142 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. vi. 

§ .12. tl 6 , pressure up, down, pull. 

Skr. tul, tollere; Lat. tuli; tollo ; fulcra ; Goth, thulan, to 
bear. 

tXijvui, to bear, dare ; ToX/Ucro), id. ; rdXavrov, a weight 
u-rdXavros, equal (i. 32, weight) ; rdXas, suffering, wretched 
Tu\ai7rwpo9, suffering hardship (§ 20) ; otXos, suffering 
TaXavpivos, stout {iro\eiJ.i<TTi}<!, vii. 27); dvrXeco, to bale out 
draw water (avd) ; dvrXog, bilge water, hold of ship, bucket 
Lat. flatus, lotus, borne. 

OeXvjuva, foundations. 

Goth, dulgs, debt (obligation) ; Irish, dualgas, hire, wages ; 
dual, duty, law ; duilc, servant. 

SouX'o?, slave (obligation). 

Goth, tulgus, fast, firm. 

Goth, dulths, sacred festival (obligation of observing it). 

tiXXco, to pluck. 

§ 13. /,/„ t,r„ t e , t./n., tension of reaching to a limit or end. 

'J ODD 600 ° 

Te'Xo9, fulfilment or completion, end, amount defined, full 
lawful authority ; evreXr')?, complete ; evreXe-)(€ia, actuality : 
reXeOco, am quite ; reXew, to fulfil ; reXXoo, to accomplish, fully 
realise ; reXer//, making perfect ; TeXrrov = TeXo?. 

Goth, tils, fit ; Ang.-Sax. til, fit, leading to an end or object, 
end or object; Eng. till, until ; Germ, ziel, term, aim. 

eOeXoo, OeXco, to will, wish ; SuXo/uai, Dor. for /3ovXu[xai. 

()oXf)(o?, long (cf. X/^a?, | 93). 

evSeXe-£>k, continuous. 

Skr. dvrga, longus. 

Seip>j, Sept), neck (length). Lat. dorsum, ridge. awSrjpov, 
raised bank (avd). 

Skr. -ti, limit of plurality ; kicti, Lat. quo't ; tod ; quoti'die 
(quoti, loc. ; cf. pridic, vi. 20). 

t/w, to appreciate ; titico, id. (Hesych.) ; ti'voh, ri'Wfu, to 
pay price or assessment ; Ti/ui't}, appreciation ; Tifx'Mpd? (ri^ti- 
oupog, ii. 13), maintainer of assessment or restitution ; Lat. 
ces'tim'o, to value, estimate (viii. 5); temo, money in lieu of 
recruits. 

§ 14. p Q r 6 , upspring, upgrowth, outgrowth. 

ippeap, a well ; (pptco, to get a passage • Goth, brunna, a 



bec. 15.] GROUNDS OF THE SIXTH PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 143 

well. fipaaaoo, to throw up with violent ebullition ; fipufo), to 
boil. a(j)pos, foam. 

Trapd^vos, a virgin; Tropris, 7ropTu^, a calf; Lat. pert'n", 
young tree, pole ; portisculus, truncheon or rod with which 
time was marked for rowers ; por, boy ; pora, girl. 

f3paK<x\ov, club ; fipaKava, wild herbs. Lat. brassica, cab- 
bage (growth of head). 

fipuop, mossy growth ; ftpvoets, weedy, flourishing ; Lat. 
borsy'dtes, moss agate (§ 133) ; (3pvu), fipvw(w, to swell 
with ; fipvrov, beer (fermented) ; ofipv^ov, gold refined by fire 
(ebullition) ; Lat. bruscum, an excrescence on the maple tree ; 
hrochus, projecting teeth. 

Lat. conferva, river sponge ; dji'/pcu, swellings in the parotid 
glands. 

Lat. frux, fruits, produce; f rutins; fruor, have usufruct; 
frutess, shrub, bush ; Skr. b urg'a, nomen arboris, kind of birch. 

Lat. fratrare, to swell. Lat. frons, -tis, 

(loth, bairgs, hill, brusts, Eng. breast. 

§ 15. pi, upspring, upgrowth, outgrowth. 

cpXico, to overflow ; (pXuco, (pXv^oo, to swell over, to overflow 
with words ; <pXva^, nonsense ; (pXvupo?, silly talker ; (pXtSwv, 
babbler ; <^>A^'o?, chatter ; (pXolao, to burst out, swell ; ucpXoicr- 
/ulos, an angry man ; cJ)Xoi86od, make to swell ; (pXuKTi?, a 
blister ; 7rofxcp6Xv^, a bubble, boss (§ 44) ; <pXv<ri$, a breaking 
out, eruption ; (paXrj, (paXaiva, a whale (ebullition of water) ; 
Lat. bcda'na, id.; fiXuco, to bubble; Lat. bullio, bulla, bubble; 
(j)Xe\]s, a vein, a spring of water ; Goth. Moth, Eng. blood. 

(puvXlos, large, fleshy (fruit) ; <ft)'iXi]^, wild fig ; <ftX6o$, bloom ; 
Lat. fios ; Skr. pull, florescere ; (pvXXov, leaf; Lat. folium ; 
(loth, vfbaulyan, to puff up ; bloma, flower, Eng. bloom. 

(pXi^eXia, swelling at the ankles ; Lat. flemina, id. 

Lat. pal'mes, a young branch or shoot (§ 35) ; pdlus, stake ; 
7reAT>7, shaft, pole ; ttcoAo?, foal, young animal ; Lat. pullus, 
young animal ; Goth, fula, Eng. foal ; iraXXa^, Dor. for 7rc«9 ; 
Lat. pcllcx, concubine. 

7roXv$, many, much, 7rXei(joi', 7rAe/<XTO? ; 7rXeius, 7rX€id8e<?, 
many in a group ; ttX'outos, wealth (§ 34) ; Lat. plws, plirri- 
-mus ; plums, more part ; Goth, flu, much ; Lat. pdpulus ; plebs ; 
e'pul'um, banquet (cd'jnd'um, much eating, x. 3) ; Skr. pul, 



144 (JREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. vi. 

magnum esse ; -TreX'cop, monster ; «7rXero9, immense (a inten- 
sive). 

Lat. pulwnus, a cushion, ridge, bank, pier. 

cpaXXos, filWo?, membrum virile ; <pd\os : projecting part 
of helmet ; <pd\ay£, pole, straight bone, battle-array like a pole 
or block ; (puXapis, grass with long stalks. 

/3Aa<TTO?, sprout, shoot ; fiXcoOpos, tall. 

/3oX/3oV, a certain bulbous root ; Lat. bnllms ; fioeXiTtis, a 
mushroom ; Lat. boletus, id. ; /3wXo?, a clod ; fiakavog, an acorn : 
fiovfiakiov, kind of gourd (§ 48) ; apu-(3a\\og, large vessel for 
drawing water (§ 85). 

S 16. p,r„ pj„ production, birth. 

Lat. pario ; parens; Goth, fraiv, seed, Lug. fry; both. 
frasts, child. 

ofipia, the young of animals, fipecpos, the embryo, new- 
born babe. 

7rAoyUca, to come to be ; inrepo-jrXo?, excessive, immense, 
arrogant; oTr\6repog, younger; Lat. disci'pul'us (in process of 
learning). 

d>v\>'i, tribe ; (pvXia, wild olive tree (natural production) ; 
Lat. films, filia ; <pv\-07r-is, battle-cry (<pv\i} } o\ls). 

§ 17. p 6 r , pressure up, down, outward. 

Skr. b'ri, ferre, sustentare ; b'ratri, Lat. frater, Goth, broth ar. 
Eng. brothei' (related, § 9 t through what bore them) ; (ppan'/p. 
clansman ; (f)epu>, to bear ; Lat. few ; fonts, what bears ; fordus, 
pregnant; Goth, bairan, Eng. bear; Goth, ga'baur, tribute; 
gabaurts, birth ; gd-baurya'ba, willingly (ga with, ya verbal 
suff., ba adv. suff., consent to bear) ; barn, a child ; berusyos, 
parents; Krim. baar, a boy; Goth, barvsnyan, to show filial 
piety ; bruths, daughter-in-law, bride, briggan, Eng. bring. 

Lat. so'brinus, cousin (i. 31). 

Lat. infra (pressure clown, in under), in ferns; fretus, 
relying on (pressure down). 

fiapvs, heavy ; fiplOw, weigh down ; /Sjo/^w, nod ; Lat. 
brntns, heavy. 

Goth, ana'praggan, to oppress, afflict. 

Skr. parmi, calx; Goth, fairzna, the heel; irepva, fnam ; 
Lat. perna } ham with leg. 



-'■<■• 13.] GROUNDS OF THE SIXTH PHASE <>F UTTERANCE. 1 I 5 

■JTfjvfxvug, hindmost, undermost ; Trpe/uvov, bottom, root ; Lit. 
premo ; pre'lum, wine or oil press. 

Skr. pri, pri, prin, purv, implere. 

Lat. farcio, to stuff; frequens. Skr. 1> ri^'a, powerful, strong, 
vehement. 

Lat. firmus (pressure resisted). 

(pupvfxos, bold. 

ppevOos, bird of stately carriage (pressure up) ; fipaOu, 
juuiperus sabina (straight growth). Lat. bratus, tree like 
cypress. 

Goth, brakya, struggle; brikan, to strive; bruks, useful; 
Ger. bratiehcu, to need ; bra/uchbar, useful (tension of struggle 
and of need ; cf. xP (i03 > ^ c -> § ^)- 

^ 18. p 6 l & yj pressure up, outward, forward, down. 

(HpeWco, to increase, strengthen ; ocpeXos, furtherance, ad- 
vantage, help ; 6(f)e\\(jt), to owe (to be an increase to) ; d^)e/Xw, 
('xjjXw, id. ; wcpeXeco, to help. 

Lat. fclic, favourable, successful, lucky. 

Lat. ful'cio ; falere, a pile or pedestal ; fata, raised scaffold- 
ing ; fcdisca, rack for fodder; sufjla'men, break under wheel. 

7ri/j.7r\t]jULi : to fill ; 7rXeo?, 7rXeio?, full, complete ; ttXi'iOco, to 
be full, swell ; irXeQpov, complete measure of length or area 
(/.'., 100 feet, or 10,000 square feet) ; irXei-wv, full time, year 
(^ 37) ; 7rXij(T/u>], irXi'/fjifj.}], rising of water ; ifKrffi'fwp'l^, swell 
of sea, flood (v. 8) ; Lat. pleo ; plains ; locwples (§ 90) ; man'i'- 
pul'us, handful; Goth, fulls, Eng. full. 

Goth, baltha, Eng. bold. 

Lat. ptla, a mortar, pillar, pile ; pilum, pestle, heavy javelin ; 
pilo, to press close, thrust home ; pilus, century of the triarii 
in legion ; pttatim, in close bodies ; 7riXo$, felt (pressed wool 
or hair); Lat. pileus, felt cap; pil'ent'um, carriage with felt 
(Facciolati, § 99); im'pilia,. felt shoes or socks. 

Lat. fullo, a fuller. 

Lit. planta, scion (graft), plant, sole; plantago, plantain. 

TTcXfxa, sole, stalk. acpeXa?, footstool, rowing-bench. 

cpXid, doorpost, lintel, post of windlass. 

(3>]Xa, sandals; (3>iX6<;, threshold; 6e(3>jXos, pro fan us (trod- 
den) ; ap-(3>]Xo$, shoemaker's knife (apoo, i. 20) ; ap-(3uXi], hah" 
boot ((tpoo) ; vXia, sole of a shoe ; Lat. ped'ule, sole (§ 40). 

k • 



146 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. v.. 

§ 19. pfo p 6 r 6 , mjf y fl> v# v lf v impact. 

Lat. petto, to push, strike. 

Skr. bal, ferire ; /3d\\u\ to throw so as to hit ; f3e\os, a 
missile ; dfioXeco, to meet (cf. /cup'to) ; /3AaWco, pXucricw perf. 
/uLe/j.(3\a)Ka, p.o\ea), to come or go to (arriving). 

7rX?/a-crco, to strike ; e/c-7ra7\o9, tremendous (for eiarXayos) ; 
Lat. plaga, a blow ; pfo-fo, to hit, punish ; supplic-ium, punish- 
ment (under blows) ; Goth, ficlmn, to beat. 

Lat. pi cni do, to clap ; irXarda-crw, to slap, clap ; Xaruarrrw, 
to clap, strike ; Aara£, splash. 

Lat. fiagrum, Jlagellum, a whip, scourge; filgo, to strike. 

Lat. plango, to beat, mourn (beating breast, &c). 

Goth. Uijgvan, to beat (blig = b'lig = Lat. fl'uj). 

Goth, htl ra-TCsei, malice (cisan, to be). 

Skr. bark, b'arV, f erio ; Lat./eno; wrkT, a lash. 

Lat. vcqrulo, to be beaten (as if denom. from vapulus, to be 
realiser of a beating). 

§ 20. p r , breaking forth, forward. 

Skr. pra, irpo ; Trpryi')'/?, Trpa-vrjs, Lat. pro'nus, prone (ii. 32) ; 
pro {prod, i. 1); prodius, farther ; procer, chief; irp6<ra> {irpo-- 
ryoo), iroppw, farther; Lat. porro, id.; irpo-fxos, leader; Goth. 
frums, beginning; icpirrtv, of last year (f e-ro) ; Skr. pra'H, 
contra, e regione, erga (i. 1); irporl, irpos; irplv, formerly 
(5 37) ; Trejo', before, above, beyond ; irep, emphatic ; Lat. per-, 
very; Goth, frauya, master; irporavis, prince {irpo'ravis, -ravi, 
suff.) ; Lat. yra Ora-i, loc), prmtor, prartura (§ 9) ; ^r« ■*, 
at hand (-s adv., i. 9); prces-tigia, illusion (§ 126) ; prarter 
(prce + ter, transition, § 9); Skr. pra'dus, manifesto (§ 127); 
pra'tar, mane (fore part, correlative of later part, § 9). 

Skr. pur, praecedere ; purva, prior, oriental's; Goth, faur, 
faura, Eng.fore; faurthis, formerly, before; Skr. puras, ante, 
coram; pura. olim ; w/xw, in the morning (-rrprnft ; ^Snf, loc.) ; 
Trpw-pa, pn>\v; Lat. ^rora, id.; irpw'-n-epvcri, two years ago; 
7rt7rowT«j, it has been destined. 

xapo?, before, formerly ; irapo&ev, Trpoo-Qe, before, in front 
(i. 1); Trapovrepo<s, farther forward, former {irapoi, loc.) ; irepvcri, 
a year ago (Trap-, /re'ros) ; irpr\Tr\v, last year's (§ 34) ; 7iy>e<r/3uy, 
old man (§ 38) ; irperyv?, id. ; Cretan Dor. (§ 07 ; Trpe?, adv., 
i. 9, wpei, loc.) ; Lat. .prior, primus ; pris'cus ; pris'tinus (§ 57) ; 



sbc. 20.] GROUNDS OF THE SIXTH PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 1 47 

prVdem, long ago (§ 57); prl'die, on the day before; pra'nd'eo, 
to breakfast (§ 101); pri'vi'gni, step-children (of former 
marriage, i. 8). 

p 6 r 6 , breaking forth in a transition. 

Skr. 'para, alius, ulterior, eximius ; para ma, eximius ; param, 
ultra; par, perficere (to the end); para, ripa opposita; TaXar- 
7rct)po$, suffering, hardship (raXav-pa r). 

Lat. peren'die, on the day after to-morrow (§ 37) ; irepav, 
on the other side ; Trepa, beyond ; Trepan), to pass over, to ex- 
port, sell ; Lat. pretium (what passes); ire pvti/ju, to export for 
sale, sell ; TrnrpucrKco, to sell ; Trp'up.ai, to buy (pass to self) ; e/r- 
iropos, passenger, merchant ; iropo?, passage, way over ; TropOjuLo?, 
ferry; Trepaioco, to carry over or across; eiropov, gave; irop- 
tyo, to bring, provide ; Tropuvvoo, proffer, provide ; Trepa?, end, 
aim, accomplishment ; irepa'nw, -neipaivo), to accomplish, reach ; 
"I'Treipos (Mo\. cnreppo?), continent (cannot cross it to its other 
side) ; Treipa?, irelpap, end, finish (to which transition is made) ; 
Trelpco, to pierce quite through (transition) ; Trepovij, Tropin], 
pin, buckle ; o-ice-Trap-vov, an axe (vii. 7) ; Sia'Trpu-crios, piercing, 
thorough ; Trapwv, light kind of ship (pass over) ; juvo'Trdpcov, 
light pirate boat (ii. 39) ; Tretpa, trial, attempt (the passing, 
thought by itself) ; ireipaw, Treipd^w, try, attempt, make trial 
of; TreipaTi]?, one who attempts or attacks; ep.Treip'a, experience 
(tentative) ; irpt'ia-a-w, Trparrao), to traverse, accomplish ; Lat. 
per, through ; periculum, trial; ex'peri'or, to try out for one- 
self; peritus, experienced, expert; porta (passage); port'us (pas- 
sage in and out of the country); angiportus, narrow passage 
(i. 10) ; port'o (cause to pass) ; oportet {obyort, a carrying 
through to accomplishment which has to be faced) ; opera, 
(pb'per, going through to an end either with pressure against 
or obvious to one); opus (ob'peras, -er- having been absorbed 
by the abstract suffix -as, what is gone through either with 
pressure against or with the pressure of necessity) ; Goth. 
fa ran, to pass, fxerafialveiv ; faryan, to make a journey or 
voyage, carry, convey; fri, by; fram, Eng. from ; framatheis, 
strange, Ger. fremd; fra-, fair-, Ger. ver- ; faii-nis, old; 
fair'ra, Eng./ar; fair'guwi, mountain (j^mv'wfii, § 66) ; fragith, 
Treipa^ere; fra/isan, ireipaTetv ; fairina, blame, Old Norse, firn, 
fiagitium prodigium (abnormal). 

u(ppa (ocppa), to the end that, until ; Wxppa, so long, so that. 



148 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. vi. 

Lat. foro, to pierce ; /oris, door (passage) ; foras, outside ; 
fors (what comes forth into fact); /return, a strait. 

5 21. v r e , pJ., strength. 

(peprepug, stouter, more powerful ; Lat. forhs, Old Lat. 
forctis, strong, stout; Old Lat. fortius = bonus. 

(3 pi, strong ; fipuuo, to be or make strong ; Pp'n*], strength ; 
o(3pi/uLO$, mighty ; Lat. barrus, an elephant. 

Skr. bed, vivere, caus. sustentare, nutrire ; bala, vis, robur ; 
fiaXi'jv, king. 

Lat. polleo. 

§ 22.p 6 r 6 ,p 6 l 6 , s 6 p 6 r 6 , h p} v pj v tension of desire, force of life. 

Skr. pri, amare, exhilarare ; Goth, friyon, to love ; friyonds, 
loving; Eng. friend; friks, greedy; irpiair-og (represented 
with large generative organ, § 96). 

Lat. proco, to ask ; procus, suitor ; proc-ax, wanton ; precor ; 
precarius, dependent on entreaty; percontor, percunc-tor, to 
inquire, investigate (§ 52); Goth, fraihnan, to ask. 

Skr. prak", interrogare, ask for, seek. Lat. rogo. 

Lat. posco ') pos'tuVo (-tul-, suff. of realisation). 

Lat. flag-ito, to entreat, demand, solicit; fla-men, priest of a 

god. 

Skr. spri, exhilarare, vivere ; sprih, desiderare, appetere ; 
Lat. spurium, pudend. mul. ; spurius,oi illegitimate birth; spero, 
pro'sperus, spes. 

(pp)'li', (ppwes, the seat of life, of thought ; <f)p6t>i$, prudence ; 
Sculppoov, wise (§ 127); (ppovTis, care; ev-cj)paiva>, to cheer; 
Trpo-cbpacrcra, fern, well inclined. Lat, Hen, renes, kidneys. 

cr7rAa'yvi'«, vital organs; cnrAjyj/, spleen ; Skr. pllhan, id.; 
Lat. lien, id. a-jrXeKOco, to have sexual intercourse. 

(p:\os, what has our life or our love ; (pivrK, Dor. = <pl\o<}. 

Lat. expergo, to awaken (exalted force of life). 

Lat, frigo, to arouse. 

(Va-TrArrn?, epithet of 'Eipivvs, very passionate (o"7r\ayx vov 
was especially the seat of anger). 

§ 23. vr , v 6 L, /;.. growth, development, increase, breaking 
into realisation. 

Skr. vrid', crescere. Goth, vairthan, to become. 



skc. 25.] GROUNDS OF THE SIXTH PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 1 49 

Lat. virid'is ; pl^a (Lesb. /3p!crfia) } root; fipi^a, rye; Goth. 
vaurts, root; ga'vris'gyan, to bring fruit to perfection (§ 67); 
aiirti'gards, Eng. orchard (ii. 4). 

Skr. r/v'A, crescere. Lat. virga; virgo. 

Skr. /•/////, rice. opul^a, rice; opi'vSa, rice-bread (§ 101). . 

doeai/ey, opeiaveg , men; Lat. nV, vir'tus ; Goth, roir, 
man. 

Lat. mm?, to flourish ; w'rco, the greenfinch ; rerun , home- 
born, native (grown). 

Skr. rarer, multitudo caterva ; Lat. cciituria, dec'uria, com- 
pany of 100, of 10. 

Lat. long'urius, a long pole (growth). 

Lat. vdrix, a dilated vein ; varus, a pimple ; verruca, a wart, 
excrescence (vii. 30) ; >}plov (fiip'iov), a mound ; opo$, oi>po$, 
a mountain ; (popo?) ; fiopea?, the mountain wind. 

Lat. volema pira, kind of large pear. 

Lat. vulgus, crowd, the multitude. 

Goth, valus, rod, stick. 

yue'XXw, /3e'XXw (jeWco), to be on the point to. 

§ 24. vr , v 6 L, pressure or pull, with sense of movement in 
a direction. 

op66s, fiopOo?, operas, Lac. fiopvos, straight (right on). 
Lat. call us, stake ; ydXXo?, y\os, nail. 
Lat. cello ; eX/cw, to draw (feX/cw). 

§ 25. r ?• , c.L, r„ A'./v, energy which issues in force. 

Skr. rem, heros; i'ipu><?, hero; Lat. m's, vires; Goth, vairpan, 
to throw. 

Lat. rre/ro ; Goth, vaila, Eng. 7/v/7. 

Skr. ?7/v/, valere, robustum esse; unj'as, vis, robur, nourish- 
ment, strength ; epyov, work {pepyov) ; e]o&o, -£w, to do 
(Fepyi/w) ; /oe£a>, -£«>, to do (fpeyyu)) ; CjO'ya£ft>, to knead, work ; 
opyavov, instrument; Goth, canrlci/an, Eng. to work ; vaurstv, 
work (for raiirhtc). Lat. urgeo. 

Lat. riolo ; 'V^t'?, strength (fi'a-^v^, § G3) ; /3:u, force, 
strength. 

Lat. g-weo. 



150 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. vi. 

5 26. v.r.. vj., s.v.r., tension of desire or will or expectation 

<J 6 6' 6 0' b b L 

breaking forth to its object. 

Skr. vri, 9 cl., desiclerare, eligere; var, 10 cl., eligere, in 
matrimonium petere ; vara, electio, eximius ; vrit, col ere amare 
eligere; vri, eligere; vrata, votum, pietas ; vri, viz, eligere; 
valldBa, favourite, darling. 

Lat. vere'trum, organ of generation, male or female. 

Lat. volo, Goth, vilyan, Eng. to will ; Goth, vatyan, to choose. 

f3ov\o/u.ai, to wish, will ; /3u'Xe, aj3a\e, would that ; u'j3aXala, 
willingness. 

/3e\Tiu)P, better (vrit). 

Lat. volupe, agreeably ; voluptas ; aXir'vi<TTo<;, sweetest, love- 
liest; e7r'a\7Vvo?, cheerful, happy. 

eXiroixai, to hope, expect ; eXSofxai, to long for (eeX7r-, eeXS-). 

Goth, svcran, to lay in wait (wishing, watching for an object). 

5 27. v,.r,., pj\„ v,,s., ii.r., tension of reaching to a limit. 

<J 6 6' - 1 o J o 6' " b o o 

Skr. vara, tempus, tempus opportunum, vicis ; SeK'er'qpls, 
space of ten years. 

Lat. verus, true, right, proper (coming up to what is defined 
by fact or circumstance). 

Lat. -per,nwper, tantis'per, semper, ves'per ; eo-irepa, evening- 
Cm. 27); Lat. tern/pus, time (§ 57); tem'pes'tas, special time, 
season (§ 57). 

fipiTo?, year; Lat. hibevnus, pertaining to winter-time 
(vii. 12). 

Goth, yer, Eng. year. 

% 28. m ,r„ growth. 

Skr. hwmara, puer, child new-born, son (iii. 0); fieipafc, 
boy or girl (cf. virgo, § 23). Skr. muni' mi, caput, forehead, 
head, cacumen montis ; murti, corpus, material form; fiuplos, 
numberless, immense. ^]p<k, the fleshy part of the thigh. 

Lat. marisca, a large kind of fig, the piles (cf. <^>/A>/£, § 15) ; 
mar' on' ion, the centaurea major (has head like the poppy). 

§ 29. m. 6 Z 6 , growth, increase. 

/ue\Xa£, a boy ; fia\ecv, to grow (Ilesych.) ; TiOu'/uaXog, 
spurge, euphorbia (juicy growth, x. 8) ; fxaXa, very ; fiaXXov, 
more (fxaXiov) ; Lat. melior, Old Lat. melt'om = meliorem; 



sec. 32.] GROUNDS OF THE SIXTH PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 15 L 

milk ; mnltus ; fa'rmilus (§ 38), fa: mil- ia (§ 38). /x»?Xoi/, fruit ; 
Lat. malum, id. ; mclo, melon ; mallo, stem of the onion, tumour ; 
jiinhniilrnm, a plant; nudandria, pustules; cent'imalU, instru- 
ment for letting off gathered humours {tcevreo)). 

/ulwXv, /uuoXv^a, garlic (tuberous). Lat. mularis, the plant 
nodia (knotty). 

§ 30. mL pressure, effort. 

Lat. moles, heavy mass ; molior, move with great momen- 
tum ; juo\i9, hardly. 

S 31. mjc„ nj:., m,, growth. 

Skr. mah, great, mighty plentiful; mahl, fem. the earth; 
Goth, magus, boy, child (growth); magaths, maid ; mavi, girl 
(magwi, fem. of magus, Grimm) ; ma'wab 7 greater ; ma'is, more. 

oyicos, bulk, tumour ; oyxyii, pear tree, pear ; Skr. d^', 
coacervare. 

Lat. magnus ; iu.eya$ (jueyaX-), great; Goth, mikils, great; 
Lat. m agister (-ster, correlative, § 9). 

Skr. maks, coacervare ; Kpoo'/jia^, -a/co?, a heap of stones 
(vii. 1); kXw-julu^, id. (vii. 2). /ua/cpos, long; firjicos, length; 
/ue'^o/f, up to, as far as, until that. 

Skr. mukula, gemma arboris ; /xw?/?, mushroom, knob, mem- 
brum virile ; /uuiaipo?, almond ; /xvkXos, stallion-ass ; //wXo?, 
Hiv^Xog, /iu^Xof, lewd ; Lat. mulus ; [xviuc-avdo^, wild asparagus 
(perhaps from knobby head, avdos) ; /ulvkwu, f^v-^wv, lobe of ear ; 
ufxvySaX-t], almond (§ 10) ; /uu^a, kind of plum ; nayuSapis, 
seed of crlXchiov (iii. 13) ; /nejuuKvXov, /u.ai/xaKvXou, fruit of straw- 
berry tree. Lat. nux, nut. 

/jli'jkwv, poppy head. 

Skr. malri, ju7/-T>]p, mother; Lat. ma'tcr ; mci'trix, breeding 
animal, womb, belly ; jmaia, nurse, mother (increase) ; Oscan. 
mmsius, Lat. majus, May (growing) ; mevtu'rus, ripe, early 
(-tu-, time, § 57, full time, beginning or growing time) ; ma'tw- 
tin'us ; Skr. Ved. ma'tdr, creator ; mdlra, materies ; Lat. 
md'teries ; fidrSpva, aSpva, fruit-trees (S 9). 

S 32. m .s., growth. 

yuoV^of, shoot, young animal ; /x/0-^09, stalk ; /uicrv, truffle ; 
Lat. muscus, moss; mu&tiLS, young, new, fresh; mustum, new 



152 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. vi. 

wine ; must'dce, lauri genus maximo folio (-a£, amplif. suff.) ; 
must' ell' ago = laurago (must = young shoot). 

S 33. m l\,*,m .l\, effort, strength. The free passage of breath 

6 0' 00 6' ° in 

in the nasal, followed by its interruption in the mute, gives a 
sense of force encountering resistance. 

fxayo?, lAoyQos, toil; /xo^Xo'f, lever, bar; Goth, magan, to 
be able, Eng. may; Ang.-Sax. mdgen, Eng. main, strength; 
Goth, mahts, Eng. might ; /uoyepos, a-fxvyepo?, distressed. 

jud-^ojULai, to fight, struggle with. Lat. dimico, to fight, 
struggle. 



'GO' 



S 34. vJ„ vjk, increase, extension to a limit. 

O G 6' b u' 

Skr. ut, ud, sursum ; uMk'a, altus (ut'h'a) ; ud'ara, venter, 
swelling of the body; Lat. irtrr (ud'ter), bag made of skin for 
wine, &c. ; wterus, the womb (rises, swells) ; ttX'ovtos, riches 
(^ 15) ; Kepovrlag, qui tollit cornua ; oihaco, to swell ; vSvov, 
oISvov, truffle ; v$i>eu>, to nourish ; -vovt], nourished. 

Skr. ud'as, ud'an, ud'ar, udder ; ovOap, udder ; Lat. uber, 
udder; uber, plentiful; Goth, and, bonum ; Old Norse, amir. 
opes ; Aug. -Sax. ead, bonum, felicitas. 

Skr. ta'vant, tarn magnus ; Lat. tardus, quantus ; vent'er ; 
7rpe'oov, headland ; Lat. ann'on'a, supply of provisions (§ 101) ; 
-<.ov, Lat. -on, amplif. suff. ; mar'on'ion (§ 28) ; ouv (grows out 
of what precedes). 

ovdvkevuj, /3oii6u\evu>, to dress with forced meat, stuffing, &c. ; 
aXX'ay, -dvros, sausage (ii. 10). 

Skr. vatsa, proles, vitulus, (in allocutione) earns, amicus ; 
eTtjs, clansman (ferrjs) ; trapoq, eraipo?, companion, friend ; 
vitulus, a calf ; iraXog, id. 

Skr. iyant, tantum ; hiyant, quantum (v dropped from vant) : 
>fuTe, as (cf. yavat) ; Skr. td'vant, so great, so far, so long in 
time; ya'vant, yavat (how great, how far, how long in time); 
ero? (feros), year ; Skr. vat'sara, annus, the fifth year in the 
five- or six-year cycle, also sixth year in the six-year cycle (v. 
(i, recurrent period) ; 7T|0>/t>h', last year's ; crijre?, tijtcs, this year 
(i. 3); Lat. vet'us; evravros, period, year (§ 37, evo$-\- ero?, farog). 

§ 35. mj„ m.n , bigness, increase. 

unrig, great (Hesych.) ; /unai, very (Hesych.) ; met'd'lx, 



sec. 37.1 GROUNDS OF THE SIXTH PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 153 

meddix, medix, mcdixtuticus (§ 58), supreme magistrate, Oscan. 
(fxan + Skr. ty' dominari = matyic, met'd'zc) ; medi'pontus, 
thick rope (ii. 33). 

fivSpos, lump ; fjiuSoov, fungous flesh ; /ULvrrcuces, fungi ; Lat. 
in nl nl 'i/x, in architecture a projecting piece. 

yep-fxdg, -dSos, a stone (vii. 1). 

Skr. med'ra, penis, hircus ; fie^ea, /uu'fiea, virilia ; Lat. men- 
tula, the penis; mulo, id.; Ir. mcid, bigness; meidhe, stock, 
trunk; meideach, stallion ; Lat. fo'mes, firewood (§ 115); pal- me s, 
young wood (§ 15) ; termes, living wood (§ 9). 

Lat. mantissa, addition as makeweight, gain. 

Lat. mans ; mineo (eminens, &c.) ; ad'min'iculum, prop, aid. 

[xovOvXevoD, to dress with forced meat, stuffing, &c. 

afJLelvoov (d/uLevlcov), stouter, better. ave-[j.u>v>i, anemone (up- 
growth) ; apye-fxdoi'-}], poppy (§ 122); TroXe-ficov'iov, wild sage 
(viii. 10). 

Goth, manags, Eng. many. 

§ 36. vs , m s a , increase, growth, extension to a limit. 

O 6 b b ° 

Skr. vasu, res, divitiaa, adj. good up to requirement; vasna, 
pretium, price, value, reward, wages. 

<r<x<x - o?, ocro?, as great ; toVo-o?, to<to$, so great (ro m fO<r'oi). 

Lat. massa. 

ecos, until ; recog, relwg, so long ; ag, until (a-fog). 

/uLeo-<pi, /ueo-ipa, until (i. 8). 

ficcTTog, full. 

S 37. m , ft , s , s m ., limit of extension. The closeness of 

O 0' 6' 6 b 

the organs give a sense of limitation. 

jy/ro?, when (extension tj, limited, /a, o? abstract nominal suf- 
fix) ; T-tjiu.-os, then; Tr-rj/mog, when? Lat. £•/////, qu'um; qwon'- 
dam (i. 34), ifwwc (twn'ce), unquam (time ?m, indefinite quam) ; 
TO-ai/, 7rpu>-r]v, formerly, lately (§ 20); -wv limit of time, arwi/age, 
final syllable of the names of the months, Trkecwv full time (§ 18). 

us'que, us'quam, us'piam (limit of extention //*, indefinite). 

ijvCKa, ir'T]vi'Ka, when ; T'rjviKa then (§ 8) ; ai'dvys, artjvi'ig, 
everlasting (v. 24) ; >/i/-e/o/?, long (e/07?, suff.). 

Goth. //r«?i, sum-an, Eng. £A.W, some time. 

Sovp-yveiceg, spear's cast (spear-reach) ; Kevrp-rju'eicfc, goad- 
reached. 



154 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. vr. 

evos, last year's, last day of month, after interval of a day 
(limit of time) ; evcavros, period, year (§ 34) ; pereivdie (§ 20) ; 
anus, old woman (limit of life); i]vis, yearling. 

Lat. inter'im, ol'im (i. 5); irp'iv, before-time (§ 20); Lat. 
bimus, trimus, quadrimus, two, three, four years old (im, limited 
time). 

§ 38. p 6 , growth, production, increase. 

Ski*, h'u, esse, fieri; h u, bumi, terra; (puo\ to produce; 
inrep-cpev, uirep'(pvod$, excessively; Lat. fui ; futo. freq. futarc 
= sapius fuissc ; futatim, abundantly, frequently ; fctwo, coire 
cum femina, Lat. tri'bus, Umbr. trefu (i. 3). 

6\o'<poy'ros, pernicious (in its nature ; Skr. Vara, natura) ; 
(pw'is, blister, weal ; <pm, a man ; (pvjua., a growth ; (purov, a 
plant; Goth, bauan, to dwell. 

Lat. fo'cundus ; fe'tus; fcinina; fe'nus, interest; fcnum, hay. 

epv<rr{3)], mildew (rvbigo, red growth); fiu'vij, malt (grow- 
ing) ; Trpeo-fius, old man (S 20). 

Lat. fcfmel, Oscan. fd'mul'us, slave, servant (producer of 
increase, § 29) ; ftrmilia, the whole productive establishment ; 
farber, workman; fa'sttyo, to slope, raise to a point (Skr. stif, 
ascendere, make to rise). 

Lat. fio ; facio (a causative formation strengthened with c) ; 
T>]\e-(prop, wild purslane (ii. 19) ; virep-(praAos, haughty. 

Skr. pu'tra, filius ; pu'trz, filia ; Lat. pwer, pu'ella; irais, 
Trail's (xaf i$), child ; Tro'i'iw, to make, do (perhaps from a noun, 
iroFios) ; Lat. pubes, mature growth ; Skr. pu'.ma's (§ 31), pus, 
mas, vir. 

Skr. pi, fecundum reddere, augere, opimari, to swell; pinv, 
implere, to swell, make abundant ; plv, pinguem magnum esse ; 
pyai, pinguescere, to swell, be full; ir'iwv, fat; irlap, fat, sb. ; 
iriapu?, fat, fern, ine'ipa (Skr. pivart) ; <piap6$, plump, smooth 
and shining; 7rCjueXt], fat, grease (i. 20); Lat. pinguis. 

Lat. ccepi'o, to begin (§ 07). 

Skr, pi'tri, pater ; iru-r^p, Lat. pater {pa production, ter suff. 
of kindred, § 9) ; Goth, fadar, Ang.-Sax. fader, fader, Eng. 
father; Lat. patro, to bring to pass, accomplish (denom. fr. 
pater) ; im'petrio, to obtain by favourable omens (the augural 
word retained the older denom. form patrio) ; airira, u-rcpd, 



bkc. 40.J GROUNDS OF THE SIXTH PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 1 5o 

cnrcbvs ((J)ij(jd), 7ra7T7r«9, Lat. papa, father, derivatives from rra of 
7r<iT)jp ; 7ra7T7ro?, grandfather ; Lat. pappus, id. 

§ 39. p t ., 2V„, ^e' S rowtn > production, breaking forth, in- 
crease of substance or force. 

(pirvw, to produce ; <piTpos, stem of tree ; 7rp6o-(paT'os, fresh ; 
iraXwdiaT'os, old. 

■7roT<xiv6$, fresh, new; 7rr6p6os, a shoot; Lat. ccespit-, sod, 
green sward (§ 67). 

Lat. fust'is, club ; fusterna, the upper knotty part of fir 
tree ; fest'uca, stalk ; fus'us, spindle, rod. 

Lat. bet'ula, birch. 

(pOuvoo, to get before (breaking forth). 

7rlSa^ a fountain ; TTiSuto, to gush forth. 

fioo-Kw, to feed, nourish (cattle) ; av(3oo-T>]?, swineherd ; 
fiova (Lac.) = ayeX>] iralooov (increase). 

Lat. hestia (growth of life) ; Irish, beathain, headh, suste- 
nance ; beathach, bias, beast. 

Goth, lota, profit ; batiza, Eng. better ; Eng. bate, to refresh. 
ftoi), succour ; fioiyOos, helper. 

§ 40. p 6 t 6 , p 6 s & p 6 n ff p 6 m 6 , p 6 , pjc & r/ i; , pressure down, pres- 
sure, impact. 

TruOfxiji', 7rvv()uj~, the bottom ; -Trufxarog, the nethermost, last ; 
ttovtos, the sea (the deep) ; \j/u(W, downward, steep ; Lat. 
puteus, pit; 2^ssnm, to the bottom; podcx, the anus. 

(3ev6os, the depth of the sea ; fiv96$, /3i/cnxo9, id. ; a/^Wcro?, 
<"i(3v6o$, bottomless; fiaOus, deep; fioOpos, hole, pit; Lat. buln- 
lus t sausage; (Srio-aa, glen; tiQuc (3wo-<tu>, to build nest (make 
nursing-bottom x. 8); Lat. bvMum, tomb; (aXtyfiduoo, to sink 
in the sea ; (3u(t), to stuff. 

Lat. lonyabo, the rectum ; apex'abo, a sausage with an apex ; 
ab'domen, the paunch (§ GO) ; Irish, abhach, the entrails of a beast. 

(3u7tt(d, to clip (e(3d<pt]V, 2nd aor. pass.). 

Lat. fundus, bottom, land; funus, burial (down). 

KpafiaT'os, a small bed (ii. 3). 

Goth, biuds, table ; badi, Eng. bed. 

Lat. fodio. 

la.t.pendeo, to hang ; fiondus ; j^ndo, to suspend, earpentum^ 
carriage (§ 1, pressure down). 



156 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. vi. 

Lat. ob, facing (suggests coming against what faces us). 

Skr. a/pi, super ; eirl, upon ; TrieQa, to press. 

Old Lat. ape = prohibe, compesce. 

iirooo, to press down ; fVo?, what presses ; 'nrTO/uui, to press 
hard, oppress. 

i(3Sjj„ plug in ship's bottom ; ifidvi], basket for draw-well 
(dip). ai7ru$, sheer down. 

7reo-(T09, a plug ; iraarcraXo^, peg ; Lat. pcssidus, a bolt ; Skr. 
pasas, membrum, virile ; 7reo?, irocrOi], id*. ; Lat. prwputiwm ; 
sala'putium, mannikin (salacious ?). 

Skr. pat* , pant, pad, ire (treading); pat', pat' a, put' in, 
pant' an, via ; Lat. pons. 

Skr. pad, pes ; pada, pes, gradus ; Lat. pes, ttovs, foot ; 
Goth, fotus, Eng. foot ; ttolto?, path ; 7rarew, to tread ; -TreT'av- 
pov, perch (high footing, § 81) ; tttuiw, to stumble (hit the foot) ; 
~e(a, foot, bottom ; irefrihov, sandal ; 7reTi?, kind of fungus 
without stalk ; 7re(^09, on foot ; 7rtSiov, a plain ; dp'7re§i]S, level 
(fit footing, i. 26); e\ecr-7ris, marsh land (iii. 18); Lat. pulpi- 
t a in, scaffold, stage (i. 12) ; ir'e^ov, the ground. 

iSare'ft), to tread, to cover (as animals);- fiuSos, a walk; 
/3ac7^w, to walk, march. * 

fiao-ToYw, to lift; Lat. basterna, litter; bajulus, a porter; 
bojai, collar with which slaves were punished. 

Trrepva, heel, sole, base ; irrepvi^, stalk. 

/3alva), to walk, step, stand on a footing, go or come, mount ; 
f3d-(ris, a stepping, steps, that whereon one steps or stands ; 
pao-fXevs, king (firmness of national movement or posture, 
fidcri?, Aao9,) ; fid'Opov, that on which anything steps^or stands ; 
fteBaio9, firm (the redupl. intensifies the footing) ; '/&a/3«(Ja>, to 
dance ; -jrpo-fia-rov, cattle, sheep (walk forward) ; ftwp.69, raised 
platform, stand (to mount). 

fiuKTpov, a staff; Lat. baculum, id.; bacillwfn, dimirk 

Goth, bain, Eng. bone, Ger. bein (bein, leg^ indicates that the 
idea is pressure on support, as in the root /3«, of which per- 
haps the initial b was left as /; in bindan, ii. 33) because iiothic 
had no initial p). 

Trufiapify, to hop, dance; trip ml "in in, dance, hopping of 
grains (§ 11). ^ ^ ~ 

7rt]§6v s blade of oar ; 7r>]i)a\iov } rudder ; 7r>j()<ao, to leap ^ener- 
getic pressure). 



BKO. 14.] GROUNDS OF THK SIXTH I'HASK OF ITTKIlAXt K. 157 

o"iri8v6$, close ; <r<piyyM, to squeeze, straiten ; tr(f>iyyla t ava- 
rice ; (bifjios, muzzle ; Lat. spissus, thick, close. 

Skr. pld. premere ; Goth. fitan, to travail in birth. 

Lat. fistuca, rammer, beetle; infestus, pointed against; 
/' ndo, to strike. 

TTUTuarao), to strike, knock ; ttitvXos, stroke, beating 1 . 

Lat. but no, to beat ; anda'batu, a gladiator who fought 
blinded (§ 127). 

Skr. rod', pulsare, tundere, occidere. vad\ bad', to press ; 
M0tw, to thrust, push. 

§ 41. p 6 , pf ., pji- 6 , force, power of possession. 

Goth, aba, man, husband ; abrs, mighty. 

Skr. pat, dominari, to be in possession ; pati, dominus, 
maritus, master ; patnl, uxor, mistress ; iromna, lady, mistress ; 
iroViy, husband ; Lat. potis ; possum ; possideo ; possido, to take 
possession; potio, to put into the power of; potior; Goth. 
-faths, master ; Secr-7r6rt]9, master (§ 51) ; 8eo"iroiva. (<Wttotw«), 
mistress ; Lat. Jios'pes, guest (iii. 9) ; sos^Jes, saviour, safe 
(§ 104) ; -pit-, in possession of. 

§ 42. v.n ., r .a ., increase, gain. 

Skr. pand, coacervare, colligere ; pan, lucnhcare, ludere 
(tesseris), vendere, to buy, barter, bet; pana, ludus, pretium, 
prize; km/, vantif, mercator; Lat. ven'eo, vnvdo (to go, to 
give in exchange, i.e., for gain); venus, sale; wj/o?, price, 
purchase, article of traffic; x ei P'^ u ' a ^ handicraftsman (-ewe, 
verbal formative, as if from -oQjd, -a'£oo, sells his hands). 

a(j>evo9, wealth ; d(pi>eio$, wealthy. 

§ 43. 2Ve> swellin g- 

(pvo-dot)., <io puff up ; <pv(TKi], stuffed pudding, blister ; (fivcrm, 
light barley cake ; (pva-UiWo?, kind of bread ; (pav<Tiy£, a 
blister; Goth. &m£, leaven. 

Lat. pustula, ^pusula, a pimple, bubble; irocrdla, a stye on 
the eyelid. •■' . . 

§ 44. v 6 m 6 , p 6 m 6 , p^, p 6 , swelling, projection. 
Lat. vomica, a boil, ulcer, tumour. 

Treftfpk, 7re/uL(pi^, bubble, blister, inflation ; 7rofx(po\, blister ; 
TrojiMpjkv^, bubble, boss €f shield, slag, scoriae. 



158 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. vi. 

Lat. 'papula, pimple ; papilla, nipple, pimple. 
Lat. famex, a swelling; femur, the thigh. 
Lat. fendica', sausages; pantex, paunch, bowels; pendigo, 
pendix, an internal ulcer. 

Lat. pinna, larger feather of wing or tail, battlement, pinnacle. 

§ 45. pt.,pn 6 , 2\y pressure to an end. 

Lat. peto ; sup'peto, to come up to; supped'ito, to come up 
to abundantly; per'pes, perpetuus, going on throughout. 

Goth, finthan, Eng. find. 

Skr. up, pervenire ; Lat. ap'iseor, ad'ip'iscor, ind'ip'iscor, to 
reach after, attain. 

§ 46. p t ,, resistance of force or pressure. 

Lat. fides (sense of the sure and undisturbed) ; fidus ; 
fiducia (as if from fidux) ; fidvsta, ea quee maximaB fidei sunt; 
TrelOoo, to cause to trust or believe ; iricrTos, trusty, believing 
(tfid', (pid, 7r!9, fid, Grassmann). 

Skr. bad, pad, firmum esse; Lat. op'pidum, a town, fortified 
place, barriers of the circus (firm against) ; oppzdo, certainly, 
absolutely. 

§ 47. y 6 m 6 , v 6 p 6 , r G , p & m.p.. growth, due development or 
excellence. 

Goth, vaniba, Eng. womb. 

Lat. vop'iscus, a twin born duly after premature birth and 
death of the other. 

Lat. opetis, a plant which promotes childbirth. 

Lat. op's, power, wealth, help, resources; op'tirrms ; op'to, to 
choose, desire (sense of excellence); prced'op'iont = prceoptant. 

Skr. auiha, mother. 

ojUL—vi], produce, wealth. 

§ 48. p Jc & pjv., /;, growth, increase, breaking forth. 

Skr. bah, crescere ; balm, multum ; b'uyas, plus; Goth. 
bagms, tree. (L'ah, Grassmann). 

ftou- great; f3ow(B<l\ioi>, a kind of gourd (§ 15); Lat. boa, 
eruption, swelling. 

fiovfiwv, groin (where the parts rise) ; Lat. buhinare, men- 
struo sanguine inquinare. 

Lat. bufo, toad = (pu&uXos (as if swollen). 



sec. 50.] GROUNDS OF THE SIXTH PHASE OF QTTERANCE. 1 59 

Bovvos, hill ; fiovviovi earth-nut ; fiowius, plant of the rape 
kind. 

Skr. punga, multitude ; pun'g'a, heap, mass ; puga, corpora- 
tion, multitude, host. 

6\o'(puyS(cv, a large pimple (§ 86); (jwyeOXov, swelling of 
glands. 

<pwKi$, kind of pear. Lat. ficus, fig. 

(btiyog, kind of oak ; Lat. fagus, beech. 

Tnjy}'/, spring, well. 

k>]kiu>, to gush forth. 

§ 49. /"./.'., p*k , p .'" .. pressure of support, effort, force 
density, impact. 

Skr. vah, vehere ; Lat. velio ; Goth. Krim. waghen ; Eng. 
waggon. 

Skr. rah, bah, operam dare, niti ; Lat. vehemens ; Goth. 
n iij(n), Eng. vie. 

Lat. pervious, obstinate ; vinco, to conquer. 

Lat. im'becillus. 

irvK'vo?, irvica, 7revK'u.\i/ui.os, close packed, thick ; tt^o?, Lat. 
buxus, box-tree (densa foliis) ; iru-^u<i, thick; hat. pedis, a plant 
called also consolida, sympliyton. 

7ri'£, adv. boxing; 7ruy/jLi'i, fist; Lut. pugil, boxer; pugnus, 
box ; pugna, a fight. 

Lat. pavio, to strike, ram, tread down ; pavimentum ; Old 
Lat. puvire = ferire ; ttum, to strike ; popa, attendant at sacri- 
fice, qui malleo bovem tundit. 

§ 50. /■./.'., k., increase, growth. 

Skr. vak's, crescere ; rah, id. ; vaksas, pectus (swelling 
roundness) ; Lat. vacca, cow (productive) ; uxor ; avPoa, av£avu>, 
to increase ; av^'s, kind of tunny ; Goth, vahsyan, to grow ; 
vaihts, thing ; Eng. whit. 

Lat. augeo, to increase with substance or force; aiictum'nus 
(§ 57); auctor ; auctoritas ; audio; auxilium ; Goth, aukan, 
to increase; auk, moreover; ak, but; Goth. roJcrs, usury. 

Goth, auhuma, high. 

oyjQos, o^'drj, rising ground, hill, bank ; o^dew, to swell 
with emotion ; o^0-o</3 - o?, stripe on front of ^Itodv (ii. ol, raised 
edge ? prcetexta) ; o^«, intensive adverb. 



160 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. vi. 

cikt/i, raised place or edge ; uyav, very much. 
aiyrXco^r, oak with good acorns, bulbous plant (§ 96) ; aiyk, 
kernel in pine. 

§ 51. v h , tension of energy. 

Lat. vegco, to arouse ; vegetus, lively ; vigeo ; vigil ; vix, with 
effort ; Goth, vakan, Eng. vxtlie. 

Skr. og' validum esse ; vyn'j$, sound, healthy. 

§52. r ./.' . vji., mjc., ni.n., v.s R , v r i r , v., />./,'., p.n,, tension 

0' b' 0' 0' o J- o o' J- 6' 

of desire, hope, expectation, purpose, towards its object or 
reaching its object ; breath presses through closure in i. 

Skr. r«x> ^o,nks, vau'k", desiderare, optare ; r ccf)(a, voluntas, 
potestas, imperium ; avu^ (fam£), king (determines by his 
will) ; avatccos, with good heed ; €kwi> (peKwi/), willing ; eiajTi, 
by grace of, by virtue of, on account of, quod attinet ad (dat. 
like i6t)]ti) ; aeicoov, oikcov, against one's will ; eu^o/nai, to pray, 
wish for (cf. Skr. van'k'\) ; Lat. percunc'tor, to ask parti- 
cularly (§ 22); Ger. wiinschm, Eng. wish; eveica., by virtue 
of, on account of, quod attinet ad (Skr. tank'* ; cf. Ger. 
innivillen). 

Skr. van, amare, cupere, venerari; Lat. veneror (seek favour) ; 
rrn.it /, favour ; Venus ; venustus, lovely ; vinnulus, sweet, delight- 
ful ; venor, to hunt after ; Goth, un'vunands, troubled ; vens, ex- 
pectation, hope ; Skr. vd'ma, pulcher (van'ma). 

Skr. v't, desiderare, amare ; fit •veco, coire cum femina ; 
arras, beloved youth; Lat. in'intus, unwilling; vi'tulor, make 
joyful thanksgiving ; avmaros (avofiaTos), unexpected ; oiw, 
oiofxai, to look for, purpose, expect, think. 

Goth, vcihs, holy (devoted to the gods for worship) ; Lat. 
victim a. 

Skr. vas, amare ; a/3e<xcrot>, to desire (Hesych.) ; in'ves'tis, 
pure of intercourse with women ; ves'ti'ceps, of puberty, im- 
moral (ii. 8). 

Skr. ril, voluptate frui, colere. 

Lat. voveo, to vow, wish. 

Skr. A'"//- venerari, amare. 

Skr. manks, to wish, desire ; mahgala, luck, blessing; man'h', 
venerari; mah, to honour, hallow, delight, rejoice; maha, 
holiday, festival ; /xnKUf), blessed; Lat. mac'tus, glorified, hon- 



53 i GROUNDS OF THE SIXTH PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 161 

oured ; macto, to glorify, offer sacrifice; mag'mentum, offering ; 
/ix(iy o$, Magian. 

Skr. pan, to admire. 

S 53. tJc., t 6 u 6 , t 6 v & , increase, production, arrival at realisa- 
tion ; the breath presses over the root of the tongue in u. 

Skr. daks, crescere, be of use for ; daJcsa, aptus, habilis, 
dexter (serviceable, productive of what is wanted) ; dakdna, 
d extra ; 8e'£io$, on the right ; Lat. dexter, on the right iter, 
correl. one of two, § 9) ; Goth, taihsvs, §e£io$. 

Skr. tu, crescere, to have worth or might (development) ; 
tu in/a, altus ; tuka, proles; rcti/?, ravs, great, much; Skr. tlv, 
corpulentum, turgidum esse ; Lat. (Sab.) tela, a hill ; tuber, a 
knob ; tuber, an apple. 

Skr. tahnan, child ; tiktoo, to beget, bring forth ; re/coy, 
t&kvov, child ; tok€u$, parent ; Goth, theihan, to thrive ; tlicihs, 
time, y^povos, icaipos (growth) ; Lat. tignum, building material ; 
ret^os, wall of a town ; to!)(os, wall of a house ; tcktwv, 
builder ; -reyvi], art ; Skr. talcs, facere, fabricari ; reu'^w (red. 
aor. infin. Terviceiv), to prepare, make ready, make ; revyog, 
a tool ; TiTva-KOfxai, to prepare, make, aim ; ti'/co?, rvyos, tool 
for work with stones. 

evSvK-ews, serviceably (cf. daJcsa). Goth, tact/an, to do, 
make (production) ; taui, work. 

^u'va-jxaL, to be able. 

Goth, dugan, to be of use, serviceable ; dauhts, a feast, 
entertainment. 

Lat. dautia, public banquet. 

Goth, digrei, thickness, plenty. 

Goth, tagl, hair (outgrowth, see § 9) ; Ang.-Sax. tdgel, Eng. 
ta il ; Old Norse, tag, twig. 

Tvyxfiiw, to hit a mark, meet, happen, come to pass ; 
Tvyji, chance. 

Skr. ihilivtri, Qvyd-nip, Goth, dauJvtar, Eng. daughter; 
Goth, ga'dauJcans, family. The root in duhitri is duh, in 
the other words d'ug, the t in dauhtar requiring h before it 
instead of k, the meaning is production ; duh and dvy are 
reducible on Grassmann's principle to d'ug'. German zeugen, 
to engender, produce, supposes an original root dak, akin to 
daks. 

L 



1 62 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. v.. 



Tevylrt^, a kind of fragrant grass (vii. 11) ; revOaXis, knot- 
grass (§ 10) ; rev-QpLov (ii. 20), reu'Kpiov (ii. 3), kinds of 
chamaedrys. In these, rev probably expresses growth as a 
tuft ; cf. Skr. tu, rav?. 

yi'j-Ouov, yiyreiov, kind of leek (§ 67). 

S 54. t 6 , t Q s t , pressure of holding fast, firmness. 

Skr. daman, funis, taenia. 

dew, to bind ; $eju.a, band ; Sear'fios, bond ; Sea-TTOT-tjs, master 
(S 41); Sea-Troiva, mistress (SeinroTvia, § 41); Lat. di'tio, 
dominion. 

Goth, ga'ihvast'yan, to establish, fasten. 

S 55. tjc a , tji,, iJ B , tension, straight, direct. 

S 6 6 to (r to 6' 

Lat. duco ; Goth, tiultan, to draw. 

idus, direct effort or impulse ; 1669, direct ; ev-Qu<s, straight ; 
'lO/ua, movement as of a dove ; '16 a p, eidup, forthwith. 

S 56. t n , growth, increase. 

Skr. dan, fruges ferre, parere ; d' ana, divitiae, movable 
possessions, prize, booty ; eirOeio/?, ev-Qww, thriving. 
O/?, 0e/?, 6iv, heap, summit, beach. 

§ 57. t 6 n 6 , t 6 , t 6 u 6 , t % m# t 6 v Q , tension, extension of space or 
time. 

Skr. tan, extendere ; tantu, filum ; tanu, corpus (extension 

of bulk). 

Telvoo, to stretch; Ttralvu), id.; ravvco, id.; reravos, strain, 
tension ; rava-, raw-, ravau-, long ; ravaos, extended ; Taveia, 
beam ; raivia, band ; Lat. taniacw, long strips of pork ; to 1/09, 
strain ; rao-is, tension ; Goth, ufthanyan, to extend ; Lat. 
Undo; Unto, to try; Unco; con'tinuus (ovvexw), holding 
together without break ; pro'tinis, pro'tinus, forward without 
break ; Unus, -oris, a snare (Unco) ; tenia, up to (extension) ; 
at/tince, boundary stones (reach to) ; antenna, sail-yard (§ 82) ; 
tinus laurustinus (spreading) ; tmiaria, a plant, perhaps teu- 
crium polium ; afipo-rovov, a plant (iii. 2, delicate shoots). 

Goth, thinsan, to draw. 

Goth, tains, twig ; tainyo, basket ; Ang.-Sax. tan, germinans ; 
Old Norse, tana, crescere, virescere. Goth, aihva-tundi, the 
plant horse-tail (v. 1). 



sec. 58. J (J ROUNDS OF THE SIXTH PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 1G3 

Lat. -tznus, suff. of time, pris'tinus, anno'tinus a year old ; 
Skr. sand'tana, a)ternus (§ 64); Lat. temyus, time (S 27); 
tenvpes'tas, special time, season ; Goth, athn, atathni, year ; 
Lat. annus (citnus). 

&'iv, Sodv, for a long time ; Lat. dowec, don'ic'um ace, as 
long as (-cc, -ic, is a nominal suffix, i. 2). Lat. merce'ddn'ius, 
mcrce'dm'us, intercalary month (iv. 16). Skr. ta'ddmm, tunc 
{ddnini, ace. of a stem dani from dan = Srfv ; the ace. ex- 
presses up to a limit) ; Lat. denique, at last (Skr. dani, -qu- 
nom. suff. i. 2) ; denvum, at length (ace.) ; pri'dem, long ago 
(§ 20); vden'tvdem, now and then (i demons, of the near, ti of 
the more remote, as in iste, i. 5, dem, time) ; tan'dem (double root). 

Skr. ta'da, tunc ; yarld, quum ; sa-dd (§ 64), semper ; 
y'orj, now (t]- demons.) ; Lat. quaivdo (quam). 

Skr. g'd'tu unquam (g'a, pron.); Lat. ma'twrus, ma'twtinus 
(§ 31, matu is either full time or time beginning); noc'tu, in 
the night-time ; Old Lat. simvtu, at the same time (i. 32). 

Skr. a'd tend, nunc (a pron., -nd instrum.) ; Goth, ayuk'- 
duth, eternity (v. 24). 

Lat. inter' dwatim, now and then (time du, between inter) ; 
dum, whilst, until (probably ace, time to a limit); du'dum, 
completed time. 

Lat. diu (as if from a root div). 

Skr. du-ra, longinquus remotus (daviyas, comp., davist'a, 
super.) 

Lat. actu'tum, immediately (at time of act) ; aitctunvnus, 
autumn (time of increase). 

Sij'Oa, for a long time ; §t]'po<?, long. 

to-t£, then (i. 3) ; ro-re, then as distinguished from another 
time ; o're ; irore ; eu-re, when (time coincident, i. 5) ; evrore, 
sometimes. 

Goth, than'de, when, whilst (§ 37, cf. S>j-6d). 

§ 58. t 6 , n 6 t 6 , s G t 6 , production, growth. 

Skr. adi, primus, initium ; anda, ovum, testiculus ; Goth. 
Krim. ada, egg. 

Lat. cal'cndcv, beginning of the month (S 8). 

atria, cause ; alrios, guilty. 

Skr. attd, mater, an elder sister, elder sister of mother 
arret, Lat. atta, Goth, atta, father; Goth, aithci, mother. 



104 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. vi. 

ri'iOt], grandmother ; rtjO!?, TijOl-firos (i. 8), aunt (the redu- 
plication probably indicates kindred of the second degree, 
strengthened by fii, which expresses the collateral, see i. 8 ; 
kindred being thought in its origin, viz. generation) ; Oe'io?, 
uncle (the i makes the kindred proximate). 

<tti)t>i, old word for yvvi'i. 

rdra, Terra, Lat. tat a, terms of address to elders, father ; 
Skr. tata, amicus (used only in vocative). 

a$)'jv, acorn. Lat. ador, spelt. 

SoOn'jv, a small abscess or boil. 

avOos, flower, shoot ; vaucivO'os, hyacinth (§ 120) ; epe(3-ivQ-os 
(ii. 53); \e(3'iv9-og (ii. 51); chick-pea; 'tovOog, root of hair, 
young hair, eruption; Skr. and'as, herb, verdure. 

Goth, thiuda, nation, people; thiudans, king (author of 
national greatness) ; Oscan. meddix'tuticus, supreme magistrate 
(§ 35) ; Lat. totus. 

TiT-a.%, king; tit'^vij, queen (Hesych.). 

G-oth. thiuth, good; thius, servant, thivi, fern, (productive); 
t/irris, neut. servant. 

0»/9, hired servant. 

St]-fjio?, land, people; Siyfjajnip, Ceres ; Lat. damium, sacrifi- 
cium Bonaa Dea3 (§d/nos) ; Sea, $>} = yala, yrj. 

Skr. nit-amba, collis, nates (§ 78); Lat. natis, rump; nates, 
buttocks. 

5 59. t a , -si., increase, progress. 

O . 6' b b ■*■ ° 

Skr. ed', augere, to thrive ; Lat. ob'csus (cf . oblongus). 

aSivos, abundant, vehement ; a$po$, full grown, strong, great ; 
aS-fi-aivco = vyiaivw (Hesych.) ; aS'Sij*, -<X 0? > a measure (full 
content, i. 21). 

Skr. ati, trans, ultra; Lat. at'avus (pater, avus, proavus, 
dbavus, atavus, tritavus) ', en, yet, still, further; Lat. etiam, et. 

Skr. at'a, at'o, deinde, etiam. 

Lat. ad, at, particle of addition; Goth, ath'than, but, for, 
and (than, accus. of the demons., i. 2, 3). 

§ 60. t 6 , t 6 p & , pressure down. 

Skr. ad'i, super; ad' as, sub (i. 0); ad'a'ra, inferior; 
acfa-ma, infimus. The -i of ad'i is of locative significance, the 
-a of ad' a expresses motion. Pressure down in position is 



BEo. 61.] GROUNDS OF THE SIXTH PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 165 

support, but pressure down with motion expresses what goes 
down. 

a$es = 7ro'^e? ; aSios, downward, steep. 

e-n-)')Tpt/uos, thick, thronged ; ewijer'avos, abundant (cf. Lat. 
sat). 

Su7reSov, TonreSov (SydireSov), floor, ground (cf. TreSov, § 40) ; 
€v8utt6$, native ; uXXoSwrrog, foreign ; woiiu7rus, 7ro"Ta7ro?, 
from what country ; 7ravTo-Sa7r6$, of all sorts (countries) ; 
T>/Ae-^a7ro9, from a far country ; r)[Ae-8a7r6s, of our country. 
Sams, Tcnrqs, carpet, rug ; Lat. tapete, carpet. 

Tcnrewos, low. 

T<x(pog, To.<p>], burial ; dcnrToo, to bury ; rucppo?, a trench. 

eSa(po$, bottom, ground ; Si<ppos, chariot, seat. 

Su7rTa>, to dive. 

Goth, diups, Eng. deep ; daupyan, to dip. 

Lat. tibia, the shin-bone (cf. crreZ/Sto, § 71). Ti<pi], kind of 
spelt (cf. stipula). 

Lat. tibula, Scotch fir (cf. stipes, § 71, growing with a 
remarkable stem). 

Ti(p>], water-spider that runs on top of water, kind of boat 
(pressure supported) ; Lat. tvppula, water-spider ; rictus, night- 
mare. 

Svoo, to cause to sink, to plunge, to get into ; ivSvco, Lat. 
induo, to get into, to put on; eV<5Jco, to get out of, strip off; 
Lat. exuo (exduo), ex'dutce = exuvice ; ex'uvice, what is stripped 
off (v euphonic) ; iivduvice, clothes ; re'duvia, cutis circa ungues 
resoluta ; iivdwsium, woman's under garment. 

Tu<p>j, plant used for stuffing ; Lat. to'mentum x stuffing of 
cushions. 

Lat. adep's, fat, corpulence; Siy^os, fat of the paunch; Lat. 
db'do'men (§ 40). 

S 61. t a , t r s., tension of desire to its object. 

O 6' o 6 

Skr. d\ colere, venerari, to wish. 
Irish, deidh, desire, longing. 
SllC'rifiat, to seek ; fyT'ew, to seek. 

eiri'TtjS-es, enough for the purpose, on purpose (rtjS, pur- 
pose). 

Oeo-arucrOai, to desire, pray for ; -dearo?, desired. 

Oeo'?, god (Oeo-o'?, see Curtius, who connects it with the 



166 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. vi. 

preceding) ; OeV/ce-Ao?, godlike (§ 124) ; Qea-ivig, inspired in 
speech (ix. 25) ; 6ea-<paTOs, spoken by God (ix. 1). 

§ 62. s p 6 , u 6 p 6 , pressure up. 

Lat. sub, super (-cr expresses transition upwards, the corre- 
lative of below) ; supra (abl. suprad) ; suppus, sup'inus, on the 
back (in an upward position) ; summits (submits) ; subiimis (ii. 
36) ; sub'ter, beneath (i. 1) ; sus- = subs (i. 9). 

V7r6, v-ttui, under ; inrep, over (cf. super) ; v-warog, highest ; 
virepov, pestle, knocker (the upper) ; virepai, upper ropes 
attaching sail to yard ; v\lsos, height ; Kop-ucp'i'j, top of head 
(§ 1); vtt'tlos, on the back (cf. supinus) ; Skr. vpct, ad, under, 
at ; upari, super ; Goth, uf, under ; ufctr, over ; iwp, above ; 
Eng. up ; Goth, uf'yo, superabundant ; uf'to, cmfto, probably 
(up for realisation) ; uf'ta, Eng. oft (one upon another) ; Goth. 
itbils, Eng. evil (Goth, vf ; cf. suffer). 

§ 63. sjc a , k c , pressure, force. 

Skr. salt, sustinere, posse, to overcome, hold possession, 
bear ; j^ak, posse, valere ; e^oo (ea-^ov, crynjcrw), o-yeQo), to have, 
hold ; ay^eOpo?, ay^eSpo?, patient ; crKeOpo?, careful, exact ; cryer- 
A«o?, unflinching ; cry^arig, a state (holding with a continuance) ; 
io-Yft) (red u pi.), to hold, restrain ; rary^'g, strength (f^X" 7 ' 9 ? § -'-') » 
eiCToop, holding fast ; oyog, what bears, a carriage, what holds ; 
o^evw, to ride ; o^ey?, a fastening ; Sy^eTo?, conduit ; oy^avrj, a 
handle ; oy^ima, a hold ; o^os, stronghold ; oyypog, eyypos, firm, 
secure ; oy^Xevg, a lever ; ey^/ma, an obstacle, stay ; oy^'/, support, 
food ; OKtoyrii hold, stay ; oicyfi, a prop ; Kitcelv, to bear ; kikv?, 
strength ; k'lwv, pillar ; Kwyevw, to lift or raise up ; ctj/ko?, 
weight in the balance ; crftko?, strong ; aaKras, physician ; 
v7r-io")^i'60fxai, to undertake. 

eirbarKvpos, governor ; Goth, sihora, lord ; Ang.-Sax. sigora, 
victory ; Goth, sigis, victory. 

Goth. Sicilian, to owe, Eng. shall ; Goth, skalks, servant 
(mareschal, seneschal). 

<tkij7ttcd, a-Kiypl-K'TO), to prop (hi. 82) ; <x/o/7ra>i/, g-klttuiv, cr/ca- 
7T09, a staff; a-KU7r'epS-a, a game of two lifting each other by 
rope through a pole (§ 91); Lat. scapits, a shaft; scipio, a 
staff; scopus, scojpio, stalk or pedicle of grapes. 

a-fcOog, a burden ; a^'flo/Aai, to be weighed down, grieved. 



sue. 85.] GROUNDS OF THE SIXTH PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 1 67 

iir'eiyu), to press on ; ^X" ,/0? ' f°°tstep, trace, sole ; acpiov, 
l-aised deck, scaffold (footing). 

Skr. ay', to drive ; uyw, to lead, bring ; Lat. ago, to drive, 
lead, apply energy; auriga, driver with reins (aure'ago, ii. 12); 
quadrigae, four horse (guadri'agd) ; uyooi', assembly (bringing), 
contest (force) ; uyvid, street, public place (where they bring, 
&c.) ; ^yiofiai, to lead, lead to an estimate ; dyvvOeg, weights to 
stretch threads of warp (ii. 58) ; aypos, land (where one drives 
or leads) ; Goth, akrs, land; Eng. acre; Lat. ager, per'eger (Skr. 
para, alius); mi'gro (Skr. ml, ire; me, mutare) ; ex'ag'ium, a 
weighing, balance (the balance shows how much weight the 
thing draws, i.e., agit, and the utmost that it draws, i.e., 
exigit) ; agina, the opening in which the tongue of the balance 
plays (the drawing place) ; examen, the tongue of balance 
(indicates the utmost draught, exagmen), swarm (led forth). 

/c' ( ., impact, 

aK'fxwv, anvil. 

Lat. ico, to strike ; 'lySis, a mortar, a stamping dance. 

S 64. s,. s.t,, s.n,, tension, line drawn, extension of space, 
of time. 

Skr. sl'td, a furrow ; si-man, m.aso. the division of the hair, 
fern, boundary, scrotum (from the line on it) ; slra, a plough ; 
send, battle array, army drawn up. 

Skr. snayic, tendo, nervus. 

0. H. Ger. sinnan, proficisci, tendere ; Goth, gasin'fha, 
fellow-traveller; sanrl'yan, Eng. send (cans.). 

Skr. san'd, semper, von jeher; Lat. semper (§ 27); Ang.- 
Sax. sin, perpetuo ; Ger. sin-griln, evergreen. 

Skr. sa-dd, semper (§ 57); Lat. Sa-turnus (§ 9); sce'cidum ; 
se'dum, house-leek, called also semperfiorum, sempervivum, 
aizoon (cf. Skr. sadd). 

Lat. scircx ; sen'sim, slowly ; Goth, sins, old ; sineigs, seneigs, 
old; sainyan, to tarry, delay. 

Goth, seithu, late; -stiths, longer time. 

S 65. /•///,,, Z'.-s\„ k M extension of time. 

O 6 6' t> 6 6' f 

Skr. x' rt X'' ' vani > continually recurrent, every (iv. 6); %ana, 
■vanais (instr.), tarde, lente ; Lat. cunc'tor, to tarry, wait ; 
cascus, old (Oscan.) ; cas'nar, old man (Oscan. Skr. nri, viii. 3). 



168 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. vr. 

§ 66. k 6 n 6 , production, growth. 

Skr. g'on, gignere ; /am, g'ani, mulier, uxor ; ylyvofxai, 
eyevo^v, 2nd aor., to come into being ; yeved, race, time or 
place in reference to birth ; ydva, woman ; yi»'i<Tio?, belonging 
to the race, genuine ; Ka<riyvi]T09, brother, sister (§ 07) ; Lat. 
gigno ; gnavus, navus, active in accomplishment (productive) ; 
genuinus ; genius, tutelar deity (from birth), natural inclination ; 
in'gens, monstrous, great (not the course of nature) ; nascor 
(gnascor); gnatus ; -gnus, in beivi'gnus, mal-rgnus, privi'gnus 
step-child (i. 8) ; prce'gnans, with child ; ylyag, giant (redup. 
growth). 

yeyaa = yeyova, from root go. ; yeyeios, ancient ; v^ya-Teos, 
new (i. 10). 

Lat. in'guen, the groin, organs of generation (wherein they 
are). 

yvvS], fiai'd, woman (yfuva), yvva'uc- (ik fern. suff. cf. g>'n>'- 
//-;>-); Goth. quern, a wife; quino, a woman; kuni, race; 
hnoda, stock ; kindins, chief (of clan). 

yiyyis, plant of rape or turnip kind (growth of tuber). 

Lat. cunnus, pudendum muliebre, courtesan. 

Lat. cuncs, cradle, nest of bird, birth or earliest childhood ; 
cunabula, id. 

Skr. km", kanya, puella ; kanlyas, junior ; kolivo?, new. 

Skr. kandala, germen, surculus ; kanda, radix bulbosa escu- 
lenta ; kov$v\os, knob ; koXo'kvvOos, round pumpkin (ii. 1). 

yovvo?, hill (cf. fiowo?, § 48) ; rfioov, tjow, beach, bank of river 
(akin to yovvo?, cf. § 07, Skr. go, yafi- yrji'-, at-). 

•vtovw/jLi, to heap up earth; Goth, fair'guni, mountain 
(§20). 

Irish, chuachd, massa, caput; cnoc, a hill; cnag, a knob. 
Skr. naga, mons, arbor. 

Goth, dirginnan, Eng. begin (du = Eng. to); gansyan, to 
cause. 

Lat. conor, to undertake. 

§ 67. v 6 , k 6 v G , k 6 s 6 , k 6 , growth, production. 

Skr. x'vh crescere, tumescere; icveoo, to be pregnant; kuu>, 
to have in the womb, to impregnate ; Kol>ifxa, Ki»]^.a, that which 
is conceived ; kokuui, the ancients (cf. yeyeios, § 60) ; Kv^ia, 
wave ; koXo-kujuu, large wave (ii. 1). 



wo. 09.] GROUNDS OF THE SIXTH PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 169 

eyKia(T)j(Ti<i, impregnation ; Kiaadw, eyKicra-aw, to long like 
pregnant women. 

Skr. x'u-h generare ; icvaros, kvo"6o$, pudendum muliebre. 

Lat. causa. 

Skr. x as V a > f ructus ; X a $P a > g ramen recens; ha-rturl, mos- 
chus (§ 9); Kaans, Karri yvrp-o^ (§ 60), brother, sister; Kacrcris, 
brood, hatching (Hesych.) ; Kcicrau, Kuo-avpu (avpda>), Ka<r<ru>pi?, 
Ka<T(x\(3>] (a\<pi], gain, § 96), whore; koXo-kuq-Iu, large water- 
lily or arum (ii. 1). 

Skr. ki'x'a, graminis species ; levtfala, surculus ; Jcirfdra, 
pullus ; kex'a, coma ; Jcetfara, juba leonis ; KiKafxa, kind of 
vegetable ; Kiyopa, succory, endive ; Lat. ccesaries, hair ; ccesyes, 
sod, green sward (§ 39). 

Skr. go, terra, locus (productive; cf. b'u, terra, § 38); yutu 
(ya F ia), y?], ata, land, country ; yrjirtj?, a husbandman ; yei- 
Tdov, a neighbour ; yva'ia, cables made fast to land. 

Goth, gavi, district (the productive land about the settlement). 

yi'fOvop, yiyreiov, kind of leek (§ 53) ; Lat. geum, the herb 
avens. 

irpeiyvs = -7rpio-(3u$, old man (§ 20). 

Goth, (ja-cris-qvan, bring fruit to perfection (§ 23). 

Trdyyy, -7TUVV, entirely (-yy and -v seem to be suffixes 
expressive of degree attained). 

Lat. inxiens, pregnant (cf. Skr. ym) ; coe'pi'O, to begin 
(§ 38, conceive and produce) ; iivcltvo, to begin (enter on pro- 
duction). 

§ 68. s 6 p 6 , \p 6 , swelling 

<nrvp6$ = 7rvpos, wheat ; ocnrpiov, pulse, vegetables ; ao-Trpos, 
ao-Trpis, kind of oak ; (nrapyda), to swell, be ripe ; <r(ppiyuw, 
to be full, strong ; da-irdpayos, asparagus ; da-<p6Se\-o9, king's- 
spear (lily-like plant, § 10). 

crdje'X/xa, flower of holm-oak. 

Skr. spay, crescere ; spita, tumidus ; spik', natis. 

Old Lat. pwsdp-ia, stock, race, family; pro'c&p'fc = progenies. 

§ 69. sJc., growth, projection. 

(tkvtov (Sicil.), the neck ; tricvrf}, the head (Hesych.) ; 
a-Kvrd\?i, Lat. scutula, a thick stick (developed growth) ; 
O-KV-/J.V0S, <TKv\'aj~, a whelp; aKvp'Oa^, a youth (cf. Kovpo?,^§ 1). 



170 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. vi. 

TKopSov, aKopoSov, garlic (cf. KopSuXt], § 1) ; Lat. scardia, 
aristolochia (tuberibus radicis rotundis). 

Lat. scrofa, breeding sow (cf. ypo[i(pa$, | 3) ; scrofulce, 
swellings in neck. 

a7f07reAo9, Lat. scopnlus, a high rock, a rock or ledge in 
the sea. 

§ 70. Tcjm., i a m,. k., JcJ R , outgrowth. 

O b 6' b b 7 G ~ 

Lat. cucumis, cucumber; cum'ulus ; Goth, hiuhma, hiuma, 
iumyo, multitude ; Old Lat. wmidits = tumidus. 

Lat. gemma, a bud ; gem'urs'a, excrescence between the 
toes (vii. 30). 

ye/mco, to be full (pressure outward). 

KOfX)], Lat. coma, hair, also foliage, growth of light wood. 

Kwas, kwSlov, fleece. Skr. ^'ada, gramen recens. 

Goth, us'keian, to grow. 

Skr. kakud, vertex montis ; Lat. cacumen, summit ; Goth. 
hauhs, Eng. high. 

koSv'juloXoi', a quince (§ 29) ; kvSooi>io<z, swelling like a quince, 
round, plump ; Lat. cotonium malum, quince ; cotonca, an herb 
( = crv/uLchuTOv, consolida, conferva, close head ?) ; caud'ex, edd'ex, 
trunk of tree, block of wood, block of manuscript ; KcoSeia, the 
head, broad part of clepsydra ; kwSgov, a bell, the broad part 
of the trumpet ; kwOoov, drinking vessel (broad bottom) ; 
kottu, the cerebellum ; KOTTavov, small kind of fig ; kotivos, 
the wild olive tree (from the berries) ; Lat. cottnus, shrub that 
furnishes a purple colour (berry). 

§ 71. s ./,'., sJ., s.J ., pressure, bearing pressure. 

O b 6 bo b b 7 l o 1 

a-drrw (<xa/aa>, fut. <x«£w), to load, stuff; Lat. saglna, stuff- 
ing ; crvxyos, much together. 

Lat. satur ; satis; Goth, saths, full. 

Skr. styai, coacervare. 

Lat. stipo, to press together ; o-Tel(3u), to tread, stamp ; 
crTifias, bed ; oTid>09, close mass ; ara<pu\^, grape (in close 
cluster) ; <TTa<p'l$, acrTacp'is, ocrrafpur, raisin ; (TTt/u.<pv\ov, 
pressed fruit. 

Lat. stipes, -Ms, stock, post, trunk of a tree (support); 
ob'Stipus, leaning (like post leaning towards one) ; s/Ijhi/k, 
stalk ; sCtpulus, firm (upheld) ; stvpulor, to covenant, engage ; 



sec. 72.] GROUNDS OF THK SIXTH PHASE OF UTTERANCE. I 7 I 

stips, stipis, contribution (support); stipendium (stipi'pen- 
dium). 

Skr. stab', stamti, stumb' , fulcire ; Goth, stabs, grundstofl'; 
stoma, stuff, substance. 

(TTinrog, stump. 

Skr. st' una, postis, columna. 

cttvXos, a pillar ; cttj/Aj/, a prop, post ; crroXos, a stump ; 
o-TctA^, a prop, stake; crreXe^o?, trunk; crreA/?, parasitic 
plant (on trunk) ; crreXeov, handle (stalk) ; Lat. stole, sucker 
(stalk); stilus, a stalk, stake. 

Goth, stols, Opovo? ; Eng. stool. 

Goth, saids, column, pillar. 

Skr. sad, ire (pressure of step) ; 6S6$, way ; (ppovSog, gone 
away (77-00 6Sov) ; ovSog, threshold ; ovSas, ground. 

Skr. stig , ascendere ; a-rei^, to go up, go (succession of 
steps); Skr. vestig-ium, footprint (i. 9); <x-r/£, crTo'iyos, a row, 
rank (succession of steps) ; aToixelov, first beginning (single 
step, belonging to crTolxps) ; Goth, steigan, to go up; Ang.- 
Sax. stigel, Eng. stile ; Ang.-Sax. stager, Eng. stair. 

a-rpdyyo), to draw tight, to squeeze ; Lat. strangulo, to 
choke ; stringo, to draw tight. 

crTpiivo?, strength, eager desire ; Lat. streivaus. 

crrevo?, areivog, narrow. 

aOevw, to be strong. 

§ 72. tjc 6 , s G t Q , .y , s e l 6 , stiff in pressure, impact, 

(Wo?, beam, shaft, spear. 

Skr. stale, contra ferire. 

crra^u?, ear of corn (spiky) ; crro^o?, aim (pointed at). 

crr/rw, to prick (a-riyico, fut, crr/^co) ; Lat. iwstigo, to goad 
on ; stvmidus, a goad, sting ; dvstinguo, to mark off; in'stinguo, 
to incite ; inter 'stinctus, marked between ; ob'stitus, struck. 

Goth, us'stiggan, to poke out ; stigqran, to come into col- 
lision ; stiks, a point ; stilds, irori'ipiov (drinking horn) ; staks, 
a mark. 

crrvpa^, o-aupoinjp, butt end of spear (which was stuck in 
the ground) ; cravpa, membrum virile ; Xu'crTavpos, lewd person 
(Skr. lag, § 97) ; aevrXov, reurXov, beet (tap-root) ; crudi], 
membrum virile ; Lat. sudes, stake. 

Lat. stv.prum (cf. Eng. tup). 



172 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. vi. 

Goth, stautan, to strike. 

Goth, slahan, to beat, Eng. slay ; Goth, slauhts, Eng. 
slaughter. 

§ 73. sj., sje a , growth. 

i/o-^o? (^Eol.), of os, branch, shoot ; oo-yos, 0(T X'^ ^- 5 Goth, 
asfe, id. 

acryiov, a truffle. 

Lat. seges, crop, cornfield. 

§ 74. t & t 6 p 6 , t e n v impact. 

Skr. tud, tundere ; tad, pulsare ; Lat. tundo ; tudes, a 
hammer. 

Skr. tii}), pulsare ; tv7ttw, to strike ; tv-ko.vov, TVfnrai>ov, 
Lat. tympanum, drum ; tituho, to stumble (redup.). 

delvte, to strike, dash (Qev, cf. -ferido). 

% 75. /,»; ., swelling. 

Lat. tama, swelling of feet and legs; tumco ; tumulus, 
a mound ; tviu(3o$, tomb. 

§ 76. t 6 m Q , y 6 m Q , repression. 

Skr. dam, domare ; ^a/j-aCw, Sdfxvq/uu, to subdue ; Lat. 
domo ; dominus, dominor ; aS/uevi?, fern., arfj-i'iv, masc, slave, 
servant ; §/ulu>$, servant ; Goth, ga'tamyan, Eng. to tamie. 

Skr. dama, refrenatio, poena, mulcta ; Lat. damnum, fine, 
penalty, damage ; danvno, to condemn, sentence. 

Goth, fauvdammyan, to stop ; Eng. dam ; Goth, doms, judg- 
ment ; Eng. doom. 

Skr. yam, cohibere ; yantri, auriga; >iiua, reins; fyy-ia, 
fine, penalty, damage ; Xwvrelov, fyrpelov, place of punishment 
for slaves ; XnTpog, an executioner. 

§ 77. k 6 p 6 , upgrowth, protuberance, pressure up. 

KechaXy'i, /ce/3A?/, head; Kv(3r/, Kv(pt], head; Lat. caput ; tnivccps 
(mons), third (hill); Goth, hanbitli, Ang.-Sax. heafud, Eng. 
head ; Krim. hoef, id. 

Skr. kubg'a, gibbosus; v/36$, humpbacked; Lat. gibbus, 
humped ; Goth, hups, Eng. hip. 

Goth, gibla, Eng. gable. 



sec. 81.] GROUNDS OF THE SIXTH PHASE OF UTTERANVK. I , :] 

Kvirpis, the bloorn of the olive and vine, the glans penis ; 
kvttoivo?, kind of carp ; ko)/3u>$, Lat. gohius, fish, gudgeon 
(large head). 

Goth, hafyan, to lift, Eng. heave. 

§ 78. /// ./;,, 2V Ve' Vo> swellin g> expansion. 

Skr. nit'amba, collis, nates (§ 58). 

a/xfiuiv, afj./3)], any rising, as of hill, lip, edge, bottom ; Lat. 
ampulla, globular vessel ; ampins, spacious, large. 

Lat. umbo, convex elevation ; umbilicus, navel ; d/u(pu\6$, 
navel ; Kopviufio?, round head (§ 1) ; icp'aiu./3t] 9 cabbage (round 
head). 

Skr. nlv, magnum turgidum esse. 

Skr. ndb'i, modiolus rotas, umbilicus ; Eng. nave, navel (cf. 
nipple); Lat. napus, kind of turnip ; ra7r>/, vuttos, a hill. 

Lat. obba, broad decanter ; offa, lump. 

§ 79. s.p,, tension, extension of space or time. 

(ttt'lTw, to stretch ; cr7n(5j/9, far stretched ; a-KiQafj.^, a span ; 
(Tirdo), to draw ; acnra^o/uLui, to greet with welcome (tension of 
embrace). 

Goth, speidiza, later ; spcdists, spidists latest. 

§ 80. s 6 , s 6 v 6 , s G n 6 , growth, projection. 

Skr. sasya, granum, fructus (cf. y^asya, § 67). 

Skr. sus, generare ; va-Tep-a, the womb (S 9) ; va"cruKog, 
pudenda feminge (ii. 29). 

Skr. sit, su, parere ; suta, Alius ; Lat. su'rio, to be in heat 
(of males, desid.) ; tW?, son ; Goth, sunus, Eng. son ; Old 
Norse, sveinn, boy, youth ; lvi$ s son, daughter ; uioeus, wwras, 
grandson. 

(tw-julu, body (what is generated or brought forth). 

Skr. svas'ri, soror ; Lat. sovor ; Goth, svis'tar, Eng. sister. 

aavviov, javelin, membrum virile ; ^afxa'awviov, a plant, 
alisma, plantago (dense multitude of shoots, i. 34). 

§ 81. s 6 r 6 , Sf f 6 , Jc 6 s 6 l 6 , growth. 

Lat. sur'cidus, shoot, twig ; sums, branch, shoot ; sura, calf 
of the leg ; croopos, heap, quantity ; adp^, the muscles, flesh. 
Lat. sylva ; sulevicc, kind of wood-goddesses ; i)\>j, wood. 



174 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. vi. 

Lat. salt us, wood and pasture. 
£y\ov, wood (result of growth). 

§ 82. rt.-s., aji., projection ; the breath presses forth in a. 

Skr. av'w, fibre, shoot, stalk, ray ; Lat. ansa, handle ; acriXXa, 
pole for carrying milk-pails ; Lat. asscr, pole, stake (§ 81) ; 
asio, horned owl ; Goth, ans, a beam ; Lat. aivtcnna, sail-yard 
(§ 57) ; ad'/uivO-, pole for spreading bird-catching nets (ii. 38) ; 
Lat. a'mcs, id. ; a'mcntum, spear-thong (ii. 38). 

v} 83. r t., r , growth, uprise, support, excellence. 

Skr. rid', ard' , crescere, to thrive; Lat. arduus, steep, 
lofty ; opOa-yopio-Kos, sucking-pig (ix. 6) ; opraXi?, the young 
of any animal; Goth, airtha, Eng. earth. 

epa, earth ; epaYe, to earth ; iroXv'iipos, rich in soil ; ep'vos, 
young sprout. 

Skr. rai, res, divitias ; Lat. res. 

plov, peak, foreland. 

Lat. ordior, to begiu. 

opOpos, dawn. 

op'w'fu, oplvu), SpoOvi'w, to stir up ; opcvco, to rise up and 
rush forward; Lat. orior, origo ; op-fxevo?. a sprout; op'ui'i, 
onset, first start, impulse. 

Goth, air, Eng. early; aprarov, breakfast (early meal, x. 3). 

Lat. aera, the datum of a calculation, an era (the beginning). 

ap, apex, pa, particle of transition and inference (growth). 

apog, help, use ; epavos, contribution (help), api-, epi-, very ; 
ape'iow, better ; apicrTos, best ; apery, goodness, excellence. 

§ 84. S.v 6 r 6 , s G r 6 , v Q r Q , support, suspension, elevation. 

Goth, svers, oneratus, gravis, honoratus ; Ang.-Sax. svi r, 
columna. Lat. serins, serious, sarracum, a waggon. 

a'mpa, suspension, means of suspension, chariot on springs 
(strengthened by a-) ; /uLeT-eojpos, suspended ; aop-W/p, strap to 
hang from ; aelpco, alpco, to raise ; aoopro, hung ; irer'aupov, 
perch or high stage (§ 40). 

§ 85. r 6 , r.t., tension of drawing, of repression. 
epvui, eipvo), to drag ; apvw, to draw (water) ; apii-ftaWos, 
lar<>-e vessel for drawing water (§ 15). 



sue. 89.] GROUNDS OF THE SIXTH PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 175 

Sreipo), to draw through. 

epu'K'co, eptj-Tv'o), to keep back. 

Skr. rud\ to hold back, stop, hinder. 

§ 86. l 6 , growth, pressure of abundance. 

Lat. alo ; almas, nourishing; Goth, alan, to nourish; Lat. 
co'alcsco, ad'ol'csco ; ab'ol'eo, to abolish; ah'ol'esco, to decay; 
ex-ol-esco, to grow out; pvoles, progeny (pro-ol); prolet'arius, 
citizen of the lowest class (participial like cxoletus, &c. ; irroldus, 
produced as one of the race); invprolus, im'prolis, qui noudum 
esset ascriptus in civitate (not of the race) ; indoles, innate 
quality ; sub'oles, sprout, offspring. 

Lat. eh'menta (principles of growth). 

6\o'(pvySu)v, large pimple (§ 48). 

Skr. alam, satis ; aXi<?, in abundance ; t/Xr6a, enough ; 

aVaA-ro?, insatiate ; ahw/JLa, plantago (crowded shoots). 

i 

aXOco, aXoaivoo, to make to grow ; aXcros, aXns, a grove ; 
Lat. altuSy high ; Goth, us'althans, old. 

\a$a$, a young stag ; T>]6a-X-Xa$ovg, granddam's pet (t)}6>]). 

Xwreco, to bloom ; Xoot6$, Lat. lotus ; fiaX-Xwri}, a stink- 
plant (viii. 10). 

Goth, liudan, to grow; laudya, form; samadauds, equal 
(i. 32); kve'lauds, how much; yugga'lauths, a youth; un-leds, 
poor ; 0. H. Ger. lint, populus ; late Lat. Icetus, serf. 

Aao'y, people (Aa/ro?) ; pcurcXevs, king (§ 40) ; veoXcua, 
youth. 

oXocr^o?, vine-branch with grapes (cf. avpoa-^u^, &c, iii. 2). 

5 88. >■/., growth. 

pa$i£, branch, rod ; pdSafxvos, poSajuvo?, young branch ; 
opoSa/ixi'os, bough, branch. 

Lat. radius, staff, rod, ray; radix; ra'mus ; opapvos = 
opooajuvog. 

Lat. rudis, rod, staff; rudis, adj. in a state of nature; cov- 
ruda, wild asparagus (con-ruda, accompanying sprouts). 

§ 89. r 6 s & r 6 k 6 , growth, uprise. 
Skr. ruh, prodire, nasci, crescere. 



J 76 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. vi. 

Lat. rccens, fresh. 

apyw, to begin, lead, rule ; ojo^a/xo?, the first (-a/no?, ordinal 
or superlative ending). 

poyo9, stack or rick ; Lat. rogus, funeral pile ; Goth, rikan, 
to heap up ; Eng. rick. 

Goth, urreisan, Eng. rise; uvraisyan, Eng. raise. 

I 90. r c ,Pv growth. 

Skr. arb'a, proles ; Goth, arbi, inheritance ; arbya, heir. 

Lat. arbilla, corpulence ; arv'ina, fat ; arbor ; arb'utus (ii. 32). 

pdfiSog, rod, staff; pairis, rod; Lat. rdbulana fix ; rabus- 
cirfa vitis (of small twigs) ; pco/3lSa^ (Lac), boy one year old. 

epT<pos, a kid. 

Lat. ripa, bank (rises ; cf. Eng. reef). 

pairvs, pa(f)vs, turnip ; pa(pavos, radish ; pairffiov, plant 
called also XeovToirerdkov (radicibus grandibus rapse simili- 
bus, Facciol.) ; Lat. rapum. turnip, rape. 

Lat. robur, strength, oak. pcbwvfju, to strengthen. 

§ 91. LL, ri.s pressure. 

epeiSoo, lean, prop, fix firmly ; epfxa, ep/ua^, steadier, fixture ; 
a-Kcnr-epSa, game in which two strove to lift each other by a 
rope through a pole (§ 63) ; Lat. ridica, stake, vine-prop. 

\iTpa, pound (weight). 

§ 92. Lk & protrusion, growth. 

Skr. langula, cauda pilosa, the male organ ; laguda, fustis, 
baculus ; Xcoyatro?, bull's generative organ ; X>;/c«, membrnm 
virile ; XaiKa^co, to wench ; \ayvos, lewd, lustful ; Xwyay, 
harlot. 

qXaKOLTt}, spindle, arrow (straight outgrowth) ; sub'lzca, stake 
or pile. 

Lat. lignum (result of growth). Goth, leik, body. 

7t>]'\ikos, how great ? of what age ? t>/ - A/a:o?, of such an age ; 
jj m \ucas, as big as. 

Lat. ossvlago, bony growth ; cartilago, gristle (i. 23) ; muti'- 
lago, a plant called also tithymalus (i. 20) ; lacti'lago, a plant 
called also chamasdaphne (x. 11); ticssi'lago, the herb colt's-foot 
(ix. 18); usti'lago, a plant, the carduus silvaticus (§ 116); logo, 
an edible plant (Facciol.). 



beo. 95.] GROUNDS OF THE SIXTH I'll ASK OF UTTERANCE. 177 

Lat. lacca, swelling on shin of draught cattle, also a plant ; 
port '//■ laca , porci'laca, purslane (juicy growth, iii. 2). 

Lat. lacertus, muscular part of arm from shoulder to elbow. 

§ 93. Ln & ljc & tension. 

Skr. hra'k', evellere ; Lat. lucta, wrestling, struggle. 

Lat. lacio, to draw gently ; lacesso, to provoke, urge ; de'licus, 
weaned. 

Lat. leno, a pander. 

\<X«?, lesser span (between thumb and forefinger) ; \fxavos, 
forefinger ; Lat. pro'litms, stretched far out, long. 

Lat. longus, Goth, laggs, long. 

§ 94. rJc, tension. 

Speyoo, to reach, stretch; ope^Oeo), to stretch oneself; 
opyvla, length of stretched arms; opyvioo^iui, to have the 
arms extended ; opx ?, op^aro?, a row (stretch) ; Lat. porrigo, 
to stretch out before, reach out ; e'rifj/o, to put out straight, to 
erect; di'rigo, to draw out straight (di, between the two lateral 
inclinations) ; sirrgo, to get up ; pergo, to make straight 
through ; rectus, straight ; Goth, ufrdhyan, to stretch ; raihts, 
Eng. right; rahton, to direct; Lat. rcgio, a line, superficial 
extent; rego, to direct; rex, regis; Skr. rag', Ved. regere, to 
rule, govern ; rag'a, rag'an, rex ; tag'i, line, row ; rig, ire, to 
stretch, strive for, attain; Lat. ergd, towards; ergo, therefore 
(cf. qua in which direction, quo to which place) ; Skr. arg, to 
procure, attain. Lat. arccsso, to send for, fetch (desider.) ; 
ex'erceo, to work out. 

Goth, ragin, counsel (direction) ; raginon, to govern. 

Goth, raJmyan, to reckon (extent of series) ; ga'rehsns, plan ; 
un'mana'riggvs, fierce (fierce purpose and impulse, iii. 5). 

§ 95. / v , force of life, force of life exalted in desire or pleasure. 

«> (>' 6" 

Goth, liban, Eng. live. 

Skr. lub\ cupere, desiderare ; Goth. Hubs, beloved; lubo, 
Eng. love; gcrlnbs, honoured; lubains, hope; ga'laubyan, Ger. 
glauben, believe; usiavbgan, Ger. erlauben, to permit. 

Lat. lubet ; libet ; libido. 

Xnrapik, earnest ; XiTrfofiai, to be eager ; \/\|/, eagerness. 

Lat. liipa, prostitute. 

M 



178 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. vi. 

$ 96. Lp ./>•./.,??., pressure of growth, increase or profit, 
sense of mass. 

a\(pi), produce, gain ; dX(paivu>, to yield. 

oA/3o?, wealth, happiness. 

airo-Xaw), to enjoy, have advantage from ; Xelu, X>fi>i, booty, 
plunder (Xefia) ; epi'leus, Greek name for hawk ; Xr'fiov, 
standing crop; Xootcov, better; Lat. hfcrvm, gain; lau'tus, 
sumptuous; lawtia, public entertainment; Laverna, goddess of 
thieves (ii. 57) ; layemiones, thieves ; Goth, laun, Ger. John, pay. 

Lat. locwples, rich (§ 18, full of value, locu = \af?); Irish, 
luach, value, price; mor'luach, rich (mor, great). 

Xd'rpov, pay, hire ; Xd'rpis, hireling ; Lat. lairo, hireling, 
robber. 

Xlav, Xi-, Xa-, Xai-, Xai$- f very. 

aXlfias, mountain (Hesych.) ; aXi-^s, rock (Hesych.) ; 
i]Xl/3aro?, vast, huge; Lat. Alpes, Alpis ; Irish, sliabh, a moun- 
tain ; ailp, any gross lump ; alpa, mountains. 

Lat. ulpicwm, very large kind of garlic; lampado = bulbus 
(cf. Eng. lump). 

aiyiXw^r, swollen grain (§ 50) ; al/j.-dXw^\f, mass or clot of 
blood ; 6v[A.-dX(t)^, piece of burning wood or charcoal (viii. 16) ; 
/Aco-Xo)\lr t a weal, mark of a stripe (vii. 18). 

Skr. ib'a, elephas; ib'.a, household ; ib'ya, dives; t<pi, might. iy; 
\'(pia fxTjXa, fat goodly sheep ; 'icp-Oi-fios, mighty, stalwart 
(the idea through these words seems to be great substance ; 
tyQlfio?, probably has come from tcp-i/a-i/mo?) ; Lat. coHphium, 
diet of athletes (ii. 1). 

Skr. Tcal'db' a, catulus elephanti (§ 3); riraV a, taurus (iii. 2); 
Tro/'aTTo? (^ 22 ; -a7ro? seems to be an ampliative suffix like 
-cib a). 

Lat. libra, a pound, balance (estimate of mass). 

S 97. /•/.', rs„ Is., /./., tension of internal force, desire, 
appreciation. 

opydoo, to teem, swell, be eager ; dpy>'/, natural impulse, 
passion ; opyia, orgies. 

Skr. ark', houorare, venerari, colere ; arh, to be worth, to 
be able, to be worth to another, to have property in another ; 
arg , pretium habere, dignum esse; arg' a, pretium, donum 
honorificum ; arya, venerandus, nobilis, generosus. 



bbc. loi.i GROUNDS OF. THE SIXTH PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 179 

SpKO$, the object by which one swears, sanctity of an oath. 

Goth, airknis, good, holy ; airknitha, genuineness. 

Skr. rdga, cnpiclo, studium. 

Skr. ras, araare ; epaw, to love. 

Skr. lad, las, 10 cl. Atm. desiderare ; lad, 10 cl. Par. 
venerari, colere ; Xrico, to wish or will (Xanrco) ; Xij^ia, wish or 
will ; XiXulojuai, to wish earnestly (\i\acr-io-fxui) ; Xarrravpo?, 
a lewd person (§ 72); Lat. lustror, to wench; lustramentitm, 
incentive to lust ; Goth. Indus, Eng. lust. 

Am/, prayer ; \icrcro/u.ai, to pray (XiT'io'/aai). 

Lat. Icelus, joyful, satisfied, rich, copious (gratified desire). 

Goth, alyan, zeal. 

§ 98. n., njc 6 , pressure. 

Skr. nl, ducere, abducere, ferre, portare. 

eveyicw, eveiKU), to bear. 

Old Lat. anclo, anculo, to serve, bring to table ; ancilla, 
maid-servant ; ayicovo?, servant ; eyicom, maid-servant ; cujr- 
encus, priest (Sabine, § 107). 

ajK-ri'ip, what binds tight; avayKt], necessity; Lat. necesse ; 
vik>], victory ; avooya, to order, bid ; Goth, nauhan, bi'nauhan, 
nalian, to be obliged, to be permitted ; ga'nauhan, to be 
enough ; ga'nohs, enough, much ; vacrcrco, to fill, press close ; 
i/a/cTo'9, squeezed close. 

Lat. nitor {nictor), nixor, to lean, press on, strive. 

veiKo?, strife. 

§ 99. n., nt 6 , pressure. 
pew, ptjeo), vyvew, to heap. 
Skr. ana*, currus ; Lat. onus, load. 
Lat. pil'entum, an easy carriage (§ 18). 

Skr. ni, deorsum ; velaipa, the lower ; verpog, lower ; vep-6e, 
beneath ; eve'poi, those below. 

Goth, nauths, necessity; nauthyan, to compel. 

§ 100. n 6 t Q , tension of desire reaching to its object. 
Skr. naC , nacC ' , rogare, petere, optare. 
Goth, with, envy. 
Goth, niutan, to attain. 

§ 101. n G , n 6 tQ, support, aid, refreshment. 

overap, profit, advantage, aid ; ovivrffxi, to profit, aid. 



180 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. vi. 

Skr. anna, cibus ; Lat. ann'ona, supply of provisions (§ 31) ; 
Goth, anno, wages, o^wvlov. 

Lat. pr'and'eo, to breakfast (early refreshment, § 20) ; 
mer'enda, luncheon (intermediate refreshment, iv. 16) ; opuvSa, 
rice-bread (§ 23). 

Lat. nwtrio. 

§ 102. d 6 v 6 , y 6 v 6 , tf 6 y 6 , v 6 n 6> r 6 , intrinsic force, help, refresh- 
ment. 

Skr. van, juvare ; Old Lat. duonvs = bonus; Lat. tonus; 
bene; Old Lat. dubenus = dominus. Lat. beo. 

otvos, wine ; o'idj, the vine ; Lat. vinum, Goth, vein, Eng. 
wine; Goth, vinya, fodder. 

Skr. yuvan, juvenis, yaviyas comp., yavist a super. 

Lat. juvenis, juvencus, young; jiavix, heifer (-ie fern. 

suit). 

Goth, yuggs, Eng. young ; Goth, y inula, youth. )//3>/, youth- 
ful prime (yavya, Curtius). 

Skr. yava, hordeum ; Tea, fcia, barley ; "jia, provisions {yav- 
ya) ; ela, grass (Hesych.) ; eta/uevt], meadow ; S'uitu, way of 
living ; Lat. dives. 

Skr. g'lv, vivere {of is almost identical with Jy). 

alfyjos, aifyl'os (aityfios), active, vigorous (ya'yava redup. ?) ; 
Taw, to live ; (W?, alive ; typos, unmixed (wine) ; Sa- ^«- 
intensive. 

Lat. juvo, to help, delight ; jucundus, jocus (c probably 
from v). 

Skr. ydkrit, jecur ; Lat. jecur ; y-7rap, liver (/■•, cu, p, from v, 
vital organ ; cf. liver) ; Trpa—iSes, the midriff (Horn. II. ij-rrap 
vtto irpairiowv, 7rpo-i]7rap). 

Slav, yatra, liver (yavtra) ; fj'rop, heart ; >)-poi>, abdomen 
(vital organ). 

§ 103. r G , <Y,/A;> Jc 6 v 6 , intrinsic force. 

Lat. vivo, vita; Goth, ^vms, alive ; /3/o?, life; fao/na^ to live. 

Skr. yayas, juventus, strength, youth; vayasya, amicus, one 
of the same age, friend : aoTos, helper, attendant (a/?oy>?, 
fo'^= vay) ; o(eui, service (f ^, strength) ; aoa-a-ijTiip, eotro-ijTi'ip, 
ocrcniTi'ip, helper (oircre = oTsya = vaysya = vayasya). 

Goth hvaiteis, wheat (cnro?, § 104). 



sec. 107.] GROUNDS OF THE SIXTH PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 181 

§ 104. sjo & s., intrinsic force. 

Skr. m-, adj. and adv. bonus, pulclier, valde, facile ; e'u, well ; 
e'u?, good, brave, noble (ecru?) ; araos, crw?, safe and sound ; 
craooo, to save ; Lat. sa-nus, sound ; Goth, svinths, strong ; 
svi (kunths), fully (known) ; aero?, wheat, food (hvaiteis, § 103). 

Skr. svas'ii, salus, felicitas ; Lat. sos^es, saviour, safe (§ 41). 

§ 105. st , *./., intrinsic force. 

Skr. srtft, validum esse ; sa£, bonus prtecipuus ; satya, verus ; 
ereo?, ervfio?, true, real ; e-rafft), to examine, test. 

Lat. salims, safe, sound ; salvia, sage (called perhaps from 
its wholesomeness, akin to ftvx i0l/ ° r tussilago) ; sains ; saltern 
(accus. adverb), at least (security from negation) ; Goth, sels, 
good, useful ; ear\6$, eaOXo?, good, wealthy, 

§ 106. s 6 p G , s 6 t 6 , t 6 , tension of energy. 

<nreu(\c, to hasten earnestly. crcpoSpos, vehement, strong ; 
crd)ecWo?, vehement, violent. 

<TTev/m.ui, to mean eagerly ; Lat. stv.dco, to be zealous. 
Goth. I's-dauds, zealous, earnest. 

§ 107. kt , kv , s 6 v , s 6 p fi , intrinsic force, exalted force of 
life in enjoyment or desire. 

dyuOtk, good (ya6=gad' = Goth, god, Grassmann) ; Goth. 
gods, Eng. good. 

yaSew, joy. 

Kpt'fyvoq, good, true (§ 6). 

■)(_aios, genuine, true, good. 

Skr. ^iva, prosper, faustus, secundus. 

Goth, havi, fodder (refreshment; Eng. hag, cf. Skr. yava). 

kvSos, glory (exaltation of spirit). 

Skr. gaves, quaerere, venari ; Lat. qiuvso ; quazro ; curiosus. 

Skr. sev, adire frequentare (locum), adire (virum, feininam, 
i.e., coire), agere, wait on, cherish, love, give oneself up to; 
a-efto/mai, to be in awe (for o-elftofxai) ; cre^'J?, venerable ; 
Goth, siponesis, disciple. 

ot<pw, coire cum femina (cf. Old Eng. swyve, id. ; Aug.- Sax. 
wlf, Eng. wife). ^ , , « , 

Skr. ker, colere, venerari ; koioXw = lepeus \ ko'iw, iepevs, 
l\a/3eipu>v. 



182 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. vi. 

Sabine, cupencus, priest (§ 98) ; Lat, cupio. 
Goth, si/an, to exult, rejoice. 

§ 108. i 6 , i 6 Jc 6 , a 6 Jc 6 , /,§„ 7c 6 s 6 , /,;//,. k 6 m 6 , sjc 6 , tension of desire 
or care towards its object ; the breath presses on between the 
tongue and the palate in uttering i, through the throat in 
uttering a. 

Skr. i, desiderare ; is, desiderare ; <o't>/?, will, desire ; r/xe^o?, 
longing, desire (viii. 3) ; i'julol-w, to draw or suck fluid (v. 22) ; 
teoo'?, sacred (desire involved in worship) 

Skr. iJcf desiderare, optare ; oce'r*;?, a suppliant ; irpo-'ia-- 
a-ofxai, to beg ; Trpo-'ticTW, a beggar ; 7rpo-'i%, -kos, a gift (the 
beggar's wish); Lat. ind'igito, to invoke (ind = in); Goth. 
aihtron, to beg. 

Skr. ih, desiderare, adniti, contendere, quaerere, petere. 

Skr. l)(, dominari, imperare (will in effect) ; Lat. medd'ix, 
supreme magistrate, Oscan (§ 35). 

Skr. yah', poscere, rogare ; yaks, honorare, colere, venerari ; 
yog', colere decs ; ayios, devoted to the gods ; ayvo?, pure ; 
dyi], awe ; ayos, ciyos, curse, sacrifice ; u^ofxui, to be in 
religious awe ; Lat. porricio, to offer in sacrifice (poryicio, 
pro'yicio). 

Lat. a ikj ust as. 

Skr. ah', to houour ; a'^09, worthy. 

Skr. yas, yes, adniti, operam dare ; ag'as'o, eaifls-o, ostler, 
groom, stable-boy (v. 1). 

Lat. gero (gcso ; cf. yam-, gem-, i. 7) ; ges'tvo, to long for (§ 61). 

o'/o-w, will bear (yas, yes, used to express intended or future 
effort ? the <r seems to be radical in the imper., oice, oicrtrio) ; 
oirof, evil fate (burden). 

Skr. hanhs, desiderare; Goth, liuhrus, Eng. hunger; hug- 
gryan, to hunger; hunyan, to set the heart on. 

Lat. honor ; honesties. 

Skr. ham, amare, desiderare, velle ; lean, to like, to desire. 

Skr. Jested", esurire ; ctku^w, to have sexual desire. 

§ 109. r 6 Jc 6 , ljc , strength, strength of resistance, sufficiency 
for need. 

Skr. raj , potentem valentem esse ; lag . id. 

Skr. rig', lirmum esse ; Lat. rigeo ; arctus, pressed close. 



sec. 112.] GROUNDS OF THE SIXTH PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 1 33 

upKtco, to repel, succour, suffice ; u/jkios, firm or sure, 
sufficient ; dpi'/yw, to repel, succour, be good or fit ; Lat. arceo, 
to keep or hold off", to repel. 

Gotb. reiks, chief (defensive force) ; Aug.-Sax. rllce, I 
rich (sufficiency). 

Goth, bi'reiks, bvreks, in danger (occasion for defensive force). 

ciA/o/, prowess, help ; aXicap, defence ; aXe^oo, defend, repel, 
requite ; d\u\KTi'ipioi>, a remedy. 

§ 110. n 6 , n 6 t 6 , pressure of ascent or upper position, steps as 
involving such pressure, advance to an end. 

dvd, up, on, through or at in succession ; Goth, ana, Eng. 
on ; dva-ywpeoo, to retreat ; Lat. an'druo, to run back (move- 
ment backward, being contrary to the natural direction, is 
thought as uphillj. 

Lat. ante, anted, antid (in advance) ; antarius, in front ; 
antce, pillars, pilasters; antice, the hair growing on the fore- 
head; antrens, in front (antl lob., i. 1); antvguus, ancient 
(§ 8) ; antes, rows, ranks (advancing steps). 

dvTi, over against, facing, equivalent to, instead of (opposi- 
tion with equal force, as when advance is stopped) ; uvrofxai, 
dvTidw, to meet, approach before ; avra, over against, face to 
face, against ; dvTt]v, against, in front ; dvdi>r>is, uphill ; Lat. 
ant'roare, to thank (ix. 15). 

Skr. anta, boundary, end. 

Goth, and, ei$, nurd ; andeis, Eng. end ; und, ayjpi, avrl ; 
unte, so long as. 

avueo, dvu>, to accomplish (come to the end). 

Goth, un'dar, Eng. uwdcr (the correlative of ana, on ; § 9). 

Goth, undaumrmats, early meal (under, i.e., not yet up to 
the time, x. 5). 

§ 111. k 6 m 6 , k 6 s 6 m 6 , A^ 6 , pressure of support. 

Skr. ksam, ferre, to bear patiently; ksam, lemma, terra; 
ycip-al, on the ground; Lat. hum us, the ground; ^Qa^aXo?, 
low ; yQdn>, yQoa, the earth, ground. 

Old Lat. canrillus, casm-illus, boy who bore things at sacred 
rites ; camillum, what the camillus bore. 

§ 112. jfejfo & 6 » 8 , s 6 & 6 , pressure down, in, or against. 
Kara down, down along by or to ; e-y/ca?, down below. 



184 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. VL 

kovtos, pole, shaft of pike ; nuvSaXos, wooden peg or pin ; 
KivaiSo?, unnatural lecher. 

Lat. cont'um'ac'ia (stiffness of opposition, active, as if from 
cont'umvs, what is in stiff opposition) ; cont'urrt'ia, cont'um'el'ia 
(stiff collision passive, naves factae ad quamvis vim et contu- 
meliam perferendam, Cass. B. G. 3, 18). 

<tkii'66s, diving ; crtai'Oapl'i^w, crKavOaplty), to poke ; ctklv- 
fiapog, the sexual act ; (TKi/uaX-i'tw, to poke ; <tkito\oi, lechers. 

| 113. VqIq, SqVqI, s 6 2? 6 , pressure as of inflation, repression of 
breath. 

Goth, vulan, to well up ; uf-svalleins, swelling, Eng. sivell ; 
svulan, to boil. Lat. sjjuma. 

Goth, sviltan, to die ; Ang.-Sax. svcltan, to be suffocated. 

§ 114. JcqVq, Jc 6 l 6 , y 6 v G , y {] s 6 , pressure of inflation or ebullition. 

Skr. Jcrat' , coqnere ; Goth, lixatlryan, to foam. 

Skr. yum, jus pisinum (the water in which pulse has been 
boiled), broth ; Lat. jus, broth ; Xv6os, beer ; X}>M, barm ; fyfxos, 
broth. 

Skr. yas, to bubble, boil ; (Vw, to boil (<feV<o) ; Xrj\o$, zeal, 
emulous desire. 

Lat. coquo, to prepare by fire (fire beiug thought as pro- 
ducing internal ebullition) ; kukku^i], a pot ; kovkov/Jliov, Lat. 
cucumct, kettle. 

Lat. cacuJa, soldier's servant ; calo, id. ; culina, kitchen 
(cooking-place). 



Light is most strongly thought as associated with flame, 
and therefore as a breaking forth. In its own idea it involves 
this element, for the light breaks forth far beyond the flame. 
Heat is thought as associated with the light of fire, or with the 
swelling, pressure, and breaking forth of ebullition, which latter 
is involved even in the action of heat in drying, for the evapo- 
ration of moisture is a species of ebullition. Hence both light 
and heat get their strongest expression in the breaking forth 
of the breath in utterance ; but when thought with less energy, 
they suggest rather the breath pressing against the organs. 
The aspirates, vibratiles, and spirants are adapted to the 



B ¥ o. llt;.](IROUNDS OF THE SIXTH PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 185 

former expression, the mutes to the latter ; the nasals have an 
intermediate expressiveness. The open vowels and diphthongs 
help the expression with a large volume of breath, while this 
is reduced by close vocalisation. 

§ 115. p & , p 6 t 6 , p 6 n 6 , p 6 v 6 , yw, Light thought as breaking 
forth, and represented by the force of the breath breaking 
through the organs ; also what quickens the consciousness, as 
light does ; living force, such as light awakens, and similarly 
represented. 

Skr. I'd, splendere ; Vti'ma, splendor, sol; cf)uw, to shine; 
(bacieos, bright ; <pd~-v6$, bright, joyous ; Kanycp^, with down- 
cast eyes, dusk}^, gloomy (kuti]- strong form of kutu, cf. koltui). 

Skr. Vaclra, happy, fortunate, good, charming ; <paiS-pos, 
bright, beaming with joy, cheerful ; (paiS-i/nos, shining, glorious. 

Lat. fateor, to manifest, confess. 

(paliw, to make clear, give light ; Lat. fenestra, window ; 
Goth, banclva, sign. 

(paios, grey (-109 is perhaps dimin. whitish). 

(paira-19, a shining ; 7ri<pav'crKw, to show ; (pav-os, <pao?, light ; 
d)6u>9, epos, -to?, light; \vKO-(pw? : twilight (§ 123); (paevvos, 
(paeivos, shining ; (paeOco, to shine ; Lat. faustus, fortunate, 
auspicious; (poifio?, pure, bright ((popio?, (poifos) ; Lat. februo, 
purify, expiate. 

a<pva>, to become white or bleached. 

Skr. V as, splendere ; Lat. fas, right, law (clear by the divine 
light of nature) ; fas'tus, right (day); nefas'tus, contrary to 
divine law ; fes'tus, hallowed (with a divine glory), cheerful, 
joyous ; fes'tivus, gay, pleasant, handsome; manifes'tas (§ 121). 

Lat. favilla, ashes ; fd'eus, fireplace ; fd'mes, firewood (§ 35). 

§ 116. v 6 s 6 . Light less strongly thought, so as to suggest 
the force of the breath breaking forth in the spirant v, which is 
softer than in the aspirate V or (p. Fire thought less strongly 
than flame. 

Skr. vas, to be or become clear, to lighten ; oo-'ios, holy, sanc- 
tioned, manifested by divine light of nature ; Skr. uisara, adj. 
early, subst. day in opposition to night, properly morning ; 
ijepios, early (pja-ep-iog) ', rjpi, early ; eap, vp, spring (pea-ap) ; 
Lat. vcr ; Skr. vas'anta, spring. 



186 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. vi. 

Skr. us, to light; us, dawn, morning; usa, id.; usasa, 
morning red; Lat. aurora; auco? JEo\. (ai/o-co?), u/Sw? Lac, aco? 
Dor., »/w9 Ion., ewg, morning ; aa, auptov, the morrow ; evpos, 
S.E. wind (viii. 12). 

Lat. cerussa, white lead (i. 23). 

Skr. us, to burn ; Lat. uro ; avoa, duw, to kindle ; Lat. a aster ; 
euoo, to singe ; ecrr/a, the hearth, fireside ; Lat. Vesta ; usta, a 
kind of red colour; ustvlago, carduus silvaticus (§ 92). 

§ 117. 2hk- 2Wg> v ek> W Light, most strongly expressed by 
breaking forth of breath in the roots for flame, which when 
reduced furnished roots for weaker ideas. Heat expressed in 
a corresponding manner. 

Skr. b'rax', b'la)(, b' las, to flame, to lighten ; b' ray', to glow, 
beam, sparkle, glisten, be bright; b'reg', to be bright, beam; 
Lat. bractea, gilding, glitter; Skr. bab'rtt, red-brown (redupl.) ; 
Umbr. rufru, red (dupl. of b' ru, frufru) ; Lat. ruber; rufus. 
Lat. exploro (as if from a root plds, akin to bias) ; (popic-o$, 
white, grey; Lat. farfarus, farfugium, coltsfoot, ckamasleuce 
(whitish beneath, farg-farg). 

Skr. varJ/as, vital force, energy, illuminating power, light, 
lustre, colour. 

Goth, bairhts, clear, manifest. 

Skr. vleks, videre ; Goth, anda'vleizns, face; Ang.-Sax. 
vlitan, videre; Goth, vlitz, form; vlaiton, to spy about; 
vlizyan, to hit under the eye. 

Lat. vultus, countenance; Goth, vulthus, glory; r tilth rs, 
worth. 

Lat. jiagro, to blaze; Jtamma (flay i it a) ; (^Aeyto, to burn, 
flame, blaze, shine forth; Lat. fulgeo ; fulgur, lightning; 
fttlmen (fidgmen) ; fulvus, reddish-yellow (colour of fire) ; 
flavas, yellow. 

Goth, blaggvus, blue. 

Skr. bark, varh, lucere, meminisse ; balk, valh, splendere ; 
va\os, crystal ; Skr. ulka, meteor, firebrand ; ulkusi, Vulcanus ; 
bal, explorare. 

(pa\6s, bright white ; 7rafx-<pa\do), to look in every direc- 
tion ; <pa\upo$, white ; <pa\upl<?, Lat. fuUca, coot (white 
head); polio; ccpolatitis, precious stone (§ 130); pilates or 
pellates, a white stone; inter polo, to furbish up (improve the 



sec. 118.] GROUNDS OF THE SIXTH PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 187 

appearance between parts left as they were); pulcher ; palam 
(pal = clear light, -am, ace. adv. suff., i. 2; cf. clam). 

fiXtTra), to look, see (cf. hal) ; fiXe-fie-aluo), to look fiercely 
(cf. fxeveaivoo) \ (3\e(papov, eyelid (ii. 17). 

{3ep m {3ep-i, mother of pearl ; Ktvva'fiapi, bright rod dye, ver- 
milion (§ 134); riyya'fiapi, id. (§ 120) ; Lat. jwbar, radiance 
of heavenly bodies (§ 127); fipafi-evs, umpire, leader (who 
sees); arb'iter, witness, umpire (who sees; initial b dropped). 

Lat. pareo, to be visible ; appareo, to appear; irpe-ww, to be 
conspicuous, appear, beseem ; Qeo-irpoiros, prophet, seer (who 
has visions of deity). Lat. prdbus, excellent. 

Trdptoos, copper-red. 

Lat. apr-icus, sunny ; Aprilis, April. 

(ppafy, to show, tell (mental vision, (ppaSyoo). 

Lat. interpret' or, to explain from one to another ; Goth. 
frathyan, to think; f ruths, wise. 

Skr. ab'ra, gold ; Goth, sittibr, Eng. silver (§ 131) ; upyvpos, 
silver (apy, § 122 + var); Skr. sind'ura, vermilion (§ 132); 
Lat. aurum, gold; Xvyicovpiov, reddish amber, jacinth (§ 123). 

Lat. fcrrum, iron (metallic lustre). 

Skr. pints, plus, to burn ; Lat. pruna, live coal. 

7rp/}6o), to swell out by blowing, blow into a flame ; 7n/x- 
irpriiAi, to burn ; 7rp>]Sco, a burn ; 7rpi]fxuiiw, to blow hard. 

irvp, fire ; 7rvpp6<i, red ; Trvpcros, a firebrand, fire ; Old Lat. 
burrus, red. 

Lat. fwrn'us, an oven; fom'ax, a furnace, oven, kiln; Goth. 
brinnan, Eng. bum. Lat. formus, warm; fomiucales, tongs. 
Ferveo, to boil, glow ; febris, fever (fevi'is). 

Goth, carmijan, Eng. £o warm. 

(fAoiSow, to make to swell or ferment, to heat, burn (§ 15) ; 
7re pc(p\voo, to scorch, singe, or char all round (§ 15, fire makes 
the internal moisture boil out). 

§ 118. p 6 t 6 , p 6 . Light thought rather as clear, and with less 
of breaking forth, and suggesting the repressed eruption of the 
breath in the utterance of the tenues, and also as strengthened 
with other consonants or by vocalisation. 

Skr. pat, splendere ; pat' a, the sun, fire ; patala, pale red ; 
put, lucere; punya, favourable, lucky, auspicious, beautiful, 
good, pure ; pu, to cleanse, clear, atone for, enlighten ; pavaka, 



188 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. vi. 

clear, shining, fire; pdvana, pure, holy, fire; Lat, passm uvce, 
grapes dried in the sun ; possum lac, boiled milk (paOsus) ; 
pwrus ; nc-jjus, impure ; pwr'go ; pavo, peacock (an Indian bird, 
brilliant colour ; cf. pavaka) ; Goth, /on, /una, fire. 

Lat. pict'us, clear ; pitfo, to clear, think. 

Lat. pcetus, leering (with glances). 

fiairuXos, meteoric stone ; Lat. betulus, id., species of cerau- 
nia ; badius, brown, bay (cf. patala), 

OTTTOficu, to see ; dwT'tXos, the eye ; 6(fy6a\-/uL6?, the eye (in 
continual motion, v. 7) ; 7ra-7rr-alvco, to look in every direction 
(7ru?); ott-Itt'w, one who watches (redupl.); 6\^, the eye, face; Ity, 
the look; avdp'unr-os, man (viii.3,human look); av\-oo7r6$, hollow- 
eyed fish (ii. 10) ; av\-anr-is, having visor (ii. 10) ; tcdvunrov, the 
elder flower (§ 134); Sp-wirTu, Sp-wn-d^w = Siaa-KOTreco (§ 126). 

oVaAXfo?, opal (vii. 38) ; Skr. upala, precious stone (vii. 38). 

Skr. bud , to awake, become aware; Zend, bud' , videre. 

§ 119. v 6 t 6 , v 6 s 6 , mental vision and other mild illumination 
expressed with the close vowel i. 

Skr. rid, to get knowledge of, to know ; vid (vind), to find ; 
a'vis, openly (a,- vid, to know well); eiSoo, to see (ISov, 'lu/nev) ; 
ii'ddWofxai, to seem, appear like ; 'lo-q/ui, to know ; fiiSialoi, 
persons having charge ; 'IcrToop, knowing ; io-ropea), to know by 
inquiry ; 'i$-pi$, knowing ; ou'Si]9, aSijs, the nether world, the un- 
seen (the spir. asp. seems to compensate for the f) ; al'StjXos, 
destructive; Lat. video; vii rum, glass (shining substance); 
Goth, vitan, to know ; vitan, to see to ; vissei, knowledge ; vcis, 
knowing, Eng. wise ; un'vis, uncertain ; ga'veison, to regard, have 
respect to ; veitan, to observe with care ; veit'vods, witness (tells 
what he knows, ix. 2). 

§ 120. p 6 Jc 6 , p 6 n 6 , s 6 p G k 6 , v b k e , v 6 n 6 . Light caught with a 
degree of effort is expressed originally with the breath strug- 
gling to break forth in the tenuis ; but its more obvious im- 
pression suggests a freer breaking forth of the breath, which 
may be observed also in the expression of heat. 

Skr. 2 m Xy s P a X> *° see > descry, perceive ; <TK€7rrojuat, to look 
to, spy ; Lat. specio, to look, behold ; haruspex, diviner (§ 4) ; 
opacus, dark, shady (ob-pac). 

Lat. fax, a torch ; fades, look, sight, aspect ; facetus, elegant, 
fine, merry (bright) ; (f)cyyoo, to shine. 



skc. 121.] GROUNDS OF THE SIXTH PHASE OF UTTERANCE. I 89 

Goth, faginon, to rejoice, Eng. fain; Goth. fahetTis, joy; 
Old Norse, fagr, shining, Ang.-Sax. fcegr, Eng. fair. 

Skr. vah, splendere ; vaiiga, tin, lead; vauga'g'lvana, silver 
(§§ 127, 130); vangag'a, brass, minium or vermilion; Irish, 
wfl#a, umha, uim, copper ; vuk-ivOo^, hyacinth (§ 58) ; Lat. 
vaccinium, flos purpui-ei coloris, thought by some to be the 
hyacinthus. Goth, auhns oven (fire). 

fiavvos, furnace, forge. 

avyy, bright light ; ev-dyrj?, bright ; XvK-avyi'is, at the grey 
twilight (§ 123) ; Lat. hesperugo, evening star ; auceo, to observe 
attentively. Goth, augo, the eye; augyan, to show. 

§ 121. m 6 Jc 6 , m 6 n 6 , m 6 r 6 , m 6 l 6 , s 6 m 6 . The nasals in their 
smooth emission of breath give a milder expression of the 
breaking forth than the spirants, corresponding to a softer 
sense of light or beauty; but the vibratile strengthens their 
expression of light or heat. 

Skr. mah, lucere ; manic, splendere; maiik, maug , mand, to 
adorn; man'g'ara, man'g'ari, bunch of flowers, pearl; marig'u, 
beautiful, lovely ; mani, pearl, burning-glass ; mukta, pearl ; 
mull a, face, look, mouth, front ; fxdpyapov, pearl ; Ski'. mar«- 
kata, emerald ; /mdpaySos, cr^dpay^og, id. ; Lat. margella, red 
coral; Goth, maurgins, morning; Eng. morrow; Lat, mam. 
the dawn; mund'us, neat, elegant (cf. mand) ; mund'iis, orna- 
ments, dress, the world (mand, cf. /coV^to?, Kocr^ew); minium. 
vermilion; manifes'tus (cf. mani, and § 115); monstrum (;i 
show, cf. prodigium,^ 126); monstro; monnula, term of endear- 
ment (cf. man'g'u) ; Goth, lank muni, lightning (§ 1 23) ; glit'- 
miinyan, to glitter (§ 129). 

/ul'Xtos, red ochre, vermilion ; Lat. amrflus, the purple 
Italian starwort ; fxaXd?, white (cf. cpaXdg, § 117). 

Skr. male, decipere, fallere. 

Skr. niMya, artifice, deception, jugglery, false show. 

judyyavov, any means for bewitching others; Lat. mango, a 
dealer who polishes up and sets off his wares. 

/mapiuiaipoo, to gleam ; /map/napo?, crystalline stone which 
sparkles; Lat. marmor ; ^ap^apvyt'i, flashing, sparkling; 
a/mapva-a-co, to sparkle; /tidppia, fxoppii»i, Lat, mi'rrha, shining 
material ; /mopoeis, glistening ; fiaipa, dbgstar ; paipiau>, 



190 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. vi. 

fiapiw, to be feverish ; juaplXt], crfxapiXt], embers ; fxapiOd?, 
/uapievs, stone that burns when water is thrown on it. 

§ 122. r 6 & fi , r 6 w 6 . The vibratiles by their free movement 
under the breaking forth of the breath give force to the ex- 
pression of light. 

Skr. rang' , lucere, splendere. 

Skr. rag', to shine (cf. b'rag', § 117) ; rnk', to shine ; di>6-pa£, 
coal, dark-red gem, vermilion (§ 132). 

dpyds, upyris, bright ; dpyivoeis, apyevvos, white, bright ; 
apye'/uicovt], a kind of poppy (| 35); apyup'os, silver (§ 117); 
Lat. argentum. 

Lat. arguo, to make clear. 

Skr. ruliita, red. 

§ 123. IqJcq, l 6 n 6 , but I gives less force than r. 

Skr. lan'g , splendere ; laics, videre, observare. 

Ski", lug', lucere ; lok, lok' , lucere, videre ; lohita, red ; luha, 
reddish, copper, iron ; XvyK'ovpuoi', reddish amber, jacinth 
(§ 117) ; XvK'avy'rjs, at the grey twilight (the visible shining, 
| 120); XvK0'(pw>9, twilight (visible light, § 115); dju(pL-XvKT], 
twilight (between light and dark) ; Xvicd'fia?, -uvtos, the year 
(fiaivoo, course of light) ; Xuy§o$, white marble ; XoydSes, 
whites of eyes, or pupils ; Xcvkos, white ; Xevcrcrco, to look, see ; 
XvyP, lynx (sight) ; Xu-^i'o?, lamp ; d'XlyK'io?, like (same 
appearance, cf. vleks, § 117); Lat. lux, luceo, lumen (lucmen), 
Iwna ; Goth, liuhath, light; lauhatyan, to flash lightning; 
lauh'muni, lightning (§ 121). 

Lat. lucar, pecunia quae erogatur in ludos et spectacula 
(cf. lok, videre) ; lucubro, to work by lamplight (seems to be 
denominative from a noun lucubrum). 

| 124. /.',■,, & 6 Sg, 1/qJcq. The open breath of a breaking through 
the guttural closure gives a sense of force and movement, like 
the breaking forth of light or heat, but this is reduced by the 
close vowel i, 

Skr. ah'h'd, clear, transparent ; eg', splendere; an'g', splen- 
dere; ahan, alias, alr/ul, day; (*>X/° ' ? > yellow (alrlwa, § 129?); 
uktis, ray, brightness ; aKfuav, heaven ; (ravo'ap'cuc't], red sul- 
phuret of arsenic (§§ 132, 137); epiO-dic)), bees'-bread, a red 



sec. 126.] GROUNDS OF THE SIXTH I'll ASK OF UTTERANCE. 101 

juice in the honeycomb (§ 129); epid'aK'os, the redbreast 
(§ 129). 

Skr. /'«x', ^° a PP ear > shine ; k'ya, to show ; kds, lucere, 
splendere ; k'akds, to shine ; tfaks, to appear, see, look ; k'aksus, 
the eye ; kas'tira, tin (§ 1 28) ; Kacr-crtrepog, id. (§ 128); ccer'uleics, 
dark blue ; cccsius, bluish grey ; koik'vWoo, look gaping about 
(v. 7) ; /ca^Xa, plant = (3ou(p6u\tiov ; Goth, /^ra'.s, a lamp ; Skr. 
^V//, lucere. 

Skr. ak'sa, the eye; okko?, oko$, the eye; o/c/raXXoy, o/craXXo?, 
id. (v. 7) ; Lat. oculus ; luurw^os, mole (i. 28) ; cwcul'to, am dim- 
sighted (ii. 29) ; codes, blind of an eye (ii. 29) ; cces'ul'la , having 
grey eyes ; ocrcre, the two eyes ; ocrcrojuai, to see ; a/uLftXwwo-crw, 
-wpo), to be dim-sighted (iii. 3) ; Sroo-Kea), to look earnestly at. 

Skr. iks, to see, look; '/XXo?, the eye (v. 7); purpuriss'um^ 
purple dye (i. 15). 

Skr. yay/as, look, beautiful appearance ; eucwv, an image, 
likeness ; eoaca, to be like, beseem ; "ktkoo, to make like, raise 
an image in the mind ; ei&Koo, to liken ; '//ceXo9, like ; 'iKrepos, 
the jaundice (complexion). 

Skr. agni, fire; Lat. ignis. 

§ 125. s 6 k 6 , s 6 v 6 . The forcible breaking forth of the breath 
in s strengthens the expi*ession. 

criyaXoeis, glossy, glittering, splendid ; Lat. sig'num ; segul- 
Iti in, sign of gold-mines (§ 129) ; sagio, to perceive quickly or 
keenly; sagax, having keen perception ; sagus, prophetic.; arrjfia, 
sign. 

Goth, saih van, to see; siuns, sight; saivala, Eng. soul (cf. 
Goth, sauil, the sun, § 131 ; Irish, soillse, light; saoilsin, ima- 
gining, thinking; saoilim, I imagine, think); Goth, ga'sahts, 
proof; in'sahts, notice, account, narration; fri'sahts, image, 
type (fri=from, § 20; cf. ab'bilrf, visible likeness taken from 
an original). 

Lat. scio, to know ; sci'sco, to inquire, approve (incep.) ; 
scitus, skilful. 

Goth, skuggva, mirror; us'skavs, circumspect: skauns, beau- 
tiful; skeinan, Eng. to shine ; skeima, torch; skeirs, clear. 

§ 126. /,/,,;, t 6 n 6 , t 6 r 6 , t& The breaking forth of the breath 
is less resisted by the medial than by the tenuis, and when 



192 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. vi. 

launched on an open vowel may express strongly the breaking 
forth of light. The tenuis, helped by a nasal, can express the 
breaking forth of light or heat. 

Skr. da)(, videre, splendere, loqui (light to eye or mind) ; 
dak, lucere, urere ; dak, urere, ardere, flagrare ; Goth, dagi, 
day (d ah) ; Skr. dri, dar, cVdar, to have regard ; darj(, d$i)(, 
to see ; oepKco, to see ; Spdw = opdw ; Sp'coTTTO), Sp'wwd^co = 
Siao-KOTrw (§ 118) ; v-n-dSpa, askance ; Goth, ga'tarkyan, to make 
a show of; dOpew, to look earnestly; Sokos, Sokls, a meteor; 
Sotcew, to seem, think, imagine ; Sokcuw, to watch narrowly ; 
Kapa'SoKeco, to watch with outstretched head ; Sd^a, glory, 
notion, opinion ; Lat. doceo (sight to the mind) ; SrSd^-t], 
teaching ; SrSd-arKCD, to teach ; Lat. disco, to learn ; deem, grace, 
ornament, splendour (light objective, or what produces on the 
consciousness a similar effect) ; deed, it is seemly, becoming ; 
dignus, becoming, worthy. Goth, tugg'l, star. 

Sutcpu, tear (sight-trickle, da)(--)(ru, v. 6) ; Lat. lacfymd, 
Goth, tagr, Eng. tear. 

SevS-iWu), to turn the eyes quickly, give a glance (v. 7) ; 
Goth, tand'yan, to kindle; Eng. Under; Goth, tundnan, to 
take fire. 

TiTavos chalk (red u pi. bright colour). 

tivOos, boiling hot, sub. the steam of a kettle. 

oarjvai, to learn ; Sai'jficov, knowing ; Sr/oy, to find ; St'/vea, 
devices. 

Skr. di^', to show ; oeac'vUfiij SeiKavdco, SeiSlcr/coo, to show ; 
Sikij, right (guidance) ; Lat. dicis (causa), (for the sake) of 
judicial form ; pwdig-ium (show forth); index, indico ; ju'dex, 
judico ; dico, to say (show to the mind); dlco, dedicate, 
ab'dico, &c. (mark or signalise); Goth, ga'ieihan, to show; 
taikns, Eng. token. 

Lat. iwddgo, to spy into ; perdagatus, explored. 

Skr. teg'as, splendour, light, fire; tark, to form an image in 
the mind; Tiyyd m fiapi, vermilion (§ 117); Teic/uap, manifested 
mark or boundary (iv. 16); Lat. prces'tig'ia, illusion, trick 
(§ 20); TpaywooSj representative singer; Irish, dreach, forma, 
imago, color, pulchritudo ; dreachd, forma, imago; dreaeht, 
poemn. 

Old Lat. tongere = noscere ; Goth, thagkyan, Eng. /hut/,— 
tlmijl;*, Kng. Ilia.ul.-* ; tlivgkyan, to think, presume. 



si:c. 128.] GROUNDS OF THE SIXTH PHASE OF UTTERANCE. I 93 

Skr. trds, loqui, lucere ; Oscan. tristamentad = testa mento ; 
testis (trestis, Corssen). 

TpaKTo?, white wax ; rpuKTa-'lTw, to bleach. 

§ 127. t 6 v 6 , t G y 6 . There is strong expression of the breaking 
forth of light in the breath launched from the teeth in d or d' , 
or from the palate in dy, and breaking through the lips in v, 
or through the mouth in an open vowel. 

oats, Saos, Sa'Xos, SafieXos, a torch ; Salvo, to kindle (SeSau- 
fxevov, Hesych.) ; Sal'<pp(*)i>, wise (§ 22). 

Skr. die, to shine, rejoice ; div, diva, divasa, heaven, day ; 
dina, day; a'dya, hodie (a demons.); deva, god, king; Lat. 
ileus ; dies ; dm, by day (cf. noctu) ; divum, the sky ; eu-Sios, 
ev'Siavos, fine, clear (atmosphere) ; ewSios, at noon, in the 
open air ; Skr. prd'dus, manifesto, § 20 ; dyu, heaven, day ; 
dyut, to shine ; Zeus ; Sl'i'os, of Jupiter ; Slog, noble, marvellous ; 
Jwpiter, J oi" is ; jicbar, radiance of heavenly bodies (§ 117). 

SluXos, cJe'eAo?, 8>]\os, manifest (div) ; Se'a'ro, So'dcrcra-TO, 
seemed. 

#etAo'"7re(W, sunny spot (OpaX, cf. elXrj, § 131). 

Skr. tvis, to glitter, shine ; Lat. ti'tio, a burning brand 
(tvitio) ; tae'da, a torch (cf. Sal's, -I'So?) ; Goth, thcvhvo, thunder 
(ix. 10, lightning-roar ?) ; tvtu'lus, illustrative notice or title 
(redupl.) ; tutor, to behold ; con'tu'oli (oculi), winking. 

uao/mai, Oaeo/xai, Otjeo/Jiai, Qeaofiai, to gaze at, behold with 
wonder (root dap) ; Oavjua, wonder ; Oea/xa, a show ; 6ea, a 
view ; d'earpov, theatre ; Oeoopos, a spectator. 

Skr. ctyd, to image to oneself; ctyaman, d'aman, light. 

Skr. an'd a, blind (iv. 4) ; Lat. anda'bata, a gladiator whose 
helmet had no openings for the eyes (§ 40) ; oOofiai, to heed, 
rearard. 



'B % 



§ 128. s 6 t 6 , t 6 r 6) s 6 r 6 . In str the forcible breaking forth of 
the breath in s and r, resisted by the closure of t, suggests the 
thought of a vivid impression of light breaking through an 
impediment of darkness or cloud. The combination st may 
express strongly also the breaking forth of the force of heat. 

Skr. stri, star ; tara, star ; aa-ri'jp, star ; Goth, stcrirno, 
star ; reipos, constellation ; Tepag, a sign in the heavens ; Lat. 
strena, sign, prognostic, omen ; Old Lat. vemi'sera, mensalia 

N 



194 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. vi. 

auguria (Skr. vrin, edere) ; Lat. stella ; ctt/X/3co, to glitter ; 
(TTpa.7rTco, to lighten ; aaTpamj, o-Tepoiry'i, lightning flash ; Lat. 
triones, constellation of the Wain ; septentriones = 0. H. Ger. 
sibunstirni ; septeMtrio, the north. 

Lat. sidus ; cowsider'o, to inspect carefully (as the stars were 
inspected with complete inspection (con) for the interests of 
man ; cf . contemjrfor) ; de'siclero, to feel the want of (as the 
indications of fortune were missed when absent from the 
stars). 

Irish, maithnigh, variegated ; suaithcantais, prodigy, portent ; 
suaitheantas, suaithcheantas, ensign, blazonry (§ 134). 

cri§->]po<;, iron (§ 137); Kao"<TiTepo$, tin (§ 124); Skr. Jcas'- 
tira, tin (§ 124, cf. relpo?). 

Lat. stannum, stagnum, tin (cf. § 126). 

uTarevo), crraOevo), to scorch, fry, warm ; Stata, name for 
Vesta. 

§ 129. k 6 v 6 l 6 , k 6 l 6 , Jc 6 r 6 . The movement of / or /• sometimes 
gives force to the expression of light or heat ; but sometimes 
it gives a sense of intermittence or indefiniteness in light or 
colour, and uncertain movement or effort in seeing. 

Skr. g'val, to flame, give light. 

Lat. gilvus, pale yellow; helviis, light bay; segullum, sign 
of gold-mines (§ 125). 

Lat. caltha, yellow flower. 

Lat. glastum, woad used in dyeing; glesum, amber; glisso'- 
marga, white marl (i. 20). 

Skr. glau, the moon ; yXavaraw, -£!&>, to shine, glitter ; 
yXavKos, gleaming, pale blue, grey ; Lat. glaucus, id. ; yXavcrou 
= Xa/uarpov ; yXavpoq = cre/xyo? (Benfey, ii. 124); Lat. gloria. 

a-yXao?, splendid ; dydXXw, to make glorious ; atyXt], 
dazzling light (cf. eg', § 124). 

Goth, glaggvu/ba, accurately (looking sharp), glit'mun'yan, 
to glitter (§121). 

ya\i')v>], Lat. galena, lead ore ; y\>ji>o$, a show, star ; y\)'/r>], 
pupil of eye, eyeball ; yXoid^w, to wink, twinkle with the 
eyes ; yXcw^, owl. 

Skr. Jcalya, daybreak (uncertain light) ; /cceXai'?, stone of 
greenish blue ; KaXa'i'vos, of changeful hue ; KaXXcuov, cock's- 
comb or wattles (changing colour) ; koXius, mackerel. 



sec. 130.] GROUNDS OF THE SIXTH PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 1.95 

Lat. claims, bright. kuXos, beautiful. Skr. kil, album esse. 

Skr. g ar, to shine, glow, burn ; •^'ip'OTroq, bright-eyed. 

Skr. hrlku, hllku, tin, lac ; ^aA/co'?, copper ; Goth, gul'th, Eng. 
gold ; -xXouvo?, an epithet of gold ; Skr. hari, harit, harita, harina, 
yellowish, greenish ; harit, the sun, horses of the sun (indicates 
bright yellow warm colour) ; lirl, pudere, erubescere ; haras, fire. 

Xpwros, gold ; oo-%p6$, yellow (the second element defines 
the first? § 124). 

Skr. gaitra, whitish, yellowish, reddish, shining, beautiful ; 
Lat. grava'stellus, grey-headed fellow (dim. of gravast&r). 

Kippos, tawny, orange-tawny ; KpoKos, crocus ; Kop'dWtov, 
coral (vii. 38, glow of fire). 

epiO'dic'}], bee's-bread, red juice in the honeycomb (cf. Skr. 
harit, also § 124); epiQ-aicos, the redbreast; Lat. erist'alis, a 
gem with red shades (vii. 38) ; Kijpu'Oos = epiOdnt] (i. 23). 

dp-creViKov, yellow sulphuret of arsenic (cf. Skr. hari ; tip 
for yap ; § 132). 

Skr. tiara, calidus ; grisma, summer; g'arma, heat; Jtfur, 
to burn ; Goth, hauri, coal of fire. 

Lat. caleo, to be warm, glow. 

Skr. ^ris, urere ; \rl, coquere ; xra, to cook, roast. 

Kplfiavos, nXifiavos, earthen vessel for baking bread ; Lat. 
scrib'li'ta, a kind of tart (vii. 31) ; libum, a cake. 

Goth. Idaifs, Ang.-Sax. hldf, Eng. loaf; Goth, ga'hlaiba, 
companion. 

§ 130. k 6 r 6 , A,' 6 p G , s 6 p$. The breath breaking through the 
spirant or the aspirate, or pressing on the closure of the tenuis, 
gives corresponding expression to the energy of light. 

Skr. kar, kab, to colour, praise ; Jcavi, a thinker, wise man, 
poet ; Goth, hivi, colour, appearance ; Ang.-Sax. have, aspectus ; 
Eng. haviour (of the visage, Shakespeare), behave. 

Skr. x'vas, Lat. eras, to-morrow ; y^usma, lumen, splendor ; 
y^cHtet, white, light ; \vit, to be white, bright ; Goth. It veits, 
Eng. white. 

Skr. go, the sky, stars, sun, moon, rays of light, eye ; g'yut, 
gut, fulgere (cf. dyut, § 127); Goth, guth, Eng. god ; Goth. 
gudya, priest. 

Skr. x'"^' X umo } t° adorn, spleudere ; sib', simb' , sub', 
s a nib' , spleudere. 



19,6 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. vi. 

cra<p)'j?, clear, distinct. 
yv^/6$, chalk, whiting. 

Lat. ceponides, gemmas variis coloribus translucentes, Faccio- 
lati; cep'itis, cepolatitis (§ 117), precious stone. 
Lat. splencleo (cf. lan'g', § 123). 

§ 131. s 6 v 6 , SqT 6 , s 6 / 6 . The breath breaking through spirants 
and vibratiles gives stong sense of vivid light. 

Skr. svar, to shine ; svar, the sun, sky ; sur, splendere ; 
surya, the sun ; svaim, svartts, thunderbolt ; creip, crelpios, Lat. 
sirius, the sun, dogstar ; creipog, of summer ; o-epa-mas, the 
purple orchis ; crdpaTris, white robe with purple stripe ; Lat. 
sevemis, clear, bright ; Irish, soir, east, morning ; Spins, a 
gem = criStipiris ', opel-^aXKog, aurichalcum, yellow copper ore 

(§ 129). 

creXa?, brightness ; <xeX>/y>;, the moon (crfaX) ; Goth, sauil, the 
sun; Lat. sol; eiXt], e'X>/, aXea, sunshine; ttuctt el\r), last day 
of the year (iii. 26); SerXt], the afternoon (iii. 11); eXevtj, a 
torch ; SjXvcriov, Elysium ; SjXvcria, places struck by lightning 
(Skr. svarus); rjXeK'Twp, beaming sun (cf. valh, &c., § 117); 
ijXeK'Tpov, amber ; cre'Xa^o?, a kind of fishes, called, according to 
Aristotle, from their phosphorescence ; creXwyew, to illumine. 

tjeXios, afieXios, ijXios, the sun (crapaX, cf. Sal's, &c, § 127). 
rj'fA-ap, rj'fxep-a, day (a-fa'/map, the shining part, iv. 16). 

Goth, sil'iibr, Eng. silver (§ 117). 

Skr. svak'k" a, clear, transparent (cf. Skr. ak''k"a, § 124). 

Goth, svikns, pure, holy. 

Lat. su'dus, clear, bright. 

§ 132. k 6 m 6 , s 6 m 6 , s 6 n 6 . When the breaking forth of light 
is equivalent only to the development of lively attention, its 
expression is fitly reduced by the pressure of the organs 
in the utterance of a tenuis. But the breaking forth of the 
breath in a spirant gives a stronger expression of the light. 
Skr. x' = original Je. See § 133. 

Skr. x'can, videre, conspicere ; ni'tfam, to become aware, 
learn to know ; ko/x«o, to take care of, tend ; ko/u'I^w, to bring 
under care (caus.) ; /co/r^o'?, care bestowed on dress ; Lat. como, 
to dress ; ko/jl^/o?, well-dressed, dainty. 



sec. 134.] GROUNDS OF THE SIXTH PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 197 

Goth, samyan sis, to make a fair show (cf. skeima, § 125) ; 
Eng. seem, seemly. 

Goth, sunna, Eng. sun (cf. skeinan, § 125) ; 0. H. Ger. 
sumar, Ang.-Sax. swmer, Eng. summer (sun'mar, sunny part, 

iv. 16). 

Skr. sindura, vermilion (§ 117); aavS'u^, a bright red; 
<ravS-af)-uK'>], red sulphuret of arsenic (§§ 137, 124) ; avSpa^ri, 
a coal-pan ; avOpa%, coal, a dark-red gem, vermilion ; Lat. 
sandaresus, a gem of a fiery colour with golden spots (§ 137) ; 
sandala, a kind of wheat, granis nitidissimis (red ?) ; tjvo^, 
epithet of copper and of wheat (§ 118); apveviKov, yellow 
sulphuret of arsenic (§ 129). 

§ 133. 7c 6 t 6 , i & t G , t 6 r 6 , n Q t G , see the preceding. In the nasal 
the breath passes freely rather than breaks forth. And in n 
there is more sense of free passage than in m, owing to the 
shutting of the mouth in the latter. In the vowel and the 
aspirate the breath breaks forth more forcibly, so as to express 
light or heat more strongly. 

Skr. k'it, to perceive, observe, appear; k'itra, striking the 
eye, clear, various coloured ; ki, k'i, to perceive, observe, look 
for ; keta, purpose, form (view) ; k'int, to think. 

Lat. lorsycites, moss agate (§ 14) ; moro-chites, gem of colour 
of leek (ii. 43) ; ux^rm, agate (variously marked). 

Skr. id', to set on fire; IQalvw, to warm, cheer; tOapos, 
cheerful ; alOco, to light up, kindle ; alOi'ip, the upper air, blue 
sky ; d'Spi], clear sky ; alOovaa, portico (lightsome) ; Lat. 
cedes (lightsome apartments, better kind of abode) ; cestus, heat, 
boiling, swelling of the tide ; cestas, summer. 

Oepoo, to heat, become warm ; Oepos, summer, harvest ; 
Oapyi'/Xia, harvest festival (iii. 6); %>>o?, hot; 6ep^ava-rpa } 
oven (avco). 

Skr. ind' , lucere, flam mare. 

Lat. niteo, to shine, look bright or beautiful ; reiudeo, return 
brightness. 

§ 134. k 6 n 6 , kJz, k 6 s 6 . The free passage of the breath in n 
«ives force to its emission from a guttural, through which it 
comes, so as to express pure light. 

Skr. kan, splendere ; kanaka, gold; Kivva-fiapi, bright red 



198 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap vi. 

dye, vermilion (§ 117); K<xvw7r-ov, the elder-flower (§ 118); 
Lat. candeo, to shine, glow, be glowing hot; accendo, to 
kindle, light ; iivcendo, to kindle, brighten ; canus, white, 
hoary. 

Lat. canta-brum, a kind of banner or standard in the time 
of the later emperors ; Irish, suaith'cheantas, banner, blazonry 

(§ 128). 

Skr. ffiand, h'and, to shine ; Jc'anda, the moon ; ffiandra, 
l/andra, glimmering, of the colour of gold, the moon ; £ai>66$, 
yellow. ^ov0o9, brownish yellow. 

Skr. tf'wF, X'und\ to purify ; Lat. quinquo, to expiate, 
purify (quand'quo, an abbreviated duplication of quand') ; 
KaQapos, clean, clear, pure (K F a6) ; Lat. cas'tus, pure (caO'tus) ; 
cast'igo, to correct, chastise. 

Kalvufxai, Keicao-fJLai, Dor. ne/caS/mat, to be distinguished 
amongst, to be adorned or furnished (ica<rwfiai) ', Koo-fio?, 
ornament, honour, order ; icdS/uo?, Cret. lance, shield, plume 
of helmet, ornament (Hesych. ap Benfey) ; KaS^ela, Lat. 
cadmia, zinc (metallic lustre) ; cadmitis, a precious stone. 

yavos, brightness, exultation, pride ; yawfiai, to brighten 
up, be glad. 

§ 135. r 6 v 6 , r 6 t G , l 6 t & See § 122. 

Skr. ravi, the sun ; Lat. raims, tawny ; povs, the sumach 
(frutex subrutilus, Facciol.) ; poids, common red poppy ; pod, 
pomegranate (red flesh) ; povareXivov, apium rusticum. 

Skr. rut, splendere ; Lat. rutilus, red inclining to golden 
, yellow ; lutum, a plant which dyes reddish yellow. 

§ 136. Ve> h'P*k m v W f See § 123. 

\dw, to look (Xa/rw) ; aAao'?, blind. 

a\<pds, white ; a\d(3a(TTog, alabaster ; Lat. albus. 

Lat. lepor, agreeableness, wit; lepidus, agreeable, witty (cf. 
fax, facet us, § 120). 

Xd/uLirco, to shine ; Lat. lan'terna, la'tema, lamp ; limpidus, 
clear, transparent. 

Skr. las, to radiate, shine ; Lat. I astro, to illumine, purify, 
survey ; lustrum, a purificatory sacrifice. 

Goth, leisan, to know; laisyan, to teach. 



skc. 138.] GROUNDS OF THE SIXTH PHASE OF UTTERANCE. L99 

§ 137. s 6 , ,// (i s , r 6 , r 6 t 6 . See § 131. 

Skr. as, splendere. 

Skr. ayas, metal, iron ; mot'it*?, -1S09, jasper (§ 130, 
iacr-(nr-L$) ; Gotb. aiz, ore, copper; eis'am, Eng. iron; Lat. 
t.s, copper ore, bronze. 

Skr. ara, ore, rust of iron; o-lS'ripos, iron (§ 128, cf. 
eis'arn). 

Lat. sand'ares'us, gem of a fiery colour with golden spots 
(§ 132); cravS'ap-dK'i], red sulphuret of arsenic (§§ 132, 124). 

Lat. ardeo, to burn, blaze, glow, shine. 

§ 138. t & p 6 . The subdued movement of the breath in the 
tenues gives a subdued expression to the breaking forth of 
heat or light ; but with nasal or spirant it is less subdued 

(§ 126). 

Skr. tap, to warm, shine, burn ; Lat. tepeo, to be moderately 
warm ; reef) pa, ashes ((p due to p, Curtius) ; ro7r-a^o?, the 
topaz. 

Qifipos, warm. 



CHAPTER VII. 

GROUNDS OF THE SEVENTH PHASE OF UTTERANCE, WHOSE EX- 
PRESSIVENESS LAY IN THE FRICTION OF THE ORGANS BY 
THE BREATH, AND THEIR PENETRATION AS THE BREATH 
PASSED THROUGH. 

In the seventh phase of utterance the gutturals express with 
rouo-hness and force, the dentals with more definiteness of 
effect, the labials with more fineness of attrition. But such 
distinctions are obscured by the combinations with each other 
of the different orders of mutes, and by their association with 
the roughness and force of r, the smoother movement of I, the 
strong passage of the breath in s, its freer and smoother move- 
ment in h and r, and its unimpeded penetration in m and n ; 
while these in various combinations with each other express 
corresponding varieties of friction and penetration (Introd. 

§ io). 

§ 1. kjr„ friction, sense of the granular, roughness, uneven 
surface or edsre, sense of roughness from the resistance of 
what is hard, rough treatment. 

Yjodw, Yj°«tV to graze, wound slightly. 

ypv, dirt under the nail ; ypvrt], trash (scrapings, cf. scruta, 

§8). 

Goth, grinda-, crushed; Ang.-Sax. grindan, Eng. grind; 

(loth, grand us, Eng. [/round (pulverised or granulated surface). 

yvpi$, finest meal ; yovpos, kind of cake ; ayyovpos, a cake ; 
Goth, qvairnvs, mill-stone. 

Goth. ga-Jcroton, to break to pieces, hriustan, to gnash. 

ypdo), ypaivoo, to gnaw; yoyypos, conger eel; yayypcuva, 
eating sore. 

KpoT&v, dog-louse, castor berry ; tcpoTcbvij, an excrescence 
on trees (Granulation). 

200 



sec. ].] GROUNDS OF SEVENTH PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 201 

Lat. grannm ; Goth, kaum, Eng. corn; ylyapra, grape- 
stones, grapes. Lat. grando, hail. 

Kuxpus, parched barley, seeds ; iceyxpos, millet, small grains ; 
Kpl/Jivov, groats ; Goth, gramst, mote. 

Skr. kris, to drag, trail, draw a furrow. 

Skr. x'arleara, gravel, Hint. 

okois, roughness ; oupvoeis, horrible ; p-vXa-Kpts, mill-stone 
(§ 45). Kep-^vos, icapx<^eo9, rough ; KUpyupo?, sharp, jagged. 
Kpavpo?, dry, rough. Kpdmfio?, parched, shrivelled. KpaStj, 
blight. 

Lat. carbas, E.N.E. wind ; carlo, charred wood ; caries, decay, 
rottenness ; cremo, to consume. 

Kapcpw, to dry up, shrivel. 

ypaftSis, ypdfiiov, ypovvos, dry wood fit for kindling. 

Lat. gratilla, kind of cakes. 

Kalpo$, row of thrums to which the warp was tied ; Kaipo- 
aewv (gen. pi.), fringed ; Kpoarcroi, tassels, fringe ; Kp6<rcrai, 
battlements, projections in series; Lat. crista, tuft; arista, 
the awn or beard of an ear of grain ; tcdpos, a broom. 

Goth, hrains, clean ; Ang.-Sax. hrinan, to clean, sweep. 

Skr. hris, se erigere, horrere (de pilis corporis et floribus) ; 
Lat. horreo, to bristle,- shudder ; oppaStw, dppwdeio, to fear ; 
Lat. hirs-utus, hirtus, shaggy; hirci's, he-goat; hordeum, 
barley; Goth, grans, moustache; Irish, greann, crines, crinium, 
erectio prae furore. 

Skr. gravan, stone, block of rock. 

Xeppos, yeprros, dry, hard, barren ; x oi P^^ ^ ow roc ^' g^ an( ^ s 
when hard and swollen ; x € P'f x ^ ? ' a stone (vi. 35) ; X €t P a? > 
heap of stones ; xepds, X e 'i° a ^ 0? ' g rave l- 

Kpw-/j.a£, a heap of stones (vi. 31). 

icpvo?, Kpv'/ut.6s, cold (hardens and roughens) ; icpva-Taivw, to 
freeze ; Kpva-raWo?, ice (§ 38) ; Lat. crusta, hard surface ; 
crudvH, raw, unripe, hard (not softened by ripeniug or cook- 
ing) ; crudclis. 

icpavaos, hard, rugged, rocky ; Kpdvov, cornel-cherry ; Lat. 
comus, id. ; Kepvov, projection of the vertebraa ; K€pa<To$, cherry 
(frora the stone) ; KpoKt], a pebble ; Lat. crocallis, gemma cera- 
sum repraesentans (§ 38). 

Skr. Jcri, kri, lredere, occidere ; Ktjp, death (violent) ; Kepatfy, 
to destroy utterly ; Skr. \arb, x r(rv > f erire > laedere, occidere ; 



202 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. vii. 

g'iri, id. ; h%i, violenter facere ; Lat. circius, a violent wind, 
W.N.W. ; caurus, the KW. wind (cf. Goth, skura, § 8) ; euro, 
to card. 

yopyos, grim, restive (horse), rough (language). 

S 2. h,L. ljr„ sX, friction, sense of the granular, rough 

/ i y i i 7 7 

resistance, rough treatment, roughness of bitterness, rough 
surface, smoothness felt in rubbing. 

Kufovfy) to P las ^j dash '■> x^vfy, to wash (KXvSyw) ; Goth. 
hlutrs, clean ; Old Lat. duo, to clean ; Lat. clo'cvca, sewer. 

Lat. glis, -iris, dormouse ; liro, to harrow, scratch ; eXeios, 
dormouse; yayyaXlfy, yapyaXl^oD, to tickle; yiyyXio-fios, 
tickling (repeated light friction). 

^aXa^a, hail ; X"^'£> K °X^ a %> K«X^f ' gravel ; Lat. calx, 
small stone, lime, chalk (friable stone) ; calculus, small stone. 
glarca, gravel, hilum, quod grano fabas adhaeret ; nihil, not a 
particle. aKvXog, acorn. 

Skr. xila, stone, rock ; Goth, Uallus, stone, rock ; kXw-^u^, 
heap of stones (vi. 31). 

Lat. silcx, flint. 

XaAe7TO?, severe, difficult, hard to bear or deal with. 

Skr. klaf, laadere ; Lat. clacles, injury, disaster, slaughter. 

Skr. kil, frigidum esse (cold hardens and roughens) ; Lat. 
aquilo, north wind. 

Skr. gala, g'ada, frigidus ; Lat. gclu, cold ; glacics, ice (hard 
and sharp) ; Goth, kalds, Eng. cold. 

Xo'Xvj bile, bitterness (rough taste) ; x°'^°?> bile, bitter wrath ; 
■^oXepa, ^oXeSpa, cholera. 

yXdvos, hyena (from erection of mane ; cf. Irish greann, 
| 1); y\avK, silurus (§ 13); xXovvqs, epithet of wild boar; 
XAoim?, id. 

Lat. calvus, bald ; galbus, smooth ; glaber, without hair, 
smooth. 

§ 3. kj\, k„, penetration, sharpness. 

■^apucrcro), to sharpen, engrave ; X f V a £' snar P sta ^e ; X a ~ 
paSpa, torrent, its bed; x°'~/° 0? ' P^S (rooting), pudendum 
muliebre ; u^epSo?, uxi°«?> -«<W, prickly pear; Goth, gairu, a 
thorn; x»/j°> Lat. er, hedgehog; erinaceus, id. (§ 21); Eng. 
urchin (§ 5). 



sbo. 4.] GROUNDS OF SEVENTH PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 203 

Kapoorov, carrot; Lat. carota, id. (tap root); Goth, hors, 
adulterer; Ang.-Sax. hare, Eng. whore (cf. Ang.-Sax. heoru, 
a peg) ; Old Norse, hrutan, a ram, Eng. rut ; Kpio$, a ram. 

ypdcjut), to grave, delineate, write ; ypapuaOai, to write 
(Hesych.) ; ayplcbij, harrow, rake ; ypocrcpo?, Kpoarifio?, kind 
of javelin. Goth, graban, to dig, Eng. grave (g'rab' = ypu<p, 
Grassmann). Lat. grwma, an instrument for laying down 
bounding lines (cf. pv/j-rj). 

Lat, ocra, a harrow ; oy'im.o?, line, furrow ; Goth. hoha,& plough. 

Lat. co-in-quo, to lop or cut down trees; Ang.-Sax. heavian, 
En w hew. 

aKopva, a prickly plant. 

Kpar-aiyog, kind of flowering thorn ; KopiS-, bug ; Lat. 
crdbro, hornet; carduus, thistle; carex, sharp rush; cerrus, 
Turkey oak (prickly acorns) ; cutis, quiris, spear (Sabine). 

Lat. agri folia, holly ; Skr. agra, point ; aypcoa-Ti?, name of 
a hound, dog's-tooth grass; irepiypa, pair of compasses; epvgri, 
wooden pins (Greek). 

Lat. accr, sharp ; acerbus, bitter ; a/cpos, at the point or 
end ; uKplfiw, exact ; Lat. deer, maple (pointed leaves) ; Kpidi), 
barley (prickly) ; Goth, hairus, sword. 

Lat. ag-na, a blade of grass, ear of corn. 

«/o/, point, edge ; cik'/m], point, edge ; aK-eurpa, darning- 
needle ; ctKecTTpia, sempstress ; a/ce'o/xat, to mend, sarcire ; 
uKa-^fieuoi, sharpened ; aKoucla, the acacia (prickly) ; Lat. aceo, 
to be sour ; acidus ; aeies, point, edge ; ai-fc^'i, the point of a 
spear ; Lat. aqurfolius, having pointed leaves ; Goth, ahs, ear 
of corn. 

Skr. -)(i, to whet, sharpen ; kl<s, worm in wood or corn ; 
Lat. ci'mex, bug (§ 46). 

Skr. x'o, acuere ; Lat. cicu'ta, hemlock (pointed) ; acus, sharp 
point. 

kuktos, prickly plant. 

dvo'yvp'o?, a prickly plant (§ 20). 

ay p/ja-Kerai, becomes bitter, Hesych. (sharp taste) ; Lat. 
grossus, an unripe fig. 

§ 4. l\, l\L, uJ v penetration, sharpness, passage through. 
(iK-avd-a, a thorn, prickly plant (vi. 58) ; cuc-avOls, prickly 
plant; a/caA'cu'&V, id. ; uKa\-ij<pti, nettle («<£>/, i. 8); /ccucaA'ia 



204 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. vii. 

plant with pointed leaves ; a^ce/cctA-/?, white tamarisk ; alic\ m oi, 
points of javelins ; Lat. ad-is, small javelin ; acul'eus, a sting. 

Lat. nas'ica, having pointed nose (viii. 18). 

yXco-^w, a projecting point ; yXw^, beard of corn ; yaXiov, 
kind of nettle ; yaXaj, marten, cat ; yaXeos, shark ; yaXewrw, 
ko)\cot>i?, kind of lizard, sword-fish (v. 23); Lat. (jallvdraga, 
hairy teasel. 

a^'XXero?, a kind of barley. 

Lat. cilo, having tapering head ; in'cil'e, furrow for drawing 
off water (cut in) ; caelum, chisel ; ccelo, to carve ; in'tilo, to 
rebuke, blame (cut in) ; cutter, knife, ploughshare ; culex, a 
gnat ; culix, kind of plant ; ulex, plant (pointed). 

Ger. Jceil, a wedge. Goth, gultha, a sickle. 

Skr. y^il, spicas colligere ; y^ila, agri tonsi reliqua stipula, 
spica ; 0. H. Ger. igil, hedgehog. 

/ua-KeXXa, pickaxe with one point (fxia) ; SiiceXXa, mattock 
with two points (<%). 

Lat. glccdius, sword ; yXapk, chisel ; yXd<fioo, hew, carve, 
dig ; yXd<pv, a hole ; yXucpco, to hollow, engrave, carve. 

Lat. colo, to filter (pass through) ; vXilQo, to filter, clear. 

§ 5. kji., penetration, sharpness. 

Kvdco, KvaS-dWo), kvuw, ki>7]6w, to scratch ; Kvv(a, kvvos, Kin'j(p>i, 
itch; KvtjKos, kind of thistle; Goth, hnuto, hnutho, thorn. 

kvi^o), to scrape, sting ; kviSij, nettle ; Sopv'Kviov, poisonous 
plant of convolvulus kind (vi. 11). 

kvwS'ovtcs, projecting points ; KucoS'a^, pin or pivot ; kvwo-- 
aXov, a dangerous animal. 

Kvewpos, stinging plant. 

KedvooOos, kind of thistle. 

Ktvdpa, artichoke (prickly tuft) ; Kvvdpa, prickly plant ; icev- 
reco, to prick. 

yi/d-n-Too, tcvd-TT-Tw, to card; kvu>^/, Kivw-TVerov, deadly beast; 
Kcoi/onJ/-, gnat, hedgehog (cf. fxvco^, dcrKaXcoylr, &c.) ; yvacpaXiov, 
cotton weed. 

yyaixa, to scrape, gnaw. 

Old Lat. cnasonce, acus quibus mulieres caput scalpunt ; 
Lat. cania, wild nettle. 

Skr. Jean, to dig, to root ; kovikXo?,' Lat. citnicidus, cony : 
koviS-, Ang.-Sax. Jinit, Eng. nit, the young of lice, fleas, bugs. 



sec. 7.] GROUNDS OF SEVENTH PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 205 

Lat. bri'gantes, vermiculi qui cilia arare et exulcerare solent 
(ii. 17). 

Skr. x '«"■} to whet, sharpen ; kwvos, cone ; icooveiov, hemlock 
(pointed). 

oucvrjuTis, the spine, a plant; <xk6vltov, Lat. aconUwm, 
aconite ; a/taws, hind of thistle, prickly head ; alyavea, a 
hunting-spear ; oucovtj, a whetstone ; Lat. cuna'S, a wedge 
(sharp edge). 

eWoy, hedgehog ; Eng. urchin (§ 3). 

Skr. han, ferire, occidere ; hanu, the jaw ; <yew<s, the jaw, 
the edge of an axe ; yevrfe, axe, mattock ; Goth, kinnus, Eng. 
chin ; Lat. genuinus, pertaining to the jaw ; gingiva, the gum 
(perhaps ginginva, redupl. specialising part of the jaw); yvddos, 
jaw, edge, point. 

kvIittw, to nip ; kw'|, an aphis which eats figs ; KviTroofxai, 
to be inflamed in the eyes; kvittos, kvi<J)6s, niggardly (small 
bite) ; Yvltywv, niggard ; ki/ul^i^ a niggard (kvittto), k'lvtttw, 
KifXTTTO)) ; Goth, hanfs, without one hand; Dutch, hompen, 
abscindere partes extremas. 

§ 6. TcJn„ smooth friction, fine grain. 

moos, yyoi], nave, axle. 

kovvos, beard, tuft. 

kovis, dust ; Lat. cinis, ashes ; con'ip'tum, libation of sprinkled 
flour (v. 1); con'spol'ium, sacrificial cake (i. 15); Goth, ahana, 
chaff; Eng. awn, the beard of corn or grass. 

XovSpos, groat. 

| 7. s 7 l\, s^n v l\p 7 , sJ v s 7 r 7 , penetration, sharpness. 

(tkvI-ktw), to nip ; aicvfy, g-kl^t, a flea, a miser (takes the 
smallest bite) ; o-kvuto?, <TKvi<p6$, niggardly. 

(tkolvSi^, needle-weed. 

o-oyyos, kind of thistle. 

Lat. sentis, thorn, briar ; sentix, dog-rose ; sent us, thorny, 
bristly, rugged. 

cr/caXXco, to hoe ; ctkoXo^, mole (burrows) ; ctkoXo^s, pointed ; 
aovcaAorvJ/-, a-/coAo7ra£, snipe (its bill, cf. /aojwv|/-, § 5) ; cr/cwAo?, 
thorn, pointed stake ; ctkoXv/ulo?, kind of thistle ; ctkuXi?, hoe ; 
o-KaX/u)], knife, sword ; (tkuXjulo?, pin for oars ; (TKaXuOvpo), to 
dig (§ 39) ; Lat. squalus, squatina, species of shai'k. 



206 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. vi.. 

Lat. scalpo, to carve, scrape, engrave ; scidpo, to carve, 
engrave. 

Goth, sir/ban, Eng. shave. 

Goth, skapyan, to make ; Eng. shape, land' scape ; Goth, skip, 
Eng. ship, skipper; shaftyan sik, to be about to (put into 
shape). 

acrKoa, the holm oak (pointed leaves) ; Lat. wscidus, id. ; 
aencvpov, a kind of St. John's wort. 

(TKOp7rlo$, scorpion, prickly fish and plant ; a-Kvpov, a plant ; 
cr X^/ ) ° f ' hedgehog ; cricdplcpos, a stile, etchiug tool ; Lat. sca- 
rif'ico, to scarify; scribo ; scrohis, a ditch, trench ; Goth, skrams, 
javelin. 

Lat. serap'ta, scrup'eda, scrat'ta, unchaste woman ; scortum, 
harlot (cf. )(_olpof, &c, § 3). 

(TKa-TTTw, oo-kutttw, to dig (strengthened with d) ; <TKa.(po?, a 
digging, thing hollowed ; o-icacpdop*], Koapwpr], she-fox (burrows) ; 
Ktnrpos, boar (rooter) ; ko.it er 09, ditch ; kcitt^v, capon (gelded) ; 
K07ria.T>]S, grave-digger. 

Lat. seco; sec'uvis, an axe (§ 27) ; <JKe"nap'vov, an axe (vi. 20) ; 
Lat. sece'spit'a, a long iron sacrificial knife (§ 17) ; secdle, kind 
of rye or black spelt (fit for cutting). 

Lat. sica, a poniard ; Skr. suk'l, needle-point ; Trlcrvyyos, 
shoemaker (ii. 33). 

Old Lat. scena, pontiff's axe ; Lat. ascia, axe, hoe, trowel ; 
doXixo'arKios, having long blade ? aa-^e'Scop'o?, name of a boar 
in Magna Grascia (Skr. dp, lacerare, § 39). 

Lat. sagit'ta, arrow: Goth, skathyan, to hurt, damage; Eng. 
scathe. 

a'<TKti6t)s, unhurt. 

aiov, water-parsnip (penetrating root) ; sison agrion, herba 
radice magna ; Lat. siser, cricrapov, shirret (kind of carrot). 

§ 8. sJz., Sffi, v v friction, roughness. 

acricew, to work up raw material for satisfaction of the ends 
of the arts of life (to shape, polish, dress) ; o-kevo?, implements 
necessary for the arts of life ; oTcew/, equipment for the arts 
of life. ' 

ovceXAw, ctk\})/uli, to dry, parch ; cricXqpos, dry, hard, harsh ; 
aa-va\'dco, aor^aX'Xco, to be distressed ; Lat. squaleo, to be stiff 
or rough. 



bko. 9.] GROUNDS OF SEVENTH PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 207 

Lat. squarrosus, rough, scurfy ; aricipov, the hard rind of 
cheese ; crKipos, hard ; a-Ktjpo^, dry ; Lat. scrupus, a rough or 
sharp stoue. 

ecryj'ipa, hearth, embers, tinder ; Goth, azgo, ashes. Skr. 
siJcata, gravel, sand. 

Lat. seruta, old broken worn stuff, trash ; scridillus, a sau- 
sage (broken meat) ; serutor, to search (scrape, scrapings ; cf. 
ypuTtj, § 1). 

ctukkos, coarse cloth, rough hair. 

Lat. scabo, to scrape ; scabies, roughness, itch ; scobis, filings, 
&c. ; scobina, file. 

Goth, skiuban, Eng. shove. 

Goth, shura, a storm ; rinthi sJcan.ro, fan. 

Lat. saxum, any large rough stone. 

Skr. suksma, fine, small, thin (ground fine) ; Lat. sugillo, 
to bruise, insult ; o-ooyw, to rub, rub to pieces ; cravicos, cravyjios, 
aayvos, cravo-apo?, friable, dry ; l<ryv6s, dry, withered ; io-yas, 
dried fig ; Lat. siccus. 

avos, dry ; avaXeos, uvcrTtipos, dry, rough ; av^fxog, drought, 
roughness. 

Skr. va i, siccari ; Lat. viesco, to shrink up, wither. 

§ 9. fas v sjrip k 7 « 7 , roughness, friction, penetration, sharp- 
ness. 

Koo-u/ufios, fringe, tassel, shaggy coat (cf. Kpoacroi, § 1, 
vlcrvfios, § 13) ; Lat. gossyiirpinus, the cotton tree ; hispid us, 
shaggy, bristly, prickly. 

Skr. x'ws, arescere ; XUVt\ siccari; icdyKco, to parch, dry; 
/ccu'ft), to burn (cf. kuuitto?, &c.) ; 0. H. Ger. hei, hot ; Goth. 
heito, fever; Eng. heat. 

Pico, to polish ; £vco, to scrape ; ^/jO-o'?, %ep'6$, dry ; ^alvoo, 
to card ; £oavov, carved image ; fypov, razor ; Kicrtjp-is, pumice- 
stone. 

Skr. has, to rub, scratch ; Jc'as, k''as, g'cs, to kill ; g'as, to 
wound, to kill ; g'us, to kill, injure ; Lat. castro, geld, prune, lop ; 
hasin, spear ; Goth, gazds, sting, goad ; hosHs, stranger, 
enemy (originally equivalents) ; hostio, to strike, to recom- 
pense (the friction of levelling, cf. to strike a balance) ; hosto- 
riirm, instrument for levelling a measure of corn (cf. strickle) ; 
hostia, victim ; Kearpov, pointed instrument ; koo-t)'/, cc/coo-t?/, 



208 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. vii. 

barley (prickly) ; Katrravov, chestnut (prickly) ; Lat. cusyis, 
point, spike (§ 41) ; cossus, worm in wood. 

Goth, qvistyan, to destroy. hvassaba, vehemently. 

Goth, aquizi, an axe. 

Skr. ksi, to destroy ; ksan. to hurt, wound ; Jcsud, to knock, 
stamp, bruise ; Tcsnu, to grind, whet, sharpen ; alvo^iat, to 
ravage, distress ; Lat. sons, hurtful. 

Pl<fio$, sword ; ]~i(pai, iron of carpenter's plane. 

a^ivrjf axe ; o^lvrj, harrow ; 6£u?, sharp ; o£o$, vinegar (cf . 
aceo, acer) ; 6£ya, kind of beech (perhaps from shape of leaves ; 
cf. acer, maple). 

Lat. axis, a board, plank (smooth cut). 

Goth, sneithan, to cut; at'snarpyan, to nibble. 

§ 10. h,, kj„, rjc„, sense of friction or unevenness in the 
erranular. 

kokkos, kikkos, kernel, berry, grain ; kIki, castor-berry ; kok- 
kvP, -iiyo?, kind of fig (granular seeds), os coccygis (rough pro- 
tuberances) ; KOKKuyea, tree used for dyeing red (berries) ; Lat. 
cocetum, mixture of honey and poppy seed. 

Lat. acinus, berry with seeds. 

Lat. git, giih, a seed (cf. frit) ; hetta, res minimi pretii. 

Lat. ricinus, tick, dog-louse, also the plant kuci and Kporwv 

(§!)• 

§ 11. kj , kjK, k 7 , friction, penetration, sharpness. 

KTelvov, KTivw/uii, Ku'ivui, to kill (cf. Skr. ksan, § 9). 

Kreis, -ew, a comb. 

iktIvos, kite, wolf ; urns, kind of weasel or ferret ; KrlSeos. 
of a weasel or marten ; ?£, worm in vine-buds. 

Skr. kunt\ to hurt, vex; -)(nat\ to thrust through, pierce. 

Skr. xatru, enemy; hat' a, vis, violentia ; hid, to vex. 

Goth. Krim. kadariou, a soldier. 

Lat. cudo, to strike, pound, stamp ; KvS-oipos, rush of conflict 
(v. 23). 

Lat, percutio, to strike through. 

Lat. cccdo, to cut, beat, kill ; tru'cido, to slaughter (§ 39). 
cicatrix, scar. 

Lat. cantes, a rough pointed rock ; cos, any hard stone ; trv- 
quet'rus, three-cornered. 



sec. 13.] (J ROUNDS OF SEVENTH PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 209 

Kea(a\ to split, shatter, rub to pieces. 

X a ^ T 'l, long loose hair (roughness) ; Tevylrw, kind of grass 
(vi. 53). 

ydSos, a fish same as ouog (§ 20). 

§ 12. /.•„, /._///-, friction ; i after k increases the friction over 
the tongue. 

Skr. xV*j to f reeze (cold hardens and makes things unyield- 
ing, so as to be felt with a sense of friction) ; Vita, cold ; x'~'""> 
coagulated, frozen ; % '%■% 'ira, cold ; Kaucias, the north-east wind. 

X l( *> v , snow ; Lat. hi'bcvnus, pertaining to winter-time (vi. 27). 

Skr. him'a, cold, winter, snow, (seldom) ice ; }£ef/ra, winter, 
cold, frost, storm (roughening and rough weather) ; ^ei/rwi/, a 
storm (rough weather) ; Lat. hiem's, winter, rainy, stormy, or 
cold weather (root hya with determinative m) ; Irish, <jamh, 
winter, cold ; geimhrc, winter ; )(//reTAoy, chilblain. 

§ 13. s 7 ?' 7 ,s 7 / 7 , s 7 jS^ 7 , / 7 s 7 , t 7 r 7 , t 7 s 7 , friction, roughness, smoothness. 

Skr. sri, ferire, laedere, occidere ; Goth, sarva, arms. 

crupoy, to trail, sweep ; aupcpos, sweepings ; crupfirj, what is 
trailed or swept ; a-alpco, to sweep ; crapos, broom, sweepings ; 
(rcopcuch, cloth for rubbing horses ; Goth, af'scairban, to wipe 
out (cf. crupcpo?) ; Lat. sarrio, to hoe. 

aicrupa, arvpa, shaggy goatskin ; sisara, name in Eubcea for 
heather ; oovpis, kind of broom ; op'Oairrov, woollen cloth for 
wiping shrines (§ 42) ; (rdrvpos, TiTupos, he-goat ; <tittu{3ov, a 
small skin; crio-vftos, tassel (§ 15) ; m<j6r\, mode of dressing the 
hair ; Lat. seta, bristle. \acno$, shaggy, rough ; Xaicrea, raw 
sheep's hide ; XctKn'fibv, shield covered with raw hides. Sgktv?, 
shaggy, bushy, rough ; <5a<r/c - to?, id. ; Suctk'iWos, name of a fish ; 
Ihcsarica, plantago major (see Safxao-wviov ; of. sisara) ; Oijo-eiov, 
bastard toad-flax. 

Tjoa^i'9, TprrxySi rough. rpayos, he-goat ; Tpuyaco, run to 
leaf (vines become shaggy). Lat. galli'draga, hairy teasel (§ 4). 

rpwyea), TpucrKoo, to dry (rough surface) ; rupiyos, flesh pre- 
served by drying. 

Skr. tars, tris, to thirst ; repcroiuai, to be dry ; Lat. torreo, 
to parch, part, tostvs ; Gotb. ga'thairsan, to dry ; thaursyan, to 
thirst ; thaursus, dry. 

Sdparos, a Thessalian bread. 

o 



210 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOT.-. [chap. vir. 

Skr. sriv, siccari (rough surface) ; Lat. seresco, to grow dry ; 
sartago, frying-pan. 

ava'criWos, wearing the hair bristling up ; alWvfios, a 
thistle, fringe, a parchment slip attached to a volume (title and 
author's name) ; (riX'ovpo?, the silurus, shad fish (ovpa, ii. 16 ; 
cf. yXavis, § 2). 

Lat. solox, of coarse wool. 

Goth, sleitha, loss, punishment (attrition). 

Goth, slaihts, even; sliupan, Eng. slip; afslaupyan, to put 
off, aireKoverrOai. 

§ 14. sj\, sJ 7 , s 7 , n 7 s 7 , penetration, sharpness. 

Lat. serra, a saw; sorbum, sorb-apple, service-berry (sorbis 
acidis, A 7 irg. G. iii. 379) ; Old Lat. sarpo, to trim, prune ; crept?, 
kind of endive (called also iriKpls from it's bitterness) ; creplcpos, 
kind of wormwood ; crepcpog, crupcpos, gnat ; Irish, sar, a louse ; 
vpa^, Lat. sorcx, mouse ; sorix, savrix, a bat (Face.) ; araplaa, 
Macedonian long spear ; Goth, sair, pain, Eng. sore ; Goth. 
saurga, Eng. sorrow ; acripa.Ko$, a wingless locust. 

Skr. asi, sword; Lat. ensis ; <x?/?, -eog, a moth; Lat. asil'us, 
gadfly. 

Lat. soli'pugn, sal'pug'a, venomous ant (§ 19). 

Lat. sulcus, a furrow. 

crlXi, crecreXi, crecreXig, hartwort (from horns of stag) ; Lat. 
sillgo, criXlyviov (fr. Latin), kind of wheat ; Lat. silicia, fenu- 
greek (Nee fasno Grasco minor auctoritas quod telin vocant 
alii carphos, aliqui buceras, alii asgoceras quoniam corniculis 
semen est simile, Plin. sub. fin. 1. 24) ; srfago, hedge hyssop. 

§ 15. s^p 7 , y r .-?_/.', hjo v y 7 v 7 , y 7 m~, friction, the rough feel 
of what is uneven or granular. 

Goth, midya'sveipains, deluge (sweep through the midst). 

crofti], any bunch or growth of rough hair; Lat. scojw regia, 
a plant ; scopes, thin branches, a broom ; Goth, shifts, hair of 
the head ; Lat. juba, mane of horse ; ¥6ju./3pos, shaggy deer. 

Goth, skauts, edge, skirts; Lat. cauda ; siib'scus, -udis, 
tongue of a dovetail ; Kavvaicw, Persian rug or thick garment 
(§ 21); yav'cra7n]9, a shaggy woollen cloth. 

Lat. saburra, sand ; sabulum, gravel ; enrupos = 7rvp6g, wheat ; 
cnr\}]()os ; cnroSos, ashes, embers ; acrfioXos, soot. 



sec. 18.] GROUNDS OF SEVENTH PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 2 1 1 
S 16. s t s h , the roughening sensation of chill, horror, 

«3 7 7' T 7 ° 



awe. 



o-tu^, a piercing chill, abhorrence ; crrvyeoo, to abhor, hate. 

Goth. sJcohsl, evil spirit. 

Lat. sacer (inspiring religious awe) ; sanciv, to invest with 
religious awe. 

Lat. s«g- in in, tuft of sacred herbs which marked the bearer 
as inviolable. 

§ 17. s 7 jl, sjn», penetration, sharpness. 

ar<p7]v, a wedge ; cr(pev Safivog, maple (i. 34, masses of 
pointed foliage, like sycamore) ; a-<f)}j£, a wasp ; o-cpaQx), to 
slay. 

Lat. spica, spike, ear of corn ; spina, thorn, prickle ; sjrinea, 
spionia, a kind of vine (perhaps from the pointed leaf). 

mfivvr\, a hunting-spear (§ 20). 

aa-TraXa-Oog, a prickly shrub (viii. 16) ; <nrdXa£, da-rraXa^, 
a mole (burrows) ; ao-irls, an asp. 

a-(pa\d(T(Tw, to sting, scratch ; cnrapdo-o-w, to tear, mangle ; 
Lat. sparus, a hunting-spear. 

o-7raTct77>/9, kind of sea-urchin (prickly) ; secespita, sacrificial 
knife (§ 7). 

o-fiiX-rj, a knife ; o-fuv'us, two-pronged fork, hoe ; o-fuvOos, 
a field-mouse. 

§ 18. sjp„ 8J0~ .s_///_, m_, mJc, friction, fine smooth friction, 

v V- T 7 7' 7 T i ' it 

roughness. 

Skr. sib\ simb' , sub 1 , sumb' , Isedere, occidere. 

Skr. svri, vexare ; svri, Isedere, occidere ; Lat. scvcvus. 

Lat. swims. 

(r/uidco, to anoint, wipe ; cr^/^-co, to wipe, wash ; ao-a/xivOos, 
bathing-tub ; cr/xw^o), to rub, grind down ; o-fiwSijZ, -770?, a 
weal (§ 24) ; /xw-Xo>\[r, a weal (vi. 96) ; cr/i^co, to smoulder 
(ashes) ; a/xiKplXo), to make very small, reduce to fine powder ; 
aiuuKpos, niKpos, fxiKKos, small ; Lat. mica, crumb, grain ; crv-vpis, 
emery ; Lat. samera, seed of elm. 

Goth, smalists, super., Eng. small. 

Lat. siniila, simil'ago, the finest wheat flour; o-efxiSuX-i?, 
id. (§ 40). 

Lat. scmlta, path (worn smooth). 



212 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. vii. 

Lat. sub'tlHs, fine (§ 40). 
<T7nA«9, (TTTfXo?, a rock. 
Lat. asper, rough. 

§ 19. />_/.'_, 2\s 7 , penetration, sharpness, friction. 

7reu/o/ei?, piercing, of the fir tree ; 7rewre<Wo9, epithet of war, 
also plant hog's-fennel = pinastellum ; ireuK)], fir tree (sharp 
spines) ; 7re pnreuKrjg, very sharp ; TrevKakeo?, dry (sharp in- 
equalities). 

Lat. saVpuga, solrpuga, venomous ant (§ 14) ; pugio, dagger ; 
pungo, to prick. 

-7TiKp6?, bitter ; -m)yavov, rue (bitter). 

Lat. apex, point, summit ; picus, woodpecker. 

(po^og, tapering to a point. 

Lat. fuscina, trident ; (pdcryavov, sword. 

Lat. for'fex, scissors (ii. 16) ; cami'fex, executioner, torturer 
(caro) ; conti'fex, pikeman (vi. 112). 

Skr. b'ag', exercere, facere, exsequi ; Goth, and'bahts, ser- 
vant. 

Lat. fungor, to work through so as to be free from. 

§ 20. njc v Wv, nj\, njo^, v 7 n 7 , penetration, sharpness, friction. 

Skr. nalca, finger-nail ; ovv£, -u-^os, talon, claw, human 
nail ; Lat. unguis, id. ; vvo-o-co, -£&>, to prick ; Opcva^, Tpiva^, 
-kos, trident ("rpis) ; avaic'Topiov, sword-grass ; Goth, ga'naglyan, 
Eng. to nail ; ey^og, a spear. 

ovo'yvpos, a prickly plant (§ 3) ; oi'09, wood-louse, wingless 
locust, kind of fish ; ov'ictkos, id. 

vvpu> = vucrcrco ', voop'o^r, flashing (eye-piercing). 

vovuo';, vocro?, disease, distress. 

Lat. novacula, razor. 

Skr. van, ferire ; Goth, vunds, Eng. wound. 

vvvif, ploughshare; o-t/3'vv't], hunting-spear (§ 17); (TTop'ovrj, 
pointed instrument (§ 22) ; opK'vvos, large kind of tunny-fish 
(§ 30). 

Lat. vanga, mattock or spade. 

§ 21. /?_/■-, nJL, friction. 

Lat. noceo, to hurt. 

Lat. ango, to torment ; aula, grief, distress. 



beo. 25.] GROUNDS OF SEVENTH PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 213 

volki], a woolly or hairy skin ; vuko?, a fleece ; Lat. eri'naceus, 
a hedgehog (§ 3) ; nacca, a fuller (nacta, vuktw) ; Kavvcuajg, a 
thick rug (§ 15). 

§ 22. sJ v penetration, sharpness. 

cttovv^, -v)(o$, any sharp point (§ 20) ; (TTop'Ouy^, -yyos, 
point, spike (§ 24) ; arop-vvi], pointed instrument (§ 20) ; Lat. 
satcm'aria, plant = ireviceSavos. 

Svo-Ttivos, ao-rrjvos, a<rn)i> ', wretched (cf. § 43, oavorris, &c, 
root strengthened with Sua- and a-). 

§ 23. nt v penetration, sharpness, attrition. 
Lat. nitela, nite'dul-a, dormouse (§ 40) ; Goth, nethla, Eng. 
needle. 

Goth, nadrs, viper. 

Lat. j^rso'nat'a, burdock (§ 27). 

Goth, nidni, rust. 

§ 24. tJiL, t 7 , penetration, sharpness, friction. 
Skr. tig, to be sharp ; tik, tig, adoriri, lredere, occidere ; 
Tiypis, tiger; Lat. te'lum, weapon. 

6)'iyw, to sharpen ; ciSIkij, a nettle ; o-fAoySi^, -yyos, a weal 

(§18). ' f - # , 

aSa^eco, aSa^ew, to scratch ; oSd^oiuai, to itch. ; aTTCiK:*??, 

locust ; aTTtjyo?, he-goat (tears with his horns) ; arrayus, 

long-billed waterfowl. 

a-Top-Ovy^, point, spike (§ 22) ; Sclvkos, Lat. daucus, parsnip 
(pierces the soil). 

0o6$, sharp. 

SoiSv^, -vkos, pestle (intens. redupl.). ruK'avr], TVT'avr], an 
instrument for threshing. 

Tuyvpi, a little bit (broken small). 

Lat. taxoivinus, pertaining to a badger ; Ger. dachs, a badger ; 
l^n.n, a badger (penetravit). 

aO^i/?, hard, rough ; aXa, dryness, dry concretion ; a^w, to 
dry, parch ; aSSavo?, Lac. (z = dy = dd), aSdXcuog, dry ; arravov, 
frying-pan. Lat. asso, to roast, broil. 

§ 25. v 7 s 7 , v t , friction of collision, penetration. 
Skr. vols, ferire. vyad', perforare. 



214 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. vii. 

Lat. vespa, wasp ; vcraos, a javelin ; va'rpi^, a hedgehog 

(vi. 9). 

ol'a-To?, oicr'Tos, an arrow ; ota'Tpo?, the gadfly (vyad , fota, 
fOicr'T-) ; SeXXi?, -Wos, a kind of wasp (Se\, § 40, ftO). 

Goth, arh'vaz'na, arrow (ii. 48). 

ouTaco, to wound ; wreiXy'], a wound. 

§ 26. p r v jP?i l J i ll v v i n v P ene tration, friction of collision, 
friction, brushy roughness, wearing life. 

(pews, -co, a prickly plant. 

Lat. pennus, sharp. 

(pevw, Trecpva), to slay ; (povos, murder, bloodshed, gore ; 
(poivos, id., adj. blood-red ; (pohi^, purple, crimson, dark red, 
date palm, lolium perenne called also povg, cf. pova-criog ; Old 
Lat. per fines = perfringas ; Goth, banya, wound. 

Goth, human, to rub. 

Old Lat. vibrissa?, pili in naribus. 

<poj3i], brushy hair or tuft ; Lat.^&ra, filament, lobes, entrails 
(shreds) ; fimbria:, fringed extremity. 

<pi)v>], bearded vulture ; i/7njvt], beard ; Lat. penis, tail ; peni- 
cillus, brush, lint, sponge. 

7roVo?, toil, distress ; rroinpos, toilsome, grievous, bad ; irev- 
ofieu, to toil, be poor; irevys, poor; Lat. pen'u'ria, want, need; 
-Koarvvoi, to toil eagerly (intens. redupl.) ; -rrelva, hunger. 

fidvaV(ro<s, artisan. 

Goth, vinnan, to suffer ; 0. H. Ger. winnan, to labour. 

§ 27. vjt v v 7 L, pjr v p 7 L, friction of collision, penetration, 
sharpness. 

Skr. vrana, wound; rran, bran, vulnerare ; Lat. minus. 

Goth, vrihan, to persecute; ga'rrikan, to punish; Eng. 
wreak. 

Skr. vritra, enemy ; vris, pulsare, occidere ; raKa'vplno^ 
an epithet of TroXefxiaWi? (rXijvai, vi. 12); Md'vors = Mars 
(mar'vart, § 45). 

Golh. vrits, mark (of punctuation). 

Lat. rem, spit, dart; Skr. varana, elephantus (cf. vrana); 
varaha, aper (tusks); aop, a sword; Lat. secur'is, an axe 
(§ 7); Skr. vrika, plough; Lat. viric/d/nu, a graving tool; 
vervdgo, to break up land. 



sua 28.] GROUNDS OF SEVENTH PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 215 

Lat. urvo, to mark with a plough ; urviim, front of plough ; 
ovpos, furrow ; Lat. verpa, penis ; verpus, circumcised (head of 
penis) ; buris, sole of plough ; invbarru/m, curved upwards, 
like arc n hi. 

evXuKu, ploughshare ; uu\a-^a, id. ; avXa^, -a/co?, a\oP, w\£, 
(o\a£, coXiy^, a furrow (/a\-, cf. vrika). 

k\v/xu, stock of plough to which the share is fixed (armed 
with what ploughs). 

Skr. parar^u, an axe 5 TreXeKVS, id. ; 7reAe/cuw, to hew ; 
-7T€\eKuv, woodpecker. 

Lat. formica, ant (§ 46) ; {36p-/u.a£, (3vp-/ut.a£, id. (§ 46). 

Trplvos, evergreen oak (pointed leaves, cf. stecheiche) ; 
(nrapiv)], kind of nettle ; Lat. prcenum, an instrument for 
combing flax. 

Lat. pcrso'nat'a (§ 23) ; perso'lat'a, burdock (§ 33). 

7rpu/xi'i] = SiKeWa, mattock or hatchet ; Lat. aper, boar ; 
poreus, 7r6pKOf, pig (rooting, cf. Kairpos, -^oipo^) ; porca, the 
ridge between two furrows (feminine because due to the 
furrows, and therefore a subordinate appendage) ; Ang.-Sax. 
J' i 'I'll, Eng. furrow. 

(paWij, a moth ; (pdXay^, venomous spider. 

Si- rpi'fioXos, two- three-pronged ; /3e\ow/, needle ; fiXTirpov, 
pin ; /3A)/roV, what stings ; d/3eXo'?, spit ; o,8o\6s, nail. 

§ 28. p 7 r v p.L, v 7 r v v 7 L, p^vs v friction, roughness, uneven- 
ness of granulation, rough resistance of what is hard. 

irpiw, Trpl^co, to saw, gnash the teeth. 

Lat. freudo, to grind ; frico, to rub ; frio, to rub, crumble ; 
-ver, suff. of fineness; pul'ver- (i. 15); iud\'evpov, aX'evp'ov, 
iiour (§ 34) ; ir'iT'vp-ov, bran (§ 41) ; Lat. farina, meal, flour, 
powder. 

Lat. fircus = hircus, he-goat (rough, shaggy); dcpdpioi, the 
privet ; Irish, fraoch, heather ; Lat. fratilli, villi sordicli in 
tapetis. verro, to sweep. 

(3pvo-<Tos, kind of sea-urchin ; Bpdnoq, rich garment (nap) ; 
Lat. barba, Goth, bars, Eng. beard ; Goth, barizeins, baris, Eng. 
barley, Welsh, barllys, barley {llys, a plant) ; Welsh, barf, 
beard. 

7rupds, wheat ; irvpi'jv, stone of fruit ; Lat. papaver, poppy, 



216 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. vir. 

kernel, seed ; irpoKvi?, irpoKpi?, -iSos, dried fig (seed of fig) ; 
irpoKwvia, groats. 

Lat. por'rigo, scurf, dandruff (i. 25). 

Lat. frit, small grain ; fritilla, gruel ; fritillus, dice-box (the 
dice are frits). 

7T<5oo?, tuff-stone, stalactite, litliic deposit or growth. 

cpeXXo?, a stone (Maced.) ; <peXa, ireXa, -rreXXa, id. ; (peXX-- 
dvSpiov, kind of parsley (iii. 13, cf. Trerpoo-eXivov); TranraXoeis, 
craggy, rugged (intens. redupl.). 

<p\lf3to, JEo\. and Ion. for OXlfiw, to press, gall ; cpXdw, to 
crush. (3\oo-vp6<>, grim, rough. 

Lat. fel, gall (cf. x°'^'/> § 2 ) ; bills, id. (rough taste). 

Smooth friction. 

(paXavOo?, bald ; (paXaKpds, bald, smooth ; dcpeXi}?, smooth, 
simple. 

Lat. volgiolus, instrument for levelling earth. 

ttXvvw, to wash. 

dfiXoeco, to wash; (3aXaveiov, Lat. balneum, bath. 

§ 29. pjr v pj< v v 7 r 7 , p 7 , p 7 v 7 , roughness of surface caused by 
frost or by fire, roughening sensation of chill or fear. 

Skr. b'rag'g', brig , frigere, assare ; Lat. frigeo ; frigo, to roast, 
fry ; ferctum, fertum, kind of cake ; (ppvyw, to roast ; cfiwyci, 
to roast, toast, parch ; Goth, brecn, to roast ; broe, bread. 

Lat. pruiTia, hoar-frost ; Goth, fritis, cold. 

Skr. b'rl, timere ; b'arts, terrere, minari, deridere ; b'lrii, 
timidus. 

Lat. form'ido, fear, terror, dread (cf. rpe-co, Tpep.-w>, cwp'ldo). 

Skr. vrid, to be ashamed. Lat. vereor, to be in awe. fipUe- 
Ao?, a tragic mask. aiScog, shame (ppaiSws, Benfey). 

Goth, faurhts, fearful ; Eng. fright, fear. 

(ppl(T(rco, to get rough, bristle, shudder. 

Skr. b%, timere. 

Lat. paveo, to fear greatly. tf)efioiu.m, to be afraid ; ^»o'/3o?, 
fear. 

£ 30. /■_/,_, v., roughness, friction of collision, penetration, 
sharpness, friction of smoothening. 

ipeiioi, epiKt], Lat. rriec, heath ; crici/is, hedgehog (§ 3) ; 
pcucos, rag. 



8E0. 31.] OUOUNDS OF SEVENTH PHASE OF UTTERANCK. 2L7 

'/pvyyos, kind of thistle, a goat's beard. 

piyos, frost, cold, shivering ; ptKvdg, shrivelled ; Skr. rig', 
frigere, assare (cf. trig'., § 29) ; apros, a loaf, bread (ctfertum, 
from trig', § 29). 

epeiKco, to bruise, rend ; epe-^Oo), to rend, shatter. 

Skr. arg } offendere, kedere, occidere ; apacro-o), pdo-uo), -£<o, 
to smite, dash in pieces; pa^ta, surf; prjcrcrw, -£co, to beat the 
ground (in dancing) ; dpyaXeos, troublesome. 

Skr. riles, occidere, occidendi cupidum esse ; riksa, the 

bear, adj. pierced; ap/cros, apKos, Lat. ursus, bear; ap/oiAos, 

young panther ; Lat. rixa, a quarrel ; apuriov, a burr ; aptceiov, 

burdock (prickly) ; Lat. gerrfursa, small swelling between the 

toes (sore, vi. 70). 

payo<;, /O^X ' 9 ' a tnorn 5 ^PP^X ^ vei 7 P rickl y 5 /°«X' ? > tlae 
spine (projections of bone) ; rhexia, a plant (asperis ramis et 

foliis, Face.) ; raia, the ray-fish. 

Skr. ruksa, rough, dry ; rug, to break, break in pieces ; ru, 
to beat to pieces, shatter ; Lat. ru-dus, rau'dus, -eris, frag- 
ments. 

Lat. verruca, wart, rough excrescence (vi. 23). 

Lat. pan-aririum, disease of the finger (ii. 30). 

opva-a-co, - Jw, to dig ; opvj~, -vyo?, pickaxe, gazelle (horns), a 
great fish, probably the narwhal = Lat. orca ; opK-vvoq, large 
kind of tunny (§ 20). 

Lat. arrugia, shaft in a mine ; corrugus, water conduit in 
mines. 

po-^ctvov, a strickle ; pvtcdv)], Lat. runclna, a carpenter's plane. 
Lat. rnnco, to smooth, make bare. 

| 31. LJL, l 7 s 7 , Ln v 2\l 7 k 7 , penetration, sharpness, friction, 
roughness, roughening of surface or sensation. 

Xayjxlvw, to dig ; X%ds, steep sheer cliff (as if cut) ; Xla-yog, 
a spade ; Xicrxpoi, plants ploughed in as manure ; Lat. ligo, a 
hoe ; XtTco, -£<», to graze ; Xio-rpov, a hoe, scraper ; XlySos, a 
mortar (cf. 'lySis) ; Xoiyo?, destruction ; Lat. alien, grain, grits ; 
aXiP, groat. 

Xo-yx'?? spear-head, lance ; Lat. lancea. 

Lat. alucita, gnat ; ahrmen, alum (bitter, i.e. biting) ; 
aydX-Xox'ov, bitter aloe (vi. 2) ; dXd>], the aloe (bitter). 

uXyos, pain, trouble ; aXeyoo, to trouble oneself, to have a 



218 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. vii. 

care ; Svo-'ijXeytfi, having evil cares ; Tav'rjXeyife, having long 
cares (vi. 57). 

cXkos, a wound ; Lat. ulcus, a sore ; ulciscor, to avenge (to 
pay to oneself the sore). 

Xukis, Xa/cos, tatter (cf. pa.Ko$) ; Lat. lacinia, a shred, end 
of cloth ; lacer, mangled ; lacerna, warm cloak (rough ; cf. 
Aacrto?, &c, § 13) ; lancino, to tear to pieces ; lanio, to tear, cut 
in pieces. 

Skr. lag', lan'g', assare, torrere, frigere, terrere, minari ; lag , 
lan'g', minari, deridere ; lag', lag'g', pudere ; Xayavov, thin cake 
of meal and oil ; Xiyvus, thick smoke, soot (char) ; Lat. lix, 
lids, ashes ; lixa, camp-cook ; lixulce, cakes ; lucuns, -untis, a 
kind of pastry; scrib'li'ta, a kind of tart (vi. 129); \acravov, 
kitchen utensil ; XaaOrj, mockery, insult ; Lat. algco, to feel 
chilly ; eXey^w, to put to shame, convict. 

Lat. flagxtimn, shameful act, disgrace. 

| 32. rJ v rju, friction, penetration, friction of collision, 
roughness. 

Skr. rod, to scratch, hack, gnaw ; rod* , to be, give, or bring, 
under one's power, to pain, torment; rand' ra, fissura, caverna. 

Lat. raclo, to scrape ; rodo, to gnaw. 

apt?, -iSos, an auger; ap§i$, point of anything, as of an 
arrow. 

Lat. urttca, nettle. 

Lat. ir'rito, prcrrito, to provoke, incite. 

paQairvyi'Qt), to slap on the rump (ii. 34) ; p66o$, dash. 

plvtl, file, shark with rough skin ; epivov, unripe fig (rough 
taste) ; Irish, airneamh, whetstone ; airne, sloes. 

pvrov, pur//, Lat. rata, rue ( = m'jyavov, § 19, rough taste) ; 
nrmex, sorrel. 

§ 33. IJ., Iji v l 7 v r friction of collision, penetration, rough- 
ness. 

Skr. hnjt', ferire, lasdere, occidere ; /udjXo-XovO)], kind of 
beetle (perhaps the colour of an apple, vi. 29, cf. Ger. gold- 
kdfrr) ; Lat. lens, -dis, nit, louse. oXvvOos, unripe fig (harsh 
taste, cf. epivov, § 32). 

\ao-Tupvri, whip (Ilesych.) ; aXda-rcop, avenger ; (cXacrrew, 
to be vengeful ; Lat. kudo. 



BBO. 37.] GROUNDS OF SEVENTH PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 2 I 9 

Lat. ahdernus, evergreen buckthorn (sharp) ; altercum, hen- 
bane ; pcrso'lata, burdock (§ 27); Irish, Iwdd/n, burdock. 
Lat. littera, litcra, letter (drawn with a sharp point). 
Xl6o$, a stone (rough resistance or collision, cf. Icvdo). 
Skr. lu, to cut, to cut off, cut asunder. 
Xe'cov, Xr?, Lat. leo, 0. H. Ger. leivo, lion (prob. Xefcov, 

§ 34. r , l 7 or r 7 L, friction, friction of collision, roughness of 
granulation. 

aAe<y, to grind ; aX'e'vp'ov, flour (§ 28) ; qX'<f>iT'ov, barley 
meal (§ 41) ; oXat, ovXal (foX), bruised barley. 

aXw?, threshing-floor (faX) ; aXoaco, to thresh. 

paico, to smash ; alpa, hammer. 

Skr. ari, enemy ; eprs, discord ; ep-iOw, to irritate. 

Lat. areo ; are'na ; alpa, darnel, cockle-weed (from its seeds). 

Lat. lolium, darnel ; oXvpa, a kind of corn. 

Lat. urr'unmm, small grain at the base of the ear of corn 
(-unc-, dim.). 

^ 35. Lv„, Ls„ Z„, smoothness, smooth friction. 

Xeio?, Lat. levis, smooth ; Xewpos, smooth ; Lat. lubrieus, 
smooth, slippery. 

Xr?, Xia'cros, smooth ; Xlros, smooth, plain ; X/<x7ro?, X/cr(£ro9, 
smooth ; oXiafi-os, penis coriaceus ; oXi&dos, slipperiness. 

Xovco, Lat. law, luo, to wash ; Lat. il'luvies, pro'luvies, 
inundation ; pol'lu ■brum, basin for washing hands or feet (pro- 
lavo, wash iu front) ; lover, kind of watercress. 

§ 36. l 7 m 7 , <}\ui v I 7 n v l v friction. 
Lat. limes, line drawn ; lima, file, polishing. 
pv/ucrj, lane, quarter of a city ; pv/uos, furrow, trail. 
Lat. lewis, smooth, gentle ; Unu, to anoint, rub, or spread 
over (Irvi, Irlus) ; cle'lco, to blot or rub out. 

§ 37. r v /y T , r 7 p , '' 7 >n 7 , penetration, sharpness, friction, 
roughness, forcible passage. 

Lat. aro, apow, to plough; arvurn, arable land, cultivated 
field (cf. urvo, § 27); apovpa, tilled or arable land; Lat. ms 
country seat, farm ; Goth, aryan, to plough. 



220 V GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. vn. 



paTTTCt), to stitch ; pd/xvoq, a thorn ; rvbus, a briar ; ru'na, 
a kind of dart ; ru'mex, a kind of missile (§ 46). 

ap-TD], sickle (cf. Old Lat. sarpo, to prune, § 14) ; dp7re<£os, 
thorn hedge ; Lat. irpex, rake, grubber. 

Skr. rup, to be ill-humoured, contrary, angry ; Lat. ritpcx, 
a boor. 

Lat. rupes, rock. 

Lat. rumpo, to burst ; rwmentum = abruptio. 

Lat. cerum'na, toil, hardship, distress ; Goth, arms, pitiable ; 
arman, to pity. arbaAths, labour (friction). 

epevvdw, to search. Lat. ruspor, to search through, explore. 
The idea of search is groping through, penetration, akin to 
scrutor, § 8, ypocrcpos, &c, § 3. 

§ 38. L, Lp v Lr 7 , Lm v friction of collision, roughness, rough 
resistance. 

Skr. lup, to shatter, rob, suppress; lub\ to be disordered; 
I mall, vexare ; Xi;7r>;, pain, distress; XvfM], outrage, ruin. 

\a(3-po?, boisterous ; Aw/ify, outrage ; Acu Aa\j/, hurricane 
(intens. redupl.) ; Aa-W^w, to swagger, bully ; 6pa-6-\o7ro?, 
eager for the fray (opvv/ui) ; Lat. lambero, to tear to pieces ; 
uXotttoo, to tear out or off. 

Lat. labor, labour, distress. 

Xaicpos, tattered or hairy garment ; Ao'<£o9, mane, crest ; 
<\pye-\o(poi, feet of a sheepskin (iii. 19, appendages like ends 
or tassels) ; 7n;wrAo\J/, kind of duck (fibrous fringe or brush, 
ii. 30); Il)jve\67r)i (woof-raveller) ; Lat. lappa, a burr; luma, 
a kind of thorn, rough cloak ; Aco/jia, fringe, border. 

AeVa?, bare rock ; Ae7ra?, limpet (attached to rock) ; Lat. 
lams, a stone ; Aaa?, a stone, rock (Aa/ra?). 

- Irish, ailc'ach, of stone (grianan aileach, palace of stone) ; 
Goth, al'hs, temple (probably Celtic) ; Goth. Krim. acl, stone.' 

Kpva-T-aXXog, ice (§ 1); Kop-dWiov, coral (vi. 129); oV-aA- 
Aa>9, opal (vi. 118); Skr. up'ala, stone, precious stone (vi. 
118); (3rjp-v\\os, beryl (v. 9); Lat. croc/allis, gemma cerasum 
ivprn'sentans (§ 1) ; erist'alis, nomen gemma? candidal qua) 
ad inclinationes rubescere videtur (vi. 129); A-«AA>/, pebble 
(Aa/r-aAA^). The suffix in these words seems to denote a 
stony nature and to be particularised by the preceding- 
element. 



sec. 39.] G ROUNDS OF SEVENTH PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 221 

S 39. /_/•.., penetration, friction. 

Skr. tardy (rid, to split, bore through, hew asunder ; trup, 
ferire, occidere. 

renew, to bore ; Terpaivw, Tirpaco, rirputvco, to bore through ; 
TepqSwv, Lat. teredo, boring worm ; Topos, sharp ; ropos, borer ; 
o-KoXa-Oup-oo, to dig (§ 7) ; Lat. terebra, borer ; ta/rmes, wood- 
worm (| 44) ; Tirpoda-Kw, to wound ; Tpav/xa, a wound ; Tpv^xi], 
Tpv/nu, a hole, a sharp fellow ; rpuiraw, to bore ; rpvywv, the 
sting-ray; Lat. tragida, a kind of javelin; Goth, thaur- 
nus, Eng. thorn; Goth, thairh, Eng. through; thairko, 
hole. 

Teipw, repva-Kco, to wear out ; rpvo), to rub, wear ; Tpuararos, 
friable ; rpwyXt], a hole ; Lat. tergo, to rub off, wipe off; Tpv^w, 
to rub off; rpvyt], crop taken off; arpvyero^, unharvested ; 
Tpvyovaw, Opvyavdw, to scrape ; rptfioo, to rub, bruise ; 6p[\\s, 
-i7ro?, worm that eats into wood ; Lat. Jlagritriba, whip- wearer ; 
tero ; triticum, wheat (granular); de'ter'ice = macttentce, lean; 
de'terior ; de'tri'mentum ; truncus, maimed, lopped ; tristis, sad ; 
teres, smooth ; torrens (cf. xapdSpa, § 3) ; torvus, harsh, fierce ; 
atrox ; trux ; trucldo (§ 11); ma.rturbor (iii. 4). 

Goth. thrisJcan, Eng. thresh ; throthyan, to exercise ; us m - 
thriutan, to trouble ; thruts-fill, leprosy (diseased skin). 

Skr. dar, dp, to burst, tear asunder (penetrating force) ; 
Sap'SaTTTO), to devour (§ 42) ; Sep'/moWa), to bruise in pieces 
(§ 45) ; Goth, gaiairan, to burst, tear asunder ; Eng. tear ; 
Goth, ga'tarmyan, to break forth ; ga'tamyan, to strip ; fiatpw, 
Selpco, Sepw, to flay, cudgel ; Sepos, Sepfxa, hide, leather, skin 
taken off; Seppi?, hide; Si(p-Qepa, prepared hide (Se<pw) ; Spa- 
To'f, flayed. 

8ripi$, fight ; aa-fte-Scop-os, name of a boar in Magna Graecia 

(§ 7). 

Soph, sacrificial knife ; Sprjuivs, sharp, keen ; dprXa^, leech ; 
SpiXos, earth-worm, iroa-Q)]. 

Goth, in'trisgan, iyKevrpi^eiv, to graft ; trigo, sorrow. 

Skr. druh, to injure, cause suffering; drip, vexare ; Spuwro), 
to tear, strip ; SpeTrco, to pluck ; 8pu)7TToo, to cut through ; 
Spwira^, plaster for tearing off hair ; SpvTris, kind of thorn. 

Opavo), OpuTTTOt), Opavoo), to break in pieces ; rpv(po$, morsel ; 
OpavXos, brittle ; OpvXXiacroo, to smash ; Opdynos, crackling or 
crashing. 



222 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. vii. 

Ouapos, darnel, tares (granular seeds, giving sense of rough- 
ness). 

Opavi?, swordfisli. 

Goth, ga'draban, to hew out; driagan, to war (d'ruh). 

S 40. LL, penetration, sharpness, friction. 

Lat. dolo, to hew ; dolabra, an axe ; dolabella, a small axe. 

§6\wv, a poniard, fore-topsail (sharp end) ; Lat. doleo, to 
suffer pain, grieve ; SeX\t$, kind of wasp (§ 25). 

§>l\eo/uLai, to hurt, waste, spoil ; <re[u-§a\t9, finest flour (§ 18, 
doubly ground). 

6\dw, to crush ; 0X//3w, to press, gall ; 6\a§ias, eunuch. 

Lat. talpa, mole (from burrowing) ; mus'tela, weasel (ii. 39) ; 
n if da, kind of mouse ; nite'dula, id. (§ 23, tel, did, burrowing) ; 
titillo, to tickle (repeated light friction); sub'tilis, fine (§ 18, 
fine friction). 

Lat. talea, a cutting, set, layer, pointed stake ; intertcdeo, to 
cut out between. 

§ 41. pJ v IVv -?W #r ^A' friction > penetration, roughness, 
rough resistance. 

Skr. pas, destruere; pus, pund, conterere; pundarlka. iropSu- 
At?, TrapSaXis, leopard ; iravQ^p, panther ; Lat. pes'tis, pes'estas, 
destruction ; tempes'tas, tempest (viii. 16) ; panio ; poena ; po&ni- 
teo ; troivi], penalty ; airoiva, compensation ; Goth, in'feinan, to 
pity (to feel pain within, answering to object). 

?\[/-, gen. tiros, worm that eats wood ; Lat. apis, bee ; eftiris, 
-180$, gnat (v. 22) ; Lat. pedis, louse ; cm-pis, point (§ 9) ; 
xj/AAa, a flea ; Lat, pulex, id. ; yf/qv, the gall insect. 

ftdro? >], a bramble bush ; fidros 6, the ray-fish ; /3aT<V, the 
skate-fish. 

Lat. pastinum, a dibble; pastiwaca, parsnip (tap root); 
pistana, a plant, arrowhead; pistris, jmtrix, sea-monster (cf. 

opv%, orca). 

Lat. pctigo, a scab, an eruption; im-petigo, a scurf; pctimen, 
sore on the shoulder of draught animals. 

Skr. pis, to rub, stamp, or grind to pieces ; Lat. piso, pinso, 
to beat, pound, bray; pisinnus, small (v-ucpo?, § 18). 

TTTiaa-o). to husk, peel, or winnow grain ; trtT'vp'ov, bran 
(S 28) ; uX-(J)lt-ou, barley-meal (§ 34) ; 'irpiov, meal-cake. 



bkc. 43.] GROUNDS OF SEVENTH PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 223 

^/dXXoo, y^aXda-a-oo, to twitch (as musical strings, friction 
with fingers) ; \|/->/X -a (£•«&>, to feel, grope, stroke (u^»/, i. 8). 
Lat. palpo, to stroke, touch softly ; palpUo, move with frequent 
appulse. 

\|r/ft), \lsew, \|/cto), to rub ; \\rcdw, to rub away ; y^a'pw, to 
graze ; \J/-atvw, to graze, touch ; \\nd, \W9 -$o$, \J/a/ca9 -^o?, 
\J/e/c«? -<W, any small piece rubbed or broken off, crumb, 
drop ; y^id.^0), yp-ialvco, to drop ; ■^■luo/nai, to drop blossom (of 
vine which sheds a fine shower) ; y^aKoXov, new-born animal ; 
\J/<\o?, rubbed bare, bare, bald, unclad ; ttt/Xo?, having sore 
eyelids with the eyelashes falling out ; \J/-a\/?, a kind of razor ; 
^oo\6$, circumcised, or with praspuce drawn back; \j/«*fy)09, 
y)reSv6$, bald, bare; ^aSapos, friable, crumbling; y^u<papo9, 
easily reduced to small fragments, dry, dusty ; \^w^oy, itchy ; 
\Jaco;i(co, to grind ; yfyiiypo, to rub ; yp-eyco, to blame ; y\siyvo$, 
\b-iSv6?, rubbed scanty, bald, bare ; yp-rjKeSav, dust ; ypii<po$, a 
small round worn stone. 

\|/-a/A/A09, -^/diuaOo^, sand ; \J/o'Xo9, ^660$, soot ; (ptyaXos, 
ashes. 

yjsvOios (oivos), rough, harsh (wine) ; ay\nv6oq, wormwood. 

/3ctcrai/09, touchstone, test, torture (rubbing). 

TreTpa, a rock. 

S 42. tjp v penetration, friction. 

Lat. tabanus, gadfly, horsefly ; rvfiapi?, Dorian pickle (sharp 
taste); evrvfiov, Lat. iivtuhvs, succory (acer, Pomp. ap. Non. 
209, 6) ; tiiburcinor, raptim manduco (x. 10). 

(5<\l/ct9, kind of thorn ; Stycucog, the teasel. 

Skr. tap, to pain, trouble, suffer pain. 

Sd-TTTw, to devour, gnaw, tear ; SapScnrToo, to devour 
(S 39) ; Scnrdi'}], expense ; Lat. daps, a feast, banquet ; SaylsiXi'i?, 
plentiful, profuse ; Sei7rvov, banquet, feast (Seirivov, Lat. da- 
pinare). 

8e<p(ti, §e\l/oo, Lat. depso, to curry, knead ; 8«p-6epu, dressed 
hide (§ 39). ' 

op-QuTTTov, woollen cloth for wiping shrines (§ 13). 

§ 43. tj' v Lt> 7 s v tji 7 , L, friction, penetration. 
Skr. tlvra, rough, violent, sharp, stinging ; Teru]fxai, renif&s, 
in sorrow. 



224 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. vn. 

Skr. div, vexare, queri ; dvis, to be hostile, to hate ; dus, to 
get bad ; dus-, dur-, malus, pravus, difficilis ; <W-, id.; Skr. du, 
vexare ; Svrj, misery, anguish, pain ; §0.109, hostile (Santos) ; Sal's, 
war, battle ; Stftoco, to slay, ravage ; duellum, helium, war ; 
oSva-trofxai, to be grieved or wroth ; toSvcris, anger, hatred. 
dSvvr], JEol. iSvwi, pain, distress; kiwSvvos, danger (v. 1); «&V, 
travail- pain ; Old Sax. tiono, Ang.-Sax. teona, Eng. teen, hurt, 
sorrow. 

Savon']?, misery. 

Goth, viga'deina, thistle (v. 30, cf. Ger. wegedistd). 

Skr. d'av, to rub off, clean, wash. 

Goth, thvahan, to wash ; thvahl, thvalh, bath. 

§ 44. ////-, m.n v m Y $ 7 , friction of collision, of cutting. 

Skr. mut, to crack, crush, break; mwnb, conterere; mund, 
conterere, tondere, radere ; munda, shorn bare, calvus ; mat , 
conterere; mi/, met', med', to come into collision, quarrel. 

Lat. moneta, mint, coin, stamp. 

[xvttwtos, dish of cheese, honey, garlic, &c, mashed up into 
a sort of paste ; marrva, savoury hash ; Lat. mateola, a kind ot 
mallet or beetle; muticus, docked, curtailed; mutilus, maimed, 
mutilated ; julitvXo?, hornless ; Lat. meto, to reap ; fuo-TvXkw, to 
cut into pieces; Goth, maitan, to cut; Oberdeutsch, meiden, to 
geld ; Lat. majalis, a gelded boar. 

fMvp-/n>]S-wi>, ant's nest, ant (§ 45) ; Ang.-Sax. aemette, Eng. 
emmet, ant (v. 22) ; Lat. tarmes, wood-worm (§ 39). 

S 45. mj\, lj\, mj 7 , sjmjr m., friction, roughness, penetra- 
tion, roughening sense of fear. 

Skr. mard, mrid, to press violently, crush, pound, bray ; 
ctfiaXS-v-vu), to crush, destroy; Lat. martulus, a small hammer; 
mort-arium, a mortar; Skr. mridu, soft, tender, malleable; 
mrid, mridd, earth, loam, clay. 

Skr. marn, mrin, to bruise, crush, beat to pieces; papvafxai, 
to fight, strive to the uttermost; Mara; Md'vors (§ 27). 

fiooros, gore from a wound ; fipurea, Lat. brisa, refuse of 
olives or grapes after pressing. 

fxappov, a spade ; Lat. marra, a sort of hoe ; mor'acius, 
hard (nut) ; /nep/mepos, mischievous, baneful. 

Lat. molo, to grind ; mola, a mill, grits or grain coarsely 



skc. 46.] GROUNDS OF SEVENTH PHASE OF UTTERANCE. 225 

ground ; /uu\i], a mill ; /uvXccKpis, millstone (§ 1) ; d/uvXov, 
finest meal ; /udX-evpov, flour (§ 28) ; Lat. molestus, troublesome, 
grievous ; molucrv/m, mala, the mole (burrows) ; malleus, mallet ; 
in alas, evil, injurious; fieXei, it is a care; /ueXeos, unhappy; 
Goth, malan, to grind ; malvyan, to crush ; malma, sand ; 
m alda, dust, mould, Eng. mould. 

Lat. inulco, to cudgel; mulcto, to punish, torment; mulda, 
multa, fine. 

Sep-imvXXco, to crush, bruise in pieces (§ 39) ; dixaXairrui, to 
crush, destroy ; /ulwXos, toil of war ; d-fxiXXa, a contest (a = Skr. 
so-); Lat. sr/n/dii/s, enmity, contest (i. 32); rai/es, a soldier. 

d/m/mos, sand (cf. xj/a/x^uo?, § 41); dfxij, a mattock; Skr. mi, 
ferire, occidere. 

Skr. a/ma, raw, unripe, undigested (a probably gives rough- 
ness by its guttural nature) ; a/ma, ama, sickness ; am, to be 
sick ; w/ulos, raw, cruel (un softened, hard, rough) ; 7repnjfj.-eKTeco, 
to feel violent pain ; Lat. amaras, bitter (cf. moracius, &c., 
supra) ; 6ju.-(pa^, unripe grape (x. 1). 

Skr. marg', mrig', to rub off, clean, make smooth ; mai'X, 
mri% } to stroke, touch, feel; mraks, ungere, rub; ofx.dpyvvfx.i, 
to wipe ; /mepyco, djuepyo), to pluck ; djuopyos, squeezing out ; 
dfxopy}], olive lees ; Lat. mercurius, withers (rubbed by yoke) ; 
mulceo, to stroke, soothe; midgeo, d/ueXyco, to milk; Goth. 
mihiks, Eng. milk. 

/xauXi?, a knife ; yU)/\>/, a probe ; Lat. meles, niclis, the 
badger (burrows). 

Lat. mar ex, a mollusk with spiky shell, pointed rock, any- 
thing spiky; /uvp'M^, ant, hidden rock, studded gauntlet 
(S 46); /uLvp-fxijS-oov, ant's nest, ant (S 44); Goth, micra, ant. 

fiop/Ao?, vain fear ; /mop/ixco, bugbear to frighten children ; 
/uopiuopd?, hideous ; iu.opiu.oX 'vttco, to scare ; ar/u.epo-aXeos, 
o-fj.epS'i>6s, horrid, dreadful. 

§ 46. mje 7 , penetration, sharpness, friction. 

/md^aipa, knife. Lat. mucro, sharp point or edge. 

Goth, meki, a sword. 

ju.yp'ju.11^, -»//co? (§ 45), (3dp-/uia^, fivp'fxa^, ant (§ 27) ; Lat. 
formica, ant (§ 27); cvmex, a bug (§ 3); rwmex, kind of 
spear (§ 37). 

d/jLvcrao), -Pw, to tear, rend, mangle. 

P 



226 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [ohap. vii. 

§ 47. sjjr*, &iJ„, friction, series of adjacent contacts in strew- 
ing represented as friction. 

Lat. stringo, to graze, strip off, draw from ; strix, furrow ; 
striga, furrow, row ; stria, furrow, channel ; strigilis, a scraper ; 
crrXeyylg -So?, erTeA-y/?, id. ; Goth. striJcs, accentual mark. 

Skr. star, stri, to strew; a-ropi'v/mi, arrpwvvujua, to strew; 
arrpaTos, an encamped army, army, people (spread out) ; Lat. 
sterno, to strew, spread out evenly ; strages, a throwing over 
the ground, slaughter ; stragulum, what is spread, rug, carpet, 
mattress ; storea, a straw mat ; Goth, strauyan, Eng. strew. 



a sieve. 



§ 48. s v L, sJ v s n 7 , sjc v passage through. 

crdai, cn'jOw, to sift ; %6(jo, to sift, filter ; aivlov, a 

Lat. sacco, to filter ; saccatum, urine ; sacoyenium (i. 18), 
crayd'7r}]vov (i. 18), ferula persica and its gum. 

Skr. sik', to pour out, pour on, pour in ; ik'/ugls, -aoo$, mois- 
ture (iii. 5) ; eirra-elov, pubes (cf. Ger. seieheri). 



CHAPTER VIII. 

GROUNDS IN WHICH THE ACTIONS AND AFFECTIONS OF THE BREATH 
IN UTTERANCE EXPRESS THE SPIRIT OF MAN AND ITS ACTIONS 
AND AFFECTIONS AS REPRESENTED IN HIS BREATH OF LIFE, 
AS WELL AS OTHER SIMILAR ACTIONS AND AFFECTIONS, BOTH 
PHYSICAL AND MENTAL, OR IN WHICH THEY EXPRESS THE 
THOUGHT OF THE BREATH ITSELF, OR OF ITS ACTION IN 
SMELLING, OR THE THOUGHT OF AIR, VAPOUR, ODOUR. 

In these the attention is fixed on the breath as it moves 
through the organs in the utterance of the consonants and of 
the vowels, deriving, however, its expressiveness principally 
from the former. In the nasals the breath moves through the 
nostrils, the special organ of respiration, which is the constant 
condition and indication of life. In them, therefore, it is 
specially suggestive of the inner energy of life and conscious- 
ness. But in any of the organs of utterance it may have a 
similar suggestiveness, for it is on the breath itself that life 
depends. And in the guttural, owing to its depth in the 
mouth, the breath may get a special suggestion of life in its 
internal source and seat ; in the current of the spirants, in the 
agitation of the vibratiles, in the explosion of the mutes, it 
may get suggestions of force and movement. Moreover, in any 
of the elements of uttei'ance the breath may be thought as ex- 
pelled, and become suggestive of ejection or dislike ; it may 
be thought as air, or it may be thought as odour conveyed in 
air, and become, especially in the nasals, suggestive of smell. 

§ 1. mn, m, n. The breath of life in the nostrils repre- 
senting the being and action of the spirit of man, or breath, air. 

Skr. man, to think, believe, imagine, honour ; manas, mental 
or moral power; Old Lat. pro'menevvat = monet; Minerva; 
Skr. mana, opinion, pride, estimation, honour ; man, to honour ; 
mna, memorare, enunciare, celebrare ; mani/u, mood, wrath, 
trouble ; mantra, concerted plan, advice, sacred text ; Lat. 

227 



228 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. vm. 

mens; mentio, calling to mind ; corn-mentor, to think over ; Old 
Lat. mentum = commentum ; fxevrwp, adviser ; Lat. moneo ; mino, 
minor, to threaten ; Old Lat. miniscor, to recollect ; Lat. memini ; 
lj.ilj.vri<TK(ti, to remind-; [xtivvco, to inform ; ep-fxtjveu^, interpreter 
(ep from e'lpw, to say, ix. 14) ; fxvdofxai, to woo, sue for ; fxaivo- 
fxai, to rage, be mad ; m'?^?, wrath ; pavTis, diviner, seer ; /xeVo?, 
living force, rage, bent, temper, disposition ; ev-fxev/js, well-dis- 
posed ; a'fjLev'rivo?, without living force ; fxeveaivco, ^evoivaw, to 
desire eagerly, be bent on ; /ue/uova, long for ; fxovaa, muse 
( = fxovrra, fxopria, Curtius). 

Skr. manu, manus, man ; Goth, man, manna, Eng. man. 

Skr. ma, e/ue, me ; Lat. me, mens ; vco'i, we two ; Skr. na's, 
Lat. no's (n is more internal, more abstract than m). 

Skr. aluvm (§ 4) ; eyco-v, eywvt], TV-vrj (-m, -v, -vrj, suff. of 
personality) ; Skr. vaya-m, we (§ 5). 

Skr. muni, inspired sage ; Goth, munan, to think, plan, 
intend ; mundon, to observe ; mundrei, goal, aim ; aina'mun- 
ditha, unity (aina = one) ; ana-minds, surmise {ana = on). 

Skr. manf , lugere, meditari ; fxevO'ijpai, cares. 

Lat. Iff mentum, wailing (ix. 20). 

Skr. an, to breathe ; Goth, us'anan, to expire ; ayx w > *° 
choke (cf. irviyoo, § 5) ; Lat. ango, id. ; ave'fxo?, wind ; Lat. 
an'i'mus, an'i'ma ; an'helo, to pant (§ 15). 

S 2. m, mt, ms, mk. The same, which, when the breath 
also passes out through mutes or sibilants, takes from these 
the significance of a more objective manifestation. 

julu(i), to strive after, long for, intend ; jualofxat, to endeavour, 
seek ; fiaifxata, fxai/jLacra-oo, to be very eager (intens. redupl.) ; 
a'/xaiiJiaK€T09, with vast internal force (a intens.) ; aJro'jucrTo?, 
of spontaneous impulse ; i]\e'fxa-To?, idle, vain (>/Xeo?, astray) ; 
<i/u<yTos, with eager force (d intens.) ; Lat. fa'mes, hunger 
(x. 1). 

Lat. amo, to love, like ; am'ieus ; am'cenus (cf. fxevoiv/j). 

Lat. -met, self. 

fxdr'09, search ; /maT'euw, fxaa-T'evvo, seek after, search, long for. 
/uao-TOOTT'os, pander (iii. 13); fxaa-rpoX-eiov, brothel (iii. 13). 

fiaO-, fxuvOavto, to learn (by inquiry). 

Skr. mit' , mid, met , med' , mi, intelligere. 

/neSo/mai, to provide for, think of, plan ; fu'/fiojuai, to be 



sec. 4.] GROUNDS OF THE BREATH OF UTTERANCE. 229 

minded, resolve, plan ; fitjrts, wisdom, advice; Lat. mSd'itor 
(-it-, freq.) ; met'us, fear ; Goth, miton, to think, purpose. 

Goth, maudyan, to remind. 

Ger. muth, courage, spirit, mood, resentment. Goth, mod's, 
anger; modei, mind, sense; Eng. mood. 

/xiyX°?> A^X" 1 "?' contrivance. 

Goth, mahei, prudence. 

Skr. maks, to be angry (s gives force to Jc). 

§ 3. mr, ms, nr. The same, rendered more active by the 
movement of the vibratile or the force of the sibilant. 

Skr. mri-%, considerare, reputare. mara, sexual love, smar, 
to remember, desire. 

Lat. mccreo; mcvstus, sad; miser; Goth, maurnan, Eng. mourn. 

/mep/ujjpi^o}, to be anxious ; fiip'i'ixva, care ; Tfxep-og (is, vi. 
108). 

/map-Tvp, witness; Lat. memo/' (redup.). 

v\aKo-/ui.oopos, always barking ; eyxecrifAwpos, addicted to the 
spear; lo'imccipo?, dull spirited (iii. 11, -^.copo?, inner habit and 
tendency) ; Lat. mos. 

Skr. nar, nri, man (used also of the gods) ; aw;/), man ; 
av9p-ceTr-os, man (vi. 118); i)voperj, manhood; ayyvoop, manly 
(ayav, vi. 50) ; Oscan, cas'nar, old man (vi. 65). 

§ 4. kn, n. The same, strengthened by the breath passing 
to the nostril through a guttural or palatal closure. 

Skr. g'na, to know ; yiyvaxTKoo, to know ; ynosco (old form), 
nosco ; gnarus, na'rus, knowing; gnario, gnarigo (old forms), 
narro, to make known, relate; vgiwro; dvgiwro, to distinguish; 
Goth, kunnan, Eng. know ; kannyan, to make known. 

ayi'oew, not to know ; voeeo, to perceive, think (supposed to 
be derived from an adj. yvofos). Lat. nuntius (old form, 
nountius ; makes known). 

Skr. naman, mark, character, name ; ovoy.a, ouvofxa, name ; 
Lat. nomen, co'gnomen (which preserves the original form 
gnaman) ; Goth, namo, Eng. name. 

Kovveoo, to know. Lat, censeo, to judge. 

Skr. tfairbk, to be solicitous, suspect, suppose. 

k, a, ks, km, the breath from the throat representing the 
inner seat of life and personality. 



230 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [< hap. vm. 

Skr. ahcfm (§ 1), eyco'v (| 1), eyw, eyoo'vij (§ 1), Lat. ego, 
Goth, ik, Eng. I ; Skr. a'sma-, pi. stem of 1st pei*s., »;-/xef? 
(i. 32). 

Goth, aha, mind ; alvma, spirit ; alvyan, to think. 

Goth. 7m//7,s, mind. 

Goth, us'geis'nan, to be beside oneself (ws = out) ; us'gaisnan, 
to terrify. 

Lat. hom'o ; Goth, gaumyan, to observe, see, consider ; 
git ma, man (the caretaker); bryd-guma, bridegroom. 

kt, kn, the movement over the tongue of the breath from 
the throat expressing the action of thought, or, in fuller volume, 
that of strong emotion. 

Lat. catus, knowing, skilled. 

Krj8o$, care ; /ce<W?, careful, valued ; a.KaS>}arai, to trouble. 

Skr. leant', to mourn; kad, cornmoveri, terreri ; k'and, to 
be angry ; Goth, hatan, to hate ; Lat. odium. 

koto?, resentment. e'-^Oog, hatred ; i-)(6oSo7r6g, hateful. 

§ 5. sv, sp, ps, pn, s, sn, si, v, breath itself, or breath as 
representing self or spirit, and the inner action of self or 
spirit. 

Skr. asu, breath of life, life, spirit; sva, own, self; eo, ov, 
ol, ee, e, also 7 nom., 1v dat. and ace, crcpels they, <r<pe them, 
refl. pron. ; uv-rof, self; eavrou, self (reflexive + demons, ta) ; 
Lat. sui, sibi, se, suns; Goth, seina, gen.; sis, dat.; sik, ace. 

eos, os, <r(p6$, own ; cSios, one's own (crpiSios) ; Goth, sves, 
own ; Lat. sueo, to be accustomed ; suesco, to become accus- 
tomed ; maivsacsco, to tame, grow mild (iii. 5). 

e'Oos, custom ; rjQos, abode, custom ; eQ'vos, people living in 
a common home (the root seems to be svad' , d! =d'a, ponere, 
Benfey, own settled, i. 1); Goth, sidus, custom. 

Old Lat. sibus = callidus ; subidus, knowing, sensible ; a-ocpos, 
wise ; cre<Tu<pos, crafty. 

Lat. .y>iro ; spiritus, breath, spirit. 

Lat. sponte, of own accord, on own account. 

Lat. ipse (i. 5). 

7rww, to blow, breathe ; ttvoi), wind, breath ; Tvvev'fxwv, the 
lungs; irvevjxa, wind, breath, spirit; ttivvtos, wise; ttu'v'g-kw, 
to admonish; Lat. opinor ; 7ruve/uio<i, Bocot. September (wind?). 

irvlyu>, to choke, stifle (difficult breathing). 



seo. 7. J GROUNDS OF THE BREATH OF UTTERANCE. 231 

Lat, as'tus, cleverness, craft, cunning (cf. Skr. am) ; astwtus. 

Goth, aistan, to regard; Lat. ces'timo, to value, estimate 
(vi. 13). 

Lat. sent-io, to perceive, feel ; seht'eiitia, a sentiment, opinion, 
decision ; Goth, snvtrs, wise. 

Goth, silba, self (cf. <r(pos). 

Skr. ni/fcfm (§1); Goth, vers, Eng. we. 

§ 6. ink, ms, m, vm, the ejection of the breath, represent- 
ing contempt, dislike, nausea. 

ficoKog, mockery (cf. -/ulvkti^o), i. 20) ; Lat. maecus, buffoon, 
blockhead ; /uaKKodco, to be stupid. 

/uivcridoo, to snuff, snort ; iuluctos, defilement, an abomination ; 
fxvcruTTo/uLai, to loathe, /ixicros, hatred. 

Ixwixuoijlui, to find fault with, blame ; /xfTyxo?, blame, ridicule, 
disgrace ; /ulv/ixo? = /uw/ulos ; a-/ui.viu.m>, blameless ; fiXiro-ftaw-as, 
booby (iii. 1); Goth, brmaminyau, to despise; v-en<fto[xai, to 
blame ; mejjh'itis, bad vapour. 

Skr. vam, to vomit; e/mew, id.; Lat. vomo. 



§ 7. kr, sk, Jd, ks, kp, ip, sp, si, Jd, ejection of the 
breath representing other ejections, as well as contempt, dislike. 

Skr. iJ'orrf, to vomit. 

KopS'ivdoiuai, a-KopS-ivdo/uiai, to yawn, be sick, vomit. 

Lat. scrco, to hawk (from throat) ; o-KopaKiQo, to treat con- 
temptuously ; Lat. scurra, jester (uttered jokes and sarcasms) ; 
nn-lnarc, to abuse, revile ; (ncepoKpos, o~)(epa<po?, abuse ; crKepp'- 
o'Xo?, abusive. 

Kopv(a, running at the nose. 

Xpeiu-TrTo/uai, to hawk and spit ; X|° e V'7?> Xj ^ 1 ^ 09 ' name ot 
old man in comedy (xpe^TO^-ai) ; xpW, Xl 06 '^ 9 ' Xi°°'^' ? ' 
kinds of fish (slimy). 

a-Kwp, -UT05, ordure ; vo-fcvOa, swine's dung (ix. 24) ; Lat, 
swcerda, id. ; mus'cerda, mouse-dung (ii. 39). 

Lat. stercor-, dung (§ 9); Skr. ^crkrit, ordure (§ 11). 

Skr. had, cacare ; X 6 '^"' ^ > X°'^ 09 ' or( ^ ure - 

Skr. kslv, to spit out, vomit ; kdp, to fling away, scorn, 
despise; 0. H. Ger. scimf, Ger. schimpf, disgrace, mockery; 
Goth, skaman sik, to be ashamed; Eng. shame; Goth, skanda, 
disgrace; aiviski, disgrace (skaivi'skiv ? Skr. kslv); aio")(oSi 



232 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap.viii. 

disgrace, ugliness ; Lat. olrsccenus, obscenus, ill-boding, repulsive 
{ob'skcevnus, met with abhorrence). 

ki(3Sos, dross, alloy ; KifiStjXo?, spurious ; Lat. hibrida. 

ep-l-Trroo, to upbraid ; 7a/x/3o?, satiric foot ; lay.fil'Cw, to lam- 
poon ; Eng. jape, to insult contemptuously. 

cr/cw7rTa), to mock, jeer. 

(TKufiaXov, dung. Koirpos, dung. 

a(Tu(p'>]\o?, vile, degrading. 

o"Xe\vva£co, ^eXvvd^co, ^Xeva^o}, to joke, jest, scoff; x^eM], 
joke, jest; epe-o~)(e\e<»), to jest, talk lightly (ix. 14). 

0-/XA0?, jeering, satire ; Goth, saldra, jest, scurrility. 

Goth, spai'shuldrs, spittle (§ 9). 

§ 8. n, nt, the ejection of the breath representing dislike, 
contempt. 

Skr. nid, to mock, despise, jeer at ; oveiSos, reproach, blame, 
disgrace ; Goth, ga'naityan, to dishonour ; oviSla, horse's dung ; 
ovdo9, dung. 

ovo/mai, to scorn, blame. 

vodos, spurious. 

§ 9. pt, p, ps, st, sp, tm, tn, tr, ks, the ejection of the breath 
representing other ejections, also disgust, contempt. 

(3§ew, to break wind, stink ; ftS6\-o$, stink ; (3Se\-vrrw, to 
disgust ; fiSuWco, to insult. 

Lat. stercvs, dung (§ 7) ; o-repyavos, a privy. Lat. turpis. 

Trrdp'Wfu, to sneeze ; tttvoh, (pOv^co, ^i/ttw, to spit ; irvTiXu), 
to spit out. 

Lat. sternuo, to sneeze, spuo, to spit; Goth, speivan, spevan, 
to spit ; Eng. spew ; Goth, spai'shuldrs, spittle (§ 7) ; Lat. 
spurcus, dirty, base, mean. 

Skr. bad', spernere, vituperare ; (pQovoq, envy (species 
of disgust); Lat. fastus, contempt (faO'tus); fas'tvdiwn, 
loathing. 

Skr. band, to scorn, jeer. 

Lat. temno. Sevvos, reproach. 

Skr. km, to sneeze. 

\|/-a>«, putrid stencil. 

Lat. fosteo, to stink; fcedus, foul. <pou, wild nard. 

Lat. jia:di)i\ dirt, stink. 



sec. 12.] GROUNDS OF THE BREATH OF UTTERANCE. 233 

Skr. puy, to stink ; Lat. putor, stink ; Skr. put/a, pus ; 
ttvov, Lat. pus ; twos, first milk after the birth. 

Skr. papa, evil ; Lat. pcjor ; pessimus ; pecco (perhaps a 
denominative verb, pecyo, from a noun pccus). 

Skr. ply, to revile, despise. 

Goth, fiyan, to hate; fiyands, Eng. fiend; Goth, faian, to 
blame. 

§ 10. pi, spl, pr, ejection, disgust. 

7Tfc'Xe0o9, <nre\edos, human ordure ; Goth, fuls, stinking ; 
Eng. foul. 

Trep$o), Lat. pedo, Eng. fart. 

{3a\-\wT)'i, black hoarhound, stinkende andorn (vi. 87) ; 
(3d\\is, a plant ; fioXewv, -wvog, dunghill ; (36\ito$, cow-dung ; 
/3o\/3itis, cuttlefish (strong smell). 

TToXe-juwviov, wild sage (vi. 35). 

(3pay/ut.o$, stink; Ktvd'j3pa, smell of goat (§ 18). 

§ 11. k, Jcv, kn, ejection, contempt, dislike. 
kolkk)], ordure ; Lat. caco ; Skr. y^aka, \ahrit, ordure (§ 7). 
i I a, cacare. 

kclkos, bad ; Kt]Ka?, abusive. 

Kavapog, Kavpos, bad ; ku§o$, reproach, abuse. 

Skr. knuy, to stink. 

§ 12. v, vk, vn, vr, ps, pk, breath, air, expressed softly with 
spirants, but more strongly with mutes as pressing or breaking 
forth. 

Skr. va, to blow ; rata, vayu, wind ; vah, spirare, flare ; 
valia,valianta, wind; rig', to fan, blow on; Lat. ventus ; Goth. 
vaian, to blow ; vinds, Eng. wind ; vintrus, Eng. winter ; 
dis'vinthyan, to winnow ; alvco, to winnow ; Lat. vannus, fan ; 
Favonius, zephyr. 

aw, arifu, to blow (a/r) ; oi/'ffz?, blowing ; at'rcrvpos, airy, 
aloft ; aeWa, whirlwind (ii. 10), JEtol. aueWu. 

av-Tixr], breath, odour (§ 16) ; Goth, vcrths, fragrance ; a-'icrOw, 
to breathe out (§ 17). 

cum, JEo\. aw'/p, the lower air ; tjepios, airy ; aupa, breath of 
air; Lat. aura, id. ; aop-rpa, lobes of the lung; aop-ri'i, lower 
end of windpipe ; ap-rqpia, air-vessels. 



234 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. vin. 

ovpos, a fair wind (smooth breathing) ; evpos, east wind 
(vi. 116); ^(p-vpos, west wind (ii. 25). 

y^aivvfco, to winnow. (pucra, bellows, breath ; 7roc(pu<T(Tw, 
to blow, snort (intens. redupl.). 

\|/J^(o, to breathe ; ^'x'7> breath, life, spirit ; era/r\J/-i»xoi/. 
marjoram (sweet fragrance, § 20). 

fir/cro-a), -j-ao, to cough ; J3vk<xvij 9 Lat. bvccina, trumpet ; 
{3vkt>i?, blustering ; Lat. bucca, inflated cheek. 

cpwKt], seal ; (pcoxaiva, porpoise (blowing) ; Lat. faux, top 
of throat ; pcrfoco, sitffoco, to suffocate. 

§ 13. kv, kp, vp, kt, k, breath, air, fragrance, expressed more 
strongly by sending the breath through the guttural, labial, or 
dental closure. 

Skr. x' ra -s, to blow, breathe ; y^usma, hissing breath, vapour. 

Kairvco, to breathe forth ; kuttos, natpos, breath ; KeK>]<pe 
= TeQvijKe ; Kcnr'vos, smoke ; Goth, afhvapyan, to extinguish 
(suppressed breath). 

Old Lat. hippacare, celeriter animam ducere. 

Lat. vapor ; vapidus, that has breathed out its spirit ; vappa, 
wine that has done so. 

vdp-KMp-Qov, an Indian bark (§§ 18, 16) ; \d-Ka(p-6ov, an 
aromatic bark (§ 16) ; Kacp'ovpa, camphor (§ 19) ; Skr. kapi, 
incense ; Lat. capa, onion. 

Kv-irep'os, Kv-7reip'09, an aromatic plant (§ 19) ; KV7rap-i(r<Tos, 
Lat. cv/pressus, cypress (fragrant, § 19) ; Kv-7rpo?, plant with 
fragrant flowers. 

KeSpos, cedar ; Kirpov, citron ; Lat. citrus, fragrant wood. 

Ktjtoeis, fragrant; Krj'wSrj^ id. (§ 16); ki^i'tos, an incense 
vessel; Skr. xiiuj , xig, X%h, to smell. 

§ 14. pi, pr, breath, air, expressed by the breath breaking 
forth from the tongue and lips. 

Skr. plu, flare; irXev/xwy, lung ; Lat. pmlTno, id. ; ir\ evpa, rib. 

Lat. jlo ; Goth, uf'bles'an, to blow up. 

Skr. prut', to breathe; prot'a, the nostrils of the horse, 
snont of the boar. 

Goth, fairhvus, the world; mrfairhvyan, to wail; Krim. 
fers, man ; 0. H. Ger. ferah, Ang.-Sax. ferh, vita, spiritus 
vitalis, anima. 



bbo. 17.] GROUNDS OF THE BREATH OF UTTERANCE. 235 

§ 15. Id, breath, air, expressed by the breath issuing from 
the throat and moved by the tongue. 

Lat. halo, to breathe, emit fragrance ; an'helo, to pant (§ 1). 
K>]\ag, windy. 

§ 16. tv, tp, tm, sm, t, I, s, breath, vapour, smell, wind, 
expressed by the breath made sensible as it passes over the 
tongue or through the nose, force also being given to it by 
sending it through the dental or labial closure. 

Ov/ulos, breath, life, the soul. 

Skr. d'upa, incense, smoke of incense ; rvcpw, to smoke ; 
Tv<p-oo&]?, smoky (eiSoi) ; Oooyp-, flatterer; Skr. d' uma, smoke; 
6vfjLa\oo\^, piece of burning wood (vi. 96). 

rtyvov, a flowering plant used in garlands and nosegays 
(cf. 'i(pvov, § 21). 

Qvov, wood sweet-smelling when burned ; Qvlov, id. ; Qv'ia, 
id. ; Ovos, offering, incense ; Ovorxoos, offering priest (k-gu'co) ; 
Lat. thus, tus, incense <0wo?) ; Ovio. to make a burnt-offering ; 
Oeiov, sulphur (strong smell from its vapour) ; d<)i4sd-6eov, a 
plant ( = epva-L(TKi}irTpov = acnraXa-Oo^, a prickly fragrant plant ; 
aSi^o?, quenches thirst and is used in perfume ; d§iy\sa6eoi> = 
smelling like aSt^os) ; idp-Ka<p-0oi>, an Indian bark (§§ 18, 13) ; 
\d-Ka<pQov, an aromatic bark (§ 13); avrfQov, Lat. ane'thum, 
anise (§ 18). 

Quiaos, thyme ; 6v/j.-(3pa, the herb savory. 

Goth, dauns, smell. 

KpryQ/jios, samphire (§ 19). 

Skr. atman, breath, soul, self ; cct/xj/, smoke ; av'Tfiri, breath. 
odour (§ 12). 

o(w, to smell (perf. 6$u>§a) ; o<Tfi% oSfxi'i, smell ; So-pas, 
ovoa-fia (§ 18), plant, kind of anchusa ; ocr-cpp-alvofiai, to smell 
(§ 19); Lat. odor; oho; kij-wSvs, fragrant (§ 13). 

\d-Ka<fr-6ov (see above). 

Skr. d'am, d' ma, to blow; afxcovii, 07*009, squall of wind; 
Lat. tem'jpes'tas, tempest (vii. 41). 

§ 17. st, breath expressed as in its passage by being passed 
with sibilation over the point of the tongue, or as suppressed 
by the increasing closure of st. 

a-'l&du), to breathe out (§ 12) ; IvO-fios, neck ; ua-6-fxa, panting. 



'236 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. viii. 

Lat. sting no, exstinguo, to extinguish (cf. dyyw, § 1). 
Goth, stubyus, dust (makes breathing difficult). 

§ 18. Jen, Jem, ns, nk, nt, nr, n, rn, tn, breath, the nose, 
smelling, expressed by the breath in the nasals, which gets 
the sense of a current by being sent also through a guttural, a 
dental, a sibilant, or a vibratile. 

Kivd-fipa, smell of goat (§ 10) ; Kovu^a, strong-smelling plant ; 
KovlXt], plant of the origanum kind ; Lat. eonlla, cunila, aromatic 
herb ; inula = kopv^o. = cunila mollis ; clkivos, basil, thyme ; 
Kviara, smell of burnt fat ; cokijul-ov, an aromatic plant, basil. 

Lat. nasus, nose ; nas'ica, having pointed nose (vii. 4) ; naris, 
nostril; Goth, nas, nose; Lat. nasturtium (§ 21). 

Goth, niuhsyan, to spy out (scent out ?). 

Skr. oiara, a fragrant grass ; vaipov, an Indian spice ; vripiov, 
oleander; vap-nacp-Qov, an Indian bark (§§ 13, 16) ; vdpSos, 
spikenard. 

Lat. nidor, vapour, smell. 

ovocr/ma, a plant (§ 16) ; ovcov'U, plant, the rest-harrow 
(redupl.); opitis, kind of origanum. 

di'd-yvpus, stinking bean ; dvrj-Qov, Lat. ane'thum (fjraveolens), 
anise (§ 16). 

plv, the nose ; Lat. rancens, stinking ; cricrvpiyxlov, kind of 
large onion (smell ?, § 21). 

rayyos, rancid. 

§ 19. Jcr, pr, vr, rt, rJc, rs, s, r, the moving breath of smell 
represented by the current of breath in r or s, and strength- 
ened by the breath being sent through the guttural, dental, 
or labial closure. 

Skr. gra, to smell; ypdaros, smell of goat ; dva-yvpis, stink- 
ing bean (§ 18) ; Lat. fragro, to emit a scent. 

dicopos, the sweet-scented flag ; dicopov, its root ; Lat. accrm, 
censer ; Kpd'/xwov, an onion (§ 20). 

KpTfOfxa?, samphire (§ 16). 

Skr. Icarjjur'a, camphor; Kacp-ovp'd (§ 13), id. 

Ku-7rep-os, Kv-7retp-o<;, aromatic plant (§ 13) ; Kv'irap'iarcros, 
cn'pi-cssus (§ 13), cypress (fragrant) ; Ku-7rp'os, plant from whose 
flowers a fragrant oil was made. Lat. sulfur (§ 21) ; 6a-<pp'ai- 
vofxai, to smell (§ 16). 



sec. 21.] GROUNDS OF THE BREATH OF UTTERAN< K. 237 

irpatjov, leek ; Lat. porrurn, id. ; Trpucriov, horehound. 
pwOcov, nose, nostril (cf. Skr. prot'a, § 14) ; poSov, the rose ; 
Lat. rosa ; rosina, a plant. 

apwfxa, any spice, sweet herb. 
op'iyavov, wild marjoram. 

S 20. mn, ml, mr, mu, sm, ?ns, breath in the nose as the seat 
of smell with motion given to it by a spirant or a vibratile. 

fiivOa, mint ; Lat. menta, id. ; fxlvOos, mint ; human ordure ; 
kvk\(x-/u~iVos, plant with fragrant flowers (used for garlands, 
ii. 1) ; op'/uivov, kind of sage (iii. 2). 

fxapov, cat-thyme ; Lat. marrub'ium, horehound (Trpuo-iov, 
§21); fidpaOpov, fennel; a/ut.dpaKo$, marjoram; Lat. moraria, 
a plant, the chameleon (one kind of which had a very strong 
smell). 

fj-vpov, perfume, unguent ; ixvpocrTu(pv\ov, a vine that bears 
sweet-smelling grapes ; fxupplu)], invpcrlin], ixvpros, the myrtle ; 
nxvppa, arfjLvpva, the juice of the Arabian myrtle. 

Kpo-jAVov, onion (§ 19). 

adix-^vfcov, marjoram (§12); (riav/ix-^pou, a sweet-smelling 
plant. 

//ocr^o9, musk. 

o-i/ul'os, Lat. sim'us, flat-nosed (nostrils expanded as if in- 
haling). 

§ 21. si, sr, st, sv, v, p, the current of breath inhaled in 
smelling or exhaled in a vapour, represented by a current of 
breath over the tongue or through the lips. 

Lat. silus, flat-nosed (cf. svm/us, § 20) ; ai\<p7], stinking 
insect; alX^iov, asafetida ; Lat. sirpe, id.; sic/fur (§ 19). 

o-icrvpiyxiov, a kind of large onion (smell?, § 18); aavpa, 
a-avptSiov, a kind of cress or nasturtium ; Lat. satureia, the 
potherb cunila (satureia thymbra, § 16); nasturtium (§ 18). 

Goth, svibls, sulphur ; Lat. mar'rub'iwm, horehound (mar- 
subium ?, § 20). 

'lov, violet (fiov) ; cavOos, violet (vi. 58); Lat. viola ; suf'fio, 
to fumigate, perfume ; Old Lat. ex'fir, purgamentum unde 
adhuc manet suffitio (Fest.). 

'i(pvov, spike-lavender (cf. Ticpuov, § 16) ; Lat. fumus, smoke ; 
fuiigo, soot (i. 25). 



CHAPTER IX. 

G ROUNDS EXPRESSIVE OF VARIOUS SOUNDS OR OF HEARING." 

In these, the consonants, though they may not be sonant, yet 
represent the character of the sound, either by imitating the 
action or position which the organs take when the sound which 
is meant is being produced, or by representing its succession 
of parts, continuance, resonance, penetration, roughness, 
smoothness, hollowness, foi'ce, according as the consonant is 
characterised by vibration, unimpeded utterance, breaking 
through of the breath, friction of the breath, hollowness of the 
mouth, or force of utterance. 

§ 1. Sound sent through a constriction of the lips, and 
sometimes helped with an action of the tongue or throat, to 
imitate the production of animal or other sounds. 

/3ov^ > ox (sound of lowing) ; /3ov'kos, cowman ; Lat. bos. 

/3o>/, shout ; Lat. bovo, to roar. 

/5Ja?, fivYa, owl ; fiv(u), -£«, to hoot as the owl ; Lat. bubo, 
owl. 

^)rt\|y, -a/5o?, smaller kind of dove ; (pouro-a, wood-pigeon 
(the labial cooing strengthened with ?). , 

(Sog-kus, /3acr/ca?, (paaKa?, a kind of duck (ctk gives rough- 
ness). 

fivn-cra, a sea-bird ; "fiv^, a screaming bird ; lfiv(w, to shout ; 
7rcoUy^, a water-bird. 

fiafiaKos, grasshopper, ' frog ; (3a/3vK<xs, woodpecker ; /3w/c- 
kclXi?, Indian, jbifd. ; /3o'a£, -ukos, fish called from the noise it 
makes. ( ' 

ftt'/Ktj, goat; pT], cry of sheep;- Lat. ibex, ■, kind of goat; 
her 'hex (iii. 2), vervex (iii. 2),' wether.' 

fidvfu), to bark; Lat. baubor, to bark (bow-wow) ; Skr. b'as, 
to bark. 

airuu), rJTroco, to call. 

238 



sec. 2.] GROUNDS IMITATIVE OF SOUNDS. 239 

eVoxJ/-, -ottos, Lat. upupa, the hoopoe; 7ro7r/£a>, to hoop like 
the hoopoe ; ttottx^Tw, to sound with the lips ; Lat. opunculo, 
a bird. vj3pk, -ISos, night-bird of prey. 

(py/ml, to say, speak; Lat. for; fa'nvm, sanctuary (place of 
inspired utterance) ; fanaticus, inspired, enthusiastic ; aXXo-- 
(pdcrcrw, to be delirious ; Lat. in-fit, begins to speak (enters on 
speaking). 

Lat. butio, a bittern ; butio, to cry like a bittern ; buteo, a 
buzzard ; fiovTuKis, a kind of singing-bird. 

Lat. butvhatta, worthless things (utterance without meaning). 

fiarro-Xoyeco, {3 arret- pity, to speak stammeringly (imitation 
of the utterance). 

Lat. petro, a rustic (imitation of utterance ; cf. patois) ; 
petrcia, qua3 pompam praecedens imitabatur anum ebriarn. 

fidp-ftiros, lyre of many strings (§ 15). 

(pwr'iy^, fife (§ 8). 

§ 2. vp, vk, v, vt, rn, pt, pn, vs, ps, imitation of utterance 
of sound from the lips, or through the lips from the throat or 
over the tongue ; a nasal gives continuance or resonance. 

eetirov, I said (epenrov) ; eVo?, a word, verse ; o^\r, the voice. 

Goth, vopyan, to call. 

Skr. vale, to say, speak; vale, speech, voice; Lat. vox; 
voco ; vagio, to cry, squall ; db'vagulo, to demand aloud ; coiv- 
vic'ium, railing. 

Ski\ rax, <'«-s, to bellow, low, howl, scream ; /3a£co -£», 
/Sj/^V to speak ; a/3a/o/9, speechless. Goth, auh'yon, to make 
noise, disturbance. 

cwoo, fut. avcroo, to shout. 

Skr. vat, loqui, dicere ; Lat. autumo, to assert; Skr. vad, to 
speak, say; vand, to praise; vSew, to tell of, celebrate; vOXos, 
talk; deiSoo, to sing (ap eiSto) ; u>S6s, singer; avSi'}, voice; aij&wv, 
nightingale (§ 5). 

Goth, veit'vods, witness (vi. 119, tells what he knows). 

Skr. pat, dicere; paf, to recite aloud. 

Skr. rid, bid, vociferari ; Goth, ritoth, command, law ; Skr. 
vit\ orare, supplicare ; via*, to worship, honour ; Lat. iivvito ; 
aireoo, to ask, beg. 

(pOeyyo/mcu, to speak aloud. 

Goth, bichjan, to ask, pray ; biudan, to command ; Eng. bid ; 



240 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. ix. 

(loth, busns, command. (The root has a fuller form, more voice, 
in the latter verb ; the conjugational element is stronger in the 
former, more expressive of influence exerted on the person 
addressed). 

Skr. b\m, to speak ; (pwv//, voice ; b' and, to receive praise, 
acclamation. 

Skr. b' as, to speak, say; fiao-Kaivoo, to slander, bewitch 
(with ill words, cf. /3a£/o) ; Lat. vascus, kind of flute (from its 
sound ?). 

y^iOupog, whispering, slanderous (subdued sibilation through 
the lips). 

\|/-o'0o9, -^s6<pos, noise. 

mt, ml, mr. 

/ulvOos, anything delivered by word of mouth. 

fxeraWaoo, to ask ; Goth, mathlyan, to talk ; mathl, market- 
place ; Krim. Goth, maltliata, dico. 

Old Lat. promellere, litem promovere ; Lat. pwmvlyo, to 
publish. 

jueXos, song, tune ; /xeXxft), to sing. 

Goth, vaila'mers, of good report (vaAla, well). 

S 3. Labial or dental sibilation accompanied in many cases 
by an action of the tongue or throat to imitate chirping, 
whistling, piping, or kissing. 

Lat. pipo, pipio, to chirp ; 7rnr7rl^w, to chirp ; ttiitm, 7n7ro?, 
'i-TT-n-a, 'c7r'v>], kind of woodpecker. 

cnri'Cw, to chirp ; cnrl^a, small chirping bird ; cnrlvos, 
cr7r/yyo9, finch ; Lat. spintumix, a bird of ill omen (§ 4, v. 28). 

\|/ajO, stai'ling ; Lat. 2 )asser i sparrow ; Goth, sparva, Eng. 
sparrow ; Lat. ptsito, to utter the cry of the starling ; \^7ttoc/co9, 
fiiTTaKos, parrot ; cnrTa/co?, id. ; irrvy^, a water-bird ; gt/ttj/, 
kind of woodpecker ; u'ltto^, jay or hawk ; ^rlrra, <piTTa, 
(tittu, sound made by drovers ; TirCQa, to chirp like young 
birds ; tittu^i^co, to chirp ; Lat. tela, kind of dove ; d&stico, 
to make sound of shrewmouse ; Te'-rn^, -rlyo?, kind of grass- 
hopper. 

Lat. per'dix, Trep-Si^, -S'ikos, partridge (§ 13) ; Skr. var'taka, 
quail (§ 13) ; op'ru^, id. 

mbulo, Tuscan for tibicen ; Lat. subis, a bird; sibilus, hiss- 
ing, whistling. 



sec. 4.] GROUNDS IMITATIVE OF SOUNDS. 241 

KuyjseXo?, the sand-martin ; /cocreruf^o?, Korrucpos, Koy^riy^og, 
a singing-bird like our blackbird (these represent the warbling 
as originating in the throat). 

Lat. merula, Ital. smcrlo, Span, csmcril, the blackbird ; 
(TfAi'ipivOos, a bird. 

Lat. mitilo, to cry like the acredula bird. 

Aa7r/£o), to whistle (a strong current of breath over the 
tongue through the lips, cf. <77r/^a)) ; Lat. li])%o, make sound 
of kite ; pa-Trdrtj, shepherd's pipe. 

a-aX-n-iy^, trumpet (§ 8). 

Lat. hasittm, a kiss; suavium = savium, a kiss. 

§ 4. tr, str, tl, the current of breath over the vibrating tongue 
imitating a vibrating quivering sound, or a piercing sound, or 
a confused sound. 

TepeTify, to chirp as swallows or grasshoppers ; G-oth. 
thramstei, locust ; Lat. trisso, to twitter (swallow) ; rerpa^, 
rerpi^, rerpdwu, wild birds ; Lat. tctrinnio, to quack like a 
duck ; Skr. tittiri, a partridge ; Tpiyag, kind of thrush or 
fieldfare ; rpvyya?, kind of bird ; Topyo?, vulture, swan ; 
Tarupas, pheasant ; Lat. fiwdus, thrush ; rpi^w, -crui, -£», to 
squeak, chirp ; a-rp'Xw = rpify ; crpiy^, Lat. strix, owl ; 
strifja, hag, witch ; miivtrio, to squeak like a mouse (§ 16) ; 
trit, cry of a mouse ; Tpu^w, to make a low murmuring sound ; 
rpvywv, the turtledove; Lat. turtur, id.; rpypow, epithet of 
dove, dove ; rpvXl^co, to make the sound of the quail ; Lat. 
spin'twrnix, a bird of ill-omen (§ 3, v. 28) ; eoturnix, the quail 
(§ 11, v. 28); vul-tur (x. 7). 

rpryX'L^w, to giggle, titter (§ 7). 

o-rptii'ij?, strong, harsh, rough (sound) ; aTpifio?, weak, fine 
voice ; Lat. strideo, to creak, hiss, whistle, rattle ; stcrto, to 
snore ; sturnus, starling ; astur, kind of hawk ; crrpovOof, a 
sparrow; irep'i'crTepa, a dove (§ 13). 

Lat. dreTiso, to cry like a swan ; drindio, to cry like a 
weasel. 

Svpoiiai, oSopofiai, to lament. 

Opeojuai, to shriek ; Qprivos, lamentation ; Skr. d'ran, sonare ; 
Goth, drunyus, sound, voice. 

Opoos, noise as of many voices, report ; OpuXog, shout- 
ing, murmuring ; rpavXos, lisping, mispronouncing ; Odpvfios, 

Q 



24 '2 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. ix. 

uproar ; revOpifSwv, sawfly (§ 5) ; avOpyStbv, hornet, bee 
(| 5) ; TovOpvs, muttering (§ 5) ; rovOopu^co, TovOoXvyew, 
to mutter. 

BpavTTLS, -ISos, a small bird. 

rvXds, -dSos, kind of thrush ; Lat. mone'dul'a, jackdaw (§ 16) ; 
acrerhdrt, a bird (§ 6) ; querqwdida, kind of duck (§ 6). 

§ 5. tn, n, nl, prolonged sound ; the nasal giving continu- 
ance to the sound, to which the dental explosive gives force. 

Lat. tinnio, to ring, tinkle, have a sharp or shrill voice ; 
tintinno, to ring, tingle ; tinnunculus, kind of hawk ; fri- 
tinnio, to chirp (§ 15). 

Ti'jveWa, vibrating sound of guitar ; TevQptySwv, sawfly 
(| 4) ; uv Oprj-Scov, hornet, bee (§ 4) ; 7re /m-cpprj-Scoi', wasp (§§ 23, 
13); ai]S-u>v, nightingale (§ 2); (Sov, -ov, prolonged sound); 
TOvOpvs, muttering (§ 4) ; rovOop'ir'Cco, TOV'OoXwyeco, to 
mutter (§ 4). 

Lat. ndla, a bell (I gives vibration). 

§ 6. Jcr, skr, the breath sent through the constricted throat 
over the vibration of the tongue to represent a penetrating 
shrill or rough sound, or quivering interrupted sound. 

Skr. krad, krand, to neigh, roar, creak, cry in lamentation ; 
Mad, Hand, to call, wail. 

Lat. scordalus, wrangler, brawler. 

Skr. Jeru\, to cry, shriek; krostar, jackal ; Lat. curruca, a 
small bird ; Goth, hruk, to crow ; Eng. rook. 

Ktjpv^ a herald. Goth, and-hruskan, to ask questions (and 
= to). 

Goth, hraiva-dubo turtledove (cf. kalarava, § 7). 

KpaCy>, -£«, to croak, scream, cry ; tcpavyrj, a crying, 
screaming ; KplYw, KpUe 2nd Aor., KeKpIya, to creak ; Kpcb^co, 
-&o, to crow ; Kopa]*, Kopcovrj, a crow ; Lat. corvus, a crow ; cor'- 
nix, a crow (v. 28); crocio, to croak as a raven ; corcus, disease 
of the chest; cucurio, to crow (as a cock); quirito, to scream; 
quirrito, to grunt ; quer or, to complain; qiirrqurdidn, kind of 
duck (§4). 

KpeKU), Kt'p-^co, to make a rough sound ; Kpej*, a bird ; tcep- 
kioov, a bird ; Kep-^vo?, hoarse ; Kepyi'tj, a hawk ; Ke^pafAos, the 
ortolan ; Lat. ccrceris, water-bird. 



sec. 7.] GROUNDS IMITATIVE OF SOUNDS. 243 

I 

ate pis, -ISo?, locust; Lat. acredula, a bird (§ 4); carduelis, 
the goldfinch. 

KpiSSw, to laugh. 

Goth, hrotheigs, triumphant ; Old Norse, hrodhr, encomium ; 
Ang.-Sax. hrodh, fame. 

Goth, hropyan, to call. 

Lat. crepo, to rattle, creak ; cr&pundia, jingling toys, cymbals, 
castanets ; Kpeju{3aXov, rattle, castanet ; Kopvo^, kind of locust 

(*fc § 2). 

Skr. /trap, loqui. 

KupiWiov, a narrow-necked vessel that gurgles in pouring 
(cf. (3o/ut.f3uXio$, id.). 

Koptcopvyr'i, rumbling hollow sound ; Kapfiavos = (3ap(3upos ; 
KupfBaX^') = (BapfBaplXw. 

yapyupt(w, to gargle. 

ypvfy, to grumble, mutter ; ypvXog, a pig ; ypvcrcnav, 
sucking-pig ; opdcfyopiaKog, id. (vi. 83) ; Lat. grunnio, to 
grunt ; graculus, jay, jackdaw ; gracillo, to cackle ; gryllus, a 
cricket, grasshopper ; grits, crane ; yepavos, Eng. crane. 

Skr. gar, gri, to call, announce, praise ; yrjpvo), to sing, say, 
celebrate ; Lat. garrio, to chatter. 

Skr. g ar, to utter a fearful cry ; Goth, gaurs, sad ; gauryan, 
to trouble, grieve ; Old Sax. gornun, to lament ; Goth, gretan, 
Krim. h'itcn, to weep, wail. 

Lat. It irrio, to snarl ; Skr. hras, sonare ; hrad, tonare ; hres, 
hes, hinnire ; ^pe/x/^co, to neigh. ^jOOyuacJo?, crashing sound. 

Goth, grainy an, to provoke ; Ang.-Sax. grimman, Old Sax. 
grimmian, to growl. 

Goth, iis'grudya, loth ; Eng. grudge, to murmur, be loth to 
concede. 

ylyypa?, -avrog, a small flute of shrill or plaintive sound 
(§ 8) ; gitvgrio, to scream (geese, § 8). 

§ 7. II, Ir, the same. 

Skr. kala, speech impeded by tears, fine low sound; kalarava, 
dove (cf. Xapvvw, § 20) ; col'umba, dove (§ 21). 

KeXapv'fw, to gurgle, murmur ; KeXapv^a, one that screams ; 
KoXXvplcov, kind of thrush ; KaXavSpos, kind of lark ; KuAapt?, 
bird; Lat. olor, swan; koXoios, jackdaw. 

kXuIu), /cAaucrco, to weep, wail ; kXo^o), /cAcey^co, to scream ; 



244 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. ix. 

f 

Lat. clang o, to clank ; kXw^co, -£co, to cluck ; yXdfy, -y^w, to 
sing aloud ; KeXaSos, loud noise. 

Lat. gallvlasco, to begin to sound hoarse ; gallus, a cock ; 
glocio, to cluck ; gloctoro, to cry like a stork ; glaucito, to yelp ; 
sin'gv.l'tus, sobbing (§ 24). ^aX/c/?, black hawk; Skr. Idas, 
sonare. 

ki^Xt], thrush ; ki^Xi'^, to chirp, titter. 

Goth, hlahyan, Krim. lachen, Eng. laugh; Goth, uf'hlohyan, 
laugh, be glad. 

Goth, golyan, to greet. 

ylyyXapo?, kind of flute or fife (§ 8.) 

<yeXao), to laugh ; rpryX'l^oo, to giggle, titter (§ 4). 

Lat. calo, to call out, pi'oclaim, convoke ; con'cil'ium (coaxal); 
KciXeto, to call ; KeXoju.cu, to order, call ; KeXevoo, to order ; 
tceXcop, a shout; koXwo?, brawling; KoXo'o-vpro?, tumult, up- 
roar (§ 24). 

Goth. Jclismo, cymbal ; klismyan, to clang. 

Lat. clamo. 

§ 8. hi, nk, km, ns, n, prolonged sound, the nasal giving 
continuance, the associated consonant force. 

yiyyXwpos, kind of flute or fife (J 7) ; yiyypa?, -ui/to?, 
small flute of shrill or plaintive sound (§ 6) ; Lat. gin-grio, to 
scream (geese, § 6). 

a-aXTT-iy^, trumpet (§ 3) ; <ptoT'iy£, fife (§ 1) ; crup-iy£, 
shepherd's pipe (§ 24) ; viyXapog, fife, whistle. 

Lat. cano, to sing ; lus'cin'ia, nightingale (ii. 55) ; Skr. 
kanlca/u, a bell ; Kava-^j, a sharp sound ; Kovafios, ringing, din ; 
Lat. prce'co, -dnis, a herald, crier. 

Skr. hasa, goose, swan ; yjiv, goose ; Lat. anscr, goose ; 
0. H. Ger. gans, Goth, liana, cock ; Key^ph, kind of bird ; 
Keyxpwv, a local wind. 

Lat. hinnio, to neigh (repetition) ; hinnus, ylvvos, foal of 
horse and she-ass (called from sire ; cf. mulus). 

KvvYco, to whine ; Kivvpo$, wailing ; Skr. nu, to roar, bellow, 
shout, exult. 

Skr. Icran, hm, to sound ; ^'van, hound ; kvcov, hound, dog ; 
Lat. canis ; Goth, hunds, Eng. hound. 

Lat. gannio, to yelp, bark, snarl (repetition); gannator, scoffer ; 
yeyi»va, call out ; yoyyv^co, to mutter, murmur. 



sec. 10.] G HOUNDS IMITATIVE OF SOUNDS. 245 

Goth, gatinon, to mourn. 
Goth, gyainon, to weep. 

§ 9. km, prolonged sound. 

ku/ulivSi?, the black hawk ( = ^aX/a'?, § 7). 

Lat. (jento, to sigh, groan ; gcmonicc scalcc, steps of sighs. 

ko/jl-tto?, clashing sound, boasting. 

§ 10. k, kv, yv, ai, as, ya, imitation of sound launched from 
the throat, and, when associated with gutturals, getting force 
from their compression of the breath, or harshness from their 
friction. 

Skr. kv, ku, to cry ; \uk ', to lament ; xak', distincte loqui ; 
Jcu¥, altum, acutum, sonum edere ; kukkuta, cock ; kukhura, 
dog; x&Jcara, sus; kwkvoo, to shriek, wail; «Wa£, kuw]^, /o/£, 
K^uP, seagull ; /cau/caX/a?, a bird ; kvkvos, a swan ; kikko?, a 
.cock ; kokkoQo, to cackle ; /ca/c/ca/3?;, a partridge ; kikv/3o$, 
kikv/jli?, screech-owl ; /coa£, croak of frogs ; koY, squeak of 
young pigs ; KiKica(3av : screech-owl's note ; Lat. ciconia, stork ; 
cicada, tree-cricket. 

yodoo, to wail, groan, weep ; 70'j/?, -qros, wizard, enchanter, 
juggler (howls); Skr. gu, to sound; go, ox, cow; yvyi]?, a 
water-bird ; Lat. gavia, seagull. 

Skr. live, vocare. 

Ivfu), -£w, to shout ; iVy}-, a bird ; Lat. jugo, to sound note 
of kite ; jurgo, to brawl, scold. 

Goth. Jivota, threat ; hvopan, to boast (cf. ko^os, § 9) ; 
thci'hvo, thunder (vi. 127). 

Lat. cuculus, cuckoo ; kokkv^, cuckoo ; kokku, cry of cuckoo. 

Skr. k'akk* , gagg ', gagg', to laugh ; Kaya(<B, Kay^aX,<m, to 
laugh; Kuy^aXdw, to laugh loud; Lat. each inn us, loud 
laughter. 

Lat. iivquam, in'quio, to say. 

Lat. prweia, crier who preceded the flamen. 

Skr. ah, to say, speak ; rgj.1, to say ; fyavev = etirev ; Lat. ajo, 
to say, affirm ; ad'agium, a proverb ; Goth, afaikan, to deny 
(a/=from); Old Lat. axare, to name; axamenta, hymns of 
the Salii ; o-roV^X 09 ' the throat (§ 17). 

atvog, a story, praise, proverb ; aivla-cro/uLai, to speak dark 
sayings (-in- close utterance) ; aiveco, to praise. 



246 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. ix. 



Sratra, arbitration; Goth, aiths, an oath; alara, ordinance; 
aia"u-fjLi'uw, to rule (mna, viii. 1). 

oo-ara, a voice, rumour, an ominous sound, prophecy, warning ; 
Old Lat. o.rmen, omen. 

idyco, to shout ; vx o? > ecno > tft "7j loud sound ; 1% voice ; 
rjiow, report. 

| 11. kt, ks, imitation of sound launched with open organs 
from the throat over the point of the tongue, rendered finer by 
narrowing its volume with the palatal closure, or strengthened 
with an associated sibilant. 

Skr. leaf, loqui, narrare ; Jcatt' , to boast, emphasise. 

Skr. k'ataka, sparrow ; k'ataka, cuculus melanoleucus ; Lat. 
coturnix, the quail (S 4, v. 28) ; kwt/Ao?, chattering. 

Skr. gad, to speak, say. 

Skr. g'us, to cry aloud, call out. 

Goth, quithan, to speak, say. haitan, to call. 

KiOapa, a harp, the chest ; KiOdpai, the ribs. 

Kiaaa, chattering jay. £ov66?, epithet of sound, fine, sharp. 
j^oavov, musical instrument. 

Lat. cito, to call ; recito, read out, recite ; citeria, effigies 
arguta et loquax quas in pompa vehi solebat. 

Skr. \ds, to speak up loud and solemnly, especially a hymn 
to a god ; Lat. carmen (casmen) ; Goth, hazy an, to praise. 

Skr. has, ridere ; Lat. hisirio, actor. 

§ 12. kp, imitation in the cavity of the mouth of a hollow 
sound or of a sound of the mouth. 

KovKovcpa, the stork or hoopoe. 

Skr. hup, loqui ; Lat. nun'cvpo, to call by name (nomen-ciqi) ; 
Goth, hi/ffan, to lament. 

| 13. vr, pr, pi, ps, sound sent through the lips and over the 
tongue to imitate either the cry of birds through their bill and 
over their tongue, or the utterance of man breaking forth from 
his lips and tongue, or utterance impeded and confined as by 
the lips, or sound sent forth strong. 

Skr. vartaka, the quail (§ 3) ; op'ruP, id. (§ 3). 

TrepSt^, partridge (§ 3); irep-fa-Tepd, dove (§ 4); Lat. pdrvs, 
tomtit ; parra, a bird. 



sec. 14.] GROUNDS IMITATIVE OF SOUNDS. 247 

Lat. ]>((/■ iiuib'CS, wood-pigeon (§ 21); -ireXeia, id.; Lat. 
pupillo, to cry like a peacock ; pulpo, to cry like the vulture ; 
palara, a sweet-singing bird ; ojrilio, a bird. 

Lat. ploro. 

Lat. a/ppello ; compello ; interjoello. 

Goth. jtautan, to boast. 

Lat. farior, to speak. 

Lat. re-fragor, to oppose, gainsay ; suffragor, to vote 
for. 

/3pd£i$, the voice, (with a sense of guttural action). 

Skr. bru, to speak, say. 

(3dpfiapo$, not Greek (unintelligible speaker) ; fiopfiopvfy, 
to rumble in the bowels ; fiepfiepvCw, to stammer. 

Lat. bilbo, to make the sound of liquid shaken in a vessel 
(I between two 6's gives. a sense of movement in the shut 
mouth) ; balbus, stammering (utterance impeded as if partially 
shut in the mouth) ; Mcesus, lisping ; ^e\\6s, speaking imper- 
fectly (utterance impeded with sibilation). 

Lat. blatero, to babble; /3Xgcttoo>, to be childish ; Lat. balatro, 
babbler. 

Lat, bab, to bleat ; Uadero, to bleat ; /3Ai?x>/» bleating (cf. 
/3)//o7, § 2). 

(pXoiaftos, confused roaring noise ; Lat. felio, to cry like a 
panther. 

7re/ji-(pp}]-Sm>, wasp (buzzing, §§ 23, 5 ; cf. Tev9prj8a>v). 

§ 14. vr, r, sound flowing through the lips with nimble 
action of the tongue. 

eipa), to say (e'f/w) ; epo/mai, epeoo, epeeivco, to ask (-e- and -eiv- 
probably causative) ; ep-/u.r]vevs, interpreter (viii. 1) ; epe-o"xe\ew, 
to jest, talk lightly (viii. 7) ; ep-oor'fuo, to ask (speak listening, 
§ 27, for reply). 

pew, to say ; pyros, said, spoken, specified, covenanted ; 
pvrpa, Mo\. frpdrpa, covenant, saying (verbal decision). 

Lat. ra-tus, decided, settled ; irrvtus, of no effect ; rc'or, to 
think, deem (make for oneself a verbal decision) ; ra'tio, pro- 
cess of verbal settlement ; re'us, person who is subject to verbal 
decision. 

Lat. dis'er'tus, open, copious, clear in language. 

Lat, mrbum; Goth. vaurd, Eng. word. In these the expression 



248 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. is. 

is strengthened by being sent through the labial or dental 
closure. 

§ 15. pr, pi, ptr, vr, m, rk, Ir, ru, sound vibrating or rough, 
represented as breaking forth with force by being sent through 
the labial closure, as vibrating by association with r or /, as 
hoarse by the guttural, as resonant or prolonged by a nasal. 

/3|° a 7X ' ? > hoarse '■> fipdayxos, fidrpuyos, frog ; fipdyxo?, 
windpipe ; fidpayyo?, fipdyyo?, sore throat, gills ; fipayu), 
shriek, clash ; fipvydo/uLai, to roar ; Lat. fragor, crashing noise. 

Goth, vroh'yan, to accuse ; vark'yan, to forbid ; -vargs, refus- 
ing ; gcfvarg'yan, to condemn. 

Lat. frigo, to squeak ; frigulo, to make the jackdaw's note ; 
frigutio, to twitter, chirp ; fringilla, small bird ; fritinnio, to 
chirp (§ 5). 

(ppvvrj, a toad. Lat. rana, frog. 

fipd^ao, fut. -cca-ft), to growl ; (3a(3pdi£w, to chirp, chatter ; 
(3e(3pd$, /u.e/u.(3pd^, grasshopper. 

fidp-fiiT-os, harp of many strings (sound of vibrating strings, 
§ 1) ; (pdp-fjuy£, lyre (same § 21); fiXfavpi, sound of a harp-string. 

(3pe/m.co, to roar ; (3p6/m.og, any loud noise ; fipi/J-v, expression 
of anger ; I3pooim.doiut.ai, to bray ; Lat. frcmo, to roar. 

(3povrr), thunder. 

7rdpvoy\r, kind of locust (p-^r, shrill-voice). 

peyyco, peytca), to snore ; poyOog, roaring. 

Lat. racco, ranco, to cry like a tiger ; epevyofxai, to bellow ; 
Lat. rugio, to roar ; Goth, rauktyan, to groan ; opvyixos, oopvyi}, 
roaring. 

copuo/nai, to roar ; 6pw/ui.aySds, loud noise (§ 21). 

Skr. ru, to roar, cry, hum ; Goth, runa, a secret ; 0. H. Ger. 
runa, a whisper, a secret ; Old Lat. antroare, to thank (cf. 
Ang.-Sax. and'svarian, to answer) ; ad'rumo, to make a noise ; 
rumito, to spread reports ; Lat. rumor. 

Lat. ranis, hoarseness; mucus, hoarse; puj^co, to growl, snarl, 
scream ; poyyog, snout, bill. 

Xvpa, lyre (vibrating sound). 

-jravS'ovpa, stringed instrument (§ 23) ; /xivvp-oq, whining 
(| 1G); Lat. miwurrio, to chirp (§ 16); oXo^'upo/xia', to lament 
(§ 19) ; /uivvpo/uLui, to warble (§ 1G) ; (3\ir-vpt, sound of a harp- 
string (see above). 



beo. 19.] GROUNDS IMITATIVE OF SOUNDS. 249 

§ 16. mn, inarticulate sound without action of the organs of 
the mouth. 

/uuwp'6?, whining; /unvvpofxai, to warble, hum a tune; Lat. 
miwurrio, to chirp ; miwtrio, to squeak as mouse (§ 4) ; mcur- 
edula, jackdaw (§ 4). 

§ 17. St, tn, tp, energetic utterance of sound, expressed by 
strong emission of the breath over the tongue, breaking through 
the lips in a labial, or getting resonance or prolongation in a 
nasal ; also difficult utterance. 

Skr. stan, to thunder, roar ; tan, ct an, a an, to sound ; a-revoo, 
to groan ; ^revroop ; 2-n/y*a, feast celebrated with scurrility ; 
Lat. tono. 

<tt6{3os, abuse, bragging ; orofios, loud sound ; crTofifios, 
deep-sounding ; o-to/x^o?, bombast, abuse ; aroofxiiXo?, chatter- 
ing ; crTOju.-a, the mouth (the organ of utterance) ; arofx-a^o?, 
the throat (supplies vocal breath, § 10, to the mouth). 

Lat. strepo, to make a noise, roar. 

Skr. stu, to pi'aise ; stub', to huzza. 

Goth, stan a, judgment, sentence ; stoyan, to judge. 

Goth, stibna, voice. 

Goth, stamms, stammering. 

| 18. tv, tup, tus, deep sound, as in the hollow mouth, or 
sound coming with strong expiration over the tongue. 

§ou7ros, ySoviros, ktv7to?, deep sound. 

Goth, dubo, Eng. dove. 

Ocouara-o), to bark, bay, shout ; 6cog, lynx, jackal. 

Lat. tussis, cough ; tussiiayo, coltsfoot ( = fiyyiov, used to 
allay cough, vi. 92). 

Goth, thut'haum, trumpet. 

§ 19. rp, Ip, rt, rs, r, sound in succession of parts, the 
succession expressed by the vibration of the tongue in the 
vibratiles, and generally helped with an additional utterance 
through the lips or over the tongue. 

Skr. rap, to chatter, whisper ; lap, id., to lament ; u\o(p-- 
vpojuai, to bewail, weep (§ 15). 

apafios, rattling ; pafidcrcroo, to make noise with the feet ; 
poifiSos, whirring sound ; pottos, whirring, whistling sound. 



250 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. ix. 

apaSo?, rumbling. Lat. rideo. 

Skr. rat, rat*, to howl, cry, speak shouting; ret, loqui ; 
poOos, confused noise ; eirippoOos, shouting in answer, in 
approval, or against ; paOayew, to make a noise. 

Lat. rvdo, to bray, roar ; epcoStos, pcoSios, heron ; Lat. 
ardea, id. 

Goth, rathyan, to count ; redan, consider, take account (state 
particulars in order) ; rodyan, to speak. 

Skr. ras, to roar, cry ; Goth, razda, voice, expression. 

Skr. rai, latrare ; apdYw, to snarl ; apeia, threats ; cnS/peia, 
spite, abuse ; dpprjvi'is, savage (dog) ; apd, prayer, curse (strong 
expression of feeling) ; Skr. arati, anger ; Lat. ira. 

§ 20. /, Ir, tl, Ik, Is, It, sound with succession expressed by 
the vibratile, taking additional force of utterance from sending 
the breath through the guttural, sibilant, or dental closure. 

oXoXv^w, -£ct>, to cry aloud ; SrwXvyios, far-sounding ; vXdco, 
to bark, bay ; Lat. ululo, to howl ; Skr. uluka, owl ; Lat. 
ulula, ulucus, screech-owl. 

Xapvvw, to coo like a dove. 

eXeo?, kind of owl. 

Lat. hill urn, lullaby. 

uA«A>/, loud cry ; dXaXdYw, to raise a cry ; dXaVwv, boaster, 
impostor (loud talker). 

Lat. 1 amentum (viii. 1) ; Goth, laian, to revile (cf. Skr. 
rai, § 19). 

a-weiky'i, threat, promise (held out). 

XaXeo), to speak. 

Goth. MTftals, untaught (cf. Eng. tell, Ger. zahl, declaration 
in a succession of parts) ; talzyan, to instruct. 

Xuko?, noise ; aXeK'rcop, cock ; Xijkcw, to sound ; loquor, to 
speak, talk (colloquially, cf. Skr. lap, § 19). 

Xlyyo), to twang ; Xiyu$, clear, shrill (the slender i gives 
shrillness, the nasal resonance). 

XdcrKio, to sound, ring ; Xarrr'ayeo), to sound ; Xtcr^i, talk- 
ing, conversation ; Lat. lessus, a wailing cry (cf. Skr. ras, 

§ 19); 

Xufy, -£ou, to sob, whine, whimper ; Lat. Ivgeo, to mourn ; 

XevyaXeos, wretched ; Xvypd?, sad ; eXeyos, a lament. 

Skr. lot, pueriliter, inepte loqui ; Lat. latro, to bark ; XatS-pd?, 



sec. 23.] GROUNDS IMITATIVE OF SOUNDS. 251 

impudent; Xoifropos, reviling (cf. Goth, laian) ; Lat. lis, -itis, 
dispute. 

Goth, lathon, to call, comfort ; liuthon, to sing. 

Xd'i'o?, kind of thrush ; inro'Xais, -I809, small bird. 

Old Lat. e'laudare, plus quam nominare ; Lat. fan do. 

§ 21. in, mu, mk. The sound of m or mu is a soft smooth 
sound or a muffled sound ; but when combined with a guttural, 
it may express resonance or continuance given to the voice. 

Skr. am, to utter a sound, to honour; ami', to sound; 
o/n-vufii, to swear; dfMpi'i, oracle, divine voice, sweet voice, 
rumour. The idea in the preceding is of a voice subdued or 
sacred, oi/ir/, song, lay ; v/j-vos, hymn. 

Lat. col-umba, dove (§ 7); pal-umbes, wood-pigeon (§ 13). 

Lat. mutio, musso, to mutter ; mutio, make a sound like a 
goat (with closed lips) ; /ut-vfy), to murmur, moan ; y.vX\w, to 
murmur ; fxvpfco?, dumb ; Lat. murmur. 

Skr. many', mug', sonare ; /moyyos, with a hoarse, hollow 
voice ; opv /may §6$, loud noise (§ 15). 

(pop-/uLiy^, lyre (§ 15); m/miKiou, a musical instrument of 
thirty-five strings (§ 25) ; 1 gives fineness to the sound. 

fiayd?, bridge of cithara ; /maydSts, kind of harp, flute. 

fAVKao/uai, to low, bellow ; Lat. mugio, id. ; /xu^^/^w, to 
moan ; Old Lat. commugento = convocanto. 

/mi/mi^'/mo?, neighing. 

fir/Kaofxai, to bleat. 

6/ma(oo, to roar, growl. 

§ 22. n, nt, nk, prolonged sound. 
vtjvta, Lat. nenia, dirge. 
Skr. nad, to shout ; nand, to rejoice. 
oyKao/uai, to bray ; Lat. onco, id. 

§ 23. pm, pn, prolonged sound. 

(36/ul(3os, humming ; (36fif3v\o9, gurgling ; f36/x{3v£, a jar, 
Lac. ; fio/mftd^, mock heroic expression of wonder ; fie/ifii^, a 
buzzing insect. 

ire/mcppirfcev, a wasp (§§ 13, 5). 

(3afxj3aLvco, fia/xfiaXw, to chatter with the teeth, stammer. 

irav^-ovpa, musical instrument of three strings (§ 15). 



252 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. ix. 



§ 24. sv, yv, sk, m, utterance of sound from the throat over 
the tongue. 

Skr. sii'kara, pig (grunt-maker) ; avs, v$, id. ; Lat. sus; Goth. 
svein, Eng. swine. 

a-i^u), to hiss ; a-iy/ma, the sibilant letter (the close vowel 
increases the sibilation). 

Goth, sviglon, to pipe (the close vowel gives higher pitch to 
the sound). 

Goth, svogyan, to sigh. 

Lat. siwgul'tus, sobbing, hiccup, death-rattle, clucking, croak- 
ing, gurgling (| 7) ; the closeness of the first syllable throws 
the utterance of the word more into the subsequent guttural 
part, sono, Skr. svan, to sound. 

Skr. star, svri, to utter sound ; Goth, svaran, Eng. swear ; 
Ang.-Sax. and'svarian, Eng. answer; Lat. jus, juro (positive 
declaration) ; jubeo ; jiibihtm, a shout ; KoXo'crup-rog, tumult, 
uproar (§ 7) ; <Jvpi£oo, crvpiTToo, to pipe, whistle, hiss ; avp'- 
lyP, shepherd's pipe, whistle (§ 8) , Lat. susurrus, whisper, 
murmur. 

Lat. suadeo, to advise, persuade. Goth, sautha, word 
(preached) ; sauths, offering (appeal to deity). 

§ 25. sp, sm, energetic emission of sound, strengthened some- 
times by the movement of r and the friction of a guttural. 

ev'xnru), evveirw, eveirw, to tell, speak ; emrere, say ; 6eanri$, 
inspired in speech (vi. 61). 

Lat. spondeo, to promise solemnly ; re'spondeo (speak dis- 
tinctly in reply). 

Goth, spill, a saying, utterance. 

Skr. sp'urg', sp'urg ', to emit a dull sound, bellow, roar; 
cripapayos, noise of bursting, cracking ; crfxapuyeLO, to sound 
crashing or screaming ; cr/xapayva, scourge. 

sm, a continuous sound. 

(ti/jllkiov, a musical instrument of thirty-five strings (§ 21). 

§ 26. sk, utterance of voice from the tongue and throat. 

Old Lat. in'seco, to say; insexit, he said; seccssiones = iiami- 
tiones ; sect us, a speech ; Goth, saio, sagio, messenger (Latinised); 
siggvan, to sing; sakan, to correct, blame, dispute; sohyan, to 
seek, inquire. 



sec. 27.] GROUNDS IMITATIVE OF SOUNDS. 253 

§ 27. Jcrv, klv, lev, Jcvs, vi, vt, vs, pvt, hearing, that is, sound 
received in the hollow ear, represented by utterance from 
throat, tongue, or lips, sounded in the hollow of the mouth in 
w or u. 

Skr. xpu, to hear ; aKpodofxai, to hear, listen. 

kXvco, to hear ; k\vto$, famous ; • /cAe'o?, fame ; /cAe'etw?, 
famous (/cXe/r) ; Lat. clueo, to hear; cliens ; inclutus, inclitus, 
celebrated ; Goth, hliuth, hliuma, hearing ; Old Sax. Must, 
Ang.-Sax. hhjst, hearing ; gehlistan, Eng. listen. 

aicovw, to hear ; a/co?/, hearing, report ; Koew, to mark, per- 
ceive, hear {nof). 

aim, to hear, perceive (dfio)) ; rjl'wv, report ; ura-Q-avofiai, to 
perceive (apiaO-), 

ovs, avg, the ear; Lat. audio; cfavOa, earring (ii. 58, 
afdvQa) ; ep-wrdoo, to ask (§ 14, speak, listening for reply). 

Goth, hausyan, Eng. hear; auso, Eng. ear ; Lat. aus'cul'to, 
to listen {auscluto ?) ; avris ; sur'dus, deaf, indistinct (setur'dus, 
iv. 19). 

Skr. bud, bund, bund' , audire. 

TruvdavofMU, TrevOofxaij to hear (b ud*, <fivO, rrvO, Grassmann). 



CHAPTER X. 

GROUNDS WHICH IMITATE ACTIONS OF THE MOUTH OR THROAT, 
OR DENOTE THE ORGANS OF THE MOUTH BY THE ACTIONS 
WHICH THEY PERFORM, OR WHICH EXPRESS SENSATIONS OF 
TASTE BY IMITATING THE ACT OF TASTING. 

In these, the consonants are noted either in the opening of 
their closure, as in Chapter iv., or in its pressure to imitate the 
openings and pressures of the organs to which they belong ; 
and the passage of the breath through the organs, without 
noting its direction, is taken to represent the passage of 
material through them. 

| 1. p, ph, ps, pt, pn, reception of food by the lips, its reduc- 
tion by the teeth, and its transmission over the tongue to the 
throat, represented respectively by labials, dentals, vibratiles, 
or sibilants, and gutturals. 

Traiw, to eat ; Lat. papa, infants' name for food ; po'mum, 
fruit (edible). 

Skr. Uaks, VlaJcs, plaks, Vug', to eat, devour ; (payeiv, to eat, 
devour ; Lat. /(Tines, hunger (viii. 2). 

Lat. bacca, berry ; 6/n-cpa^,- a/co?, unripe grape (vii. 45) ; 
ov-<pa!~, new wine (sweet grape, § 19). 

Lat. vescor, to feed. 

(3u(rTa]~, the mouth — fxacna^, § 5 ; Goth, basi, Eng. berry 
(eatable) ; afivpraioi, sauce, cresses (affects the mouth with 
strong taste ; cf. fiuaTa^). 

Skr. bat, nutrire ; (puTv>], 7rdrvt], a manger ; <p66i\, cake, 
morsel. 

TraTeo/Jiai, to eat; Goth, fodyan, Eng. to feed. 

Goth, bcitan, Eng. to bite ; baitrs, Eng. bitter. 

ttuvos, bread; Lat. panis; iravla, surfeit; Lat. penus, 
victuals. The n gives smoothness or facility to the act of 
eating. 

254 



sec. 4.] GROUNDS IMITATIVE OF ACTION OF THE MOUTH. 255 

§ 2. pr, pi, ps, kp, km, action and sensation of the lips and 
tongue in eating. 

fiifipuxTKoo, to eat up ; /3poc><Tis. eating, rust ; fiopd, fodder ; 
fiopimos, fipofxos, oats ; /8«/oaf , cake ; eWt-fiopos, hellebore (iii. 
18, a sedative when eaten). 

(pepfiw, to feed ; Old Lat. forbea, food ; far, spelt (earliest 
food of the Romans). 

(3dp(3i\o$, wild peach tree ; {3pdfiv\o$, wild plum tree 
(eatable). 

Lat. fiber, beber, beaver (can gnaw through trees). 

Lat. Uatta, moth ; ftXai/uds, xj^yuo?, morsel ; ftXijp, a bait. 

Skr. pippali, pepper (biting, hot taste) ; ireirepi, id. ; Lat. 
piper, id. 

Kainrapis, caper ; Lat. capparis, id. ; cappara =portulaca, 
caper spurge (a rubefacient and hot) ; capri'ficus, wild fig 
(rough taste) ; eapreida, a plant. 

Skr. g'am, to eat ; g'amb'a, teeth, jaw, cibus, mentum ; 
yajuapal, ya/uL(pi}\at, jaws, bill of birds ; yofx(pio?, jaw-tooth ; 
Lat. gumia, a glutton. 

§ 3. t, tn, tk, tr, nk, action of the teeth on the food, to 
transmit it over the tongue to the throat. 

Skr. ad, to eat ; Lat. edo ; e-puVum, banquet (edpul'um,, vi. 
15) ; eSoy, €(r6w, ea-Oioi), to eat ; vrjaTts, fasting (vq-eS'ris) ; apc- 
(t-tov, breakfast (vi. 83, dpreS-rov, early meal) ; Sepwo-Tifc, a 
worm which eats skin or leather ; Goth, itan ; Eng. to cat ; 
Goth, atisks, field of corn ; uz'etin, dat. sg., manger ; frwatyan, 
give to feed. 

er'vos, thick soup of pulse. 

Skr. danta, tooth; oSous, tooth; Lat. dens, Goth, tunthus, 
Eng. tooth; revSco, revOco, to nibble; Lat. tinea, moth. 

Skr. day, to bite Solkvco, to bite ; 6Sd£, odj?, mordicus ; 
(Vj£, worm in wood ; Lat. tinea, small fish. 

rpcoyw, to eat, chew, munch (aor. erpayov) ; rpuyi'/fxaTU, 
sweetmeats; Tpdyos, mess of groats; Lat. tragam, id.; tracta, 
trout (rpooKTi]?). 

vwyaka, rpcoyaXca,- sweetmeats. 

| 4. Jcr, ks, k, kt, action of the back part of the tongue in 
eating, either by itself or combined with the lips or teeth. 



256 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. x. 

Skr. Jcarv, to chew ; k'ard, to bite ; KcipS-ufxov, cress (used 
as mustard, biting taste) ; KapS-d'^iw^ov, spice (biting taste 
when chewed, § 5). 

Skr. k'as, to eat ; Kour'Tojp, beaver (cf. filer, § 2) ; Lat. 
caseus, cheese ; ccena, old form ccesna, dinner ; silvccmium, 
funeral feast (iii. 18); /co'crro?, root used as pepper (biting 
taste). 

Skr. gas, to eat; gasa, fodder. 

Skr. a\, to eat. 

Skr. lead, edere (de animalibus) ; Jo ad, edere (de hominibus 
etiam). 

Lat. catus, catta, Kama, cat ; Lat. cat: id us, a whelp. 

§ 5. mn, ms, mks, mt, m, chewing with the lips moving, or 
closed to retain the food. 

Skr. masa, flesh ; fxocnrvvco, to chew slowly (Hesych. ^ov- 
(tuvco ?) ; fxaudojuai, fxaa-ra^oj, to chew, eat ; fxdura^, the mouth ; 
Lat. masso, mastico, mando, -ere, mandueo, to chew ; mentum, 
the chin; mand'uco, a glutton (§ 11); Old Lat. fnas'ue'ius, 
edax (§ 11); Goth, munths, Eng. mouth; fivarriXt], ^vcrrpov, a 
spoon. 

Lat. maxilla, jaw (cf. bales, § 1). 

Goth, mats, Eng. meat. 

Goth, matha, Eng. moth. 

ajmi]9, -rjTOs, a/xSa, d/u.1610?, a cake. 

Goth, mammo, mimz, Krim. menus, flesh. 

KapS-d-fA.coiu.ov, spice (§ 4) ; a/maijuov, Indian spice. 

fjLrj-pvKaw, to chew the cud (§ 11); wrpv^, the scarus fish 
(supposed to ruminate). 

§ 6. mr, ml, the mouth closing on the food, with the tongue 
active. 

Lat. mordeo, to bite ; afiopa, a sweet cake. 

Lat. martes, a martin. 

Goth, malo, a moth; Old Norse, maul, masticatio ; Goth. 

faurmulyan, to muzzle ; Lat. mala, the cheek-bone, jaw ; 

fxvWov, lip; /uloi/ulvXXw, to suck, eat (Pott. iv. 1218); Lat. 

mull us, a fish (barbatus, called probably from its lips) ; pv\\os, 

a fish. 

fxoXofipos, a glutton ; Lat. milvus, kite, gurnard ; milio, a 
kite; millio, kind of hawk ; milesium, kind of kingfisher. 



sec. 10.] GROUNDS IMITATIVE OF ACTIONS OF THE MOUTH. 257 

§ 7. vl, vr, the mouth receiving the food, with the tongue 
active against the gums. 

Skr. vail' , to eat ; oi'A*?, ovXov, the gum. 

Lat. vul'tur (ix. 4). 

Skr. vrvn, edere; Old Lat. vcrniscra, mensalia auguria. 

§ 8. tk, t, st, trk, imbibing over the fore part of the tongue 
with transmission to the throat, or without this being ex- 
pressed. 

Skr. dnh, to milk ; dugg 'a, milk. 

Skr. d'e, bibere ; Oolvt], feast. 

Oaw, to suckle ; 0>jXy, the nipple ; OijXvg, female ; aOeXyoi, 
to milk ; OcocrOai, to drink (Benfey). 

tit66$, teat, nurser ; ti6>]vo?, nursing ; Ti6ar/3a)<T<Tco ; to build 
nest (vi. 40) ; TiOirfxaXo?, spurge (juicy, vi. 29) ; yaXaO^vo?, 
sucking; riOaa-og, domestic (animal), cultivated (plant), i.e., 
reared or nursed ; ti6u$, domestic hen. 

TtjOog, oyster ; revOh, cuttlefish ; (sucked into the mouth). 

Goth, daddyan, to suck. 

Lat. sttis, thirst ; situla, bucket (for satisfying thirst). 

Goth, drigJcan, Eng. drink. 

§ 9. p, pt, S P, ph tp> m i m h, in>/> imbibing through the 
lips, or through the lips and over the tongue. 

Skr. pa, to drink ; ir'ivw, Mo\. 7rcovo», perf. 7re7ru>Ka, to drink ; 
irlvov, beer ; Lat. panaca, drinking vessel ; po'sca, a drink ; 
po'culum, a cup; potus, drinking. 

Lat. bibo (redupl.) ; Old Lat. cx'bwres, ex'lu'ce = epotaz ; Lat. 
im'buo. 

(polvij, Lac. = Oolvi] (| 8) ; lo'/'cpw, to be sober. 

J38d\\to, to milk, suck; (3Se\\a, leech; Lat. batiola, drinking- 
cup ; €7rr(3Sa, day after feast (Lat. repotia) ; (3airul~, leech. 
arTrari^co, to suck, otto'?, ottio'v, juice (cf. Eng. sap, &c). 

(pOoi's, cup. 

Lat. fcllo, to suck. 

Se-n-as, a goblet ; Stya, thirst. 

ixa.fj.fx>], Lat. mamma, the breast ; fxa{6$, yuao—rd?. fxaa-609, 
the breast ; fxvXw, -£a>, afxvt^ci), to suck. 

§ 10. pr, spr, vr, reception within the lips and transmission 
over the tongue, drinking, swallowing. 

R 



258 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. x. 

Lat. bria, goblet ; e'brms, drunk (cf. exbures, § 9) ; so'brius, 
sober (iv. 19) ; fipovs, drinking. 

(pap'vy^, the throat (§ 11); aa-cpdpayos, id.; (pdpayj-, a 

gully * 

ava'fipdyu), to gulp ; (3p6)(6o?, ftpov^, the throat ; (3povKo$, 

locust without wings; fidpaOpov, gulf; fipv}*, -xos, the depth 

of the sea ; /3pvKco, fipvTToo, devour. 

Lat. tuburcinor, raptim manduco (vii. 42). 

Lat. voro, to swallow up. 

Lat. frwmen, the gullet (§ 11). 

§ 11. rk, Ik, kl, uk, unk, transmission over the tongue to the 
throat, or from the throat over the tongue. 

Lat. eruca, urica, caterpillar (swallowing) ; rauca, a species 
of worm ; ru'men, the gullet ; rmnis, teat ; ixiypvKao), to chew 
the cud (§ 5) ; M'/'j ^ the scarus (supposed to ruminate). 

epeuyofxai, to disgorge ; Old Lat. erugo, id. ; Lat. erudo, 
nwto, to belch. 

XavKavirj, the throat ; \}'}kv6o$, apple in the throat ; Lat. 
lomsta. 

y\dyo?, yd\a, -ktos, Lat. lac, milk ; lacfruca, lettuce 
(juicy) ; y\u^, the milk- vetch ; Lat. lactvlago (vi. 92). 

Lat. mand'uco, glutton (§ 5) ; mas'uc'ius, edax (§ 5) ; icap-- 
vK-r], rich savoury sauce (§ 18); \a<pvcrcru>, -^w, to swallow 
greedily (§ 15); \dp-vy£, the swallow (§ 16); <fidp-vy£, the 
throat (§ 10). 

| 12. s&, passage over the tongue to the throat, juice repre- 
sented by the juice of the mouth. 

Lat. sugo, to suck. 

Goth. Krim. schkop, cup ; Ger. schopfen, to draw water ; Goth. 
suqvns, stomach ; sxqvon, to season, flavour. 

Lat. sucus, juice; sucinum, amber; <tvkov, a fig; a-vKa^ivos, 
mulberry ; <rvicdpopos, the fig-mulberry (ii. 43) ; cru/c/7, fig- 
tree, spurge, resin of pine. 

(tikvs, cucumber. 

§ 13. kl, kip, kr, krp, passage down the throat over the 
tongue, with or without express reception through the lips, 
swallowing. 



sec. 16.] GROUNDS IMITATIVE OF ACTIONS OF THE MOUTH. 259 

Skr. gal, to swallow ; gala, the throat. 

Lat. gula, the throat ; in'gluvies, the maw, crop ; glutio, to 
gulp ; yvXids, long wallet (showing a swallow). 

KoXupeco, eyKoA>//3u£w, to gulp ; KoXaf3po$, KoXvfipiov, young 

Pig- 

Skr. gri, gar, to swallow ; Lat. gurges, whirlpool, gulf 
(swallow up). 

■^dpv^Sts, whirlpool ; Lat. hirudo, leech. 

Lat. cuvcul-io, gurguVio, a weevil, the gullet. 

Skr. gras, glas, to devour, swallow. 

^ 14. kp, kt, passage down the throat from the lips or over 
the tongue. 

/ca7TTft>, to swallow, gulp down ; Kairrj, manger ; KainiTov, 
fodder. 

Lat. cibus, food for man or beast ; copadia, cupedia, dainties. 

Lat. guttur, throat ; guttus, narrow-necked vessel ; Old Lat. 
guttumium, vas angusti oris ex quo aqua in manus datur ; 
eoturnium, vas ex quo in sacrificiis vinum fundebatur. 

§ 15. lp, Im, rp, passage over the tongue from the lips. 

XairToo, to lap with the tongue, drink greedily ; Xadyucra-o), 
-^o), to swallow greedily, eat gluttonously (§11); Xafipo?, glut- 
tonous ; Xafipwvios, large wide cup (-oov- amplif.) ; Lat. labium, 
labia, labrum, lip (denoted by the necessary part which the lip 
performs in the act of lapping) ; lambo, to lick, lap. 

Xi[x(3o$, greedy, dainty ; Xijuos, hunger (close) ; Xcu/u.6?, the 
throat ; Xujuos, the maw, crop ; Xdfjua, ravenous monster or fish. 

poipew, to gulp down ; poifiSeoo, to swallow ; epe7rro/uai, to 
feed on. 

^ 16. It, tl, si, sr, yr, Ir, passage over the tongue, swallowing. 
XaiTixa, gulf or depth of the sea. 
aTTe\af3o$, wingless locust. 
SeXeap, SeXos, bait. 
Goth, fra'slindan, to swallow up. 
Lat. sorbeo, to suck in, swallow. 

typos, a bird of prey ; QpeOpov, Arcad. = BdpaOpov (§ 10). 
Xdpog, a ravenous sea-bird ; Xdp-vy^, the swallow (§ 11); Lat. 
lurco, a glutton ; lura, the mouth of a leathern bag, entrails. 



2G0 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. x. 

§ 17. Ik, tic, Id, tl, action of the tongue in licking, the 
tongue, taste. 

Skr. lili, to lick ; Xely^w, to lick up ; Xlyyos, greedy, dainty ; 
Lat. lingo, to lick ; lingua, the tongue; lig'urio (desid.), to lick 
up ; ligurius, greedy ; Goth, bidaigon, to lick ; etcXeiy/xa, Lat. 
e'lectwarium, edectarium, what is sucked over the tongue. 

Old Lat. dingua, Goth, tuggo, Eng. tongue ; Skr. g'ihva, 
tongue (g' = cly). 

Skr. lag, gustare ; Xa'pos, sweet. 

yXwcnra, the tongue (yXwtcya ?) ; yXvicvs, sweet ; yXeuicos, 
SevKos, sweet new wine ; Lat. dulcis. 

Lat. halec, alec, fish-pickle ; allium, garlic (strong taste). 

§ 18. kr, ks, kv, tasting with the tongue. 

yapov, Lat. garum, kind of fish-sauce ; yaph>os, yap'o-icos, 
kinds of fish ; Old Lat. gigeria, decerpta ex raultis obsouiis. 

KapvKi], rich savoury sauce (§ 11); Kap-otvov, sweet wine (vi. 
102) ; Kapov, caraway ; Kapva'fiaSiov, id. (§ 19) ; icopiavvov, 
coriander. 

Lat. gus'to, to taste ; yevuo, to taste ; Lat. degivnere, to taste. 

§ 19. sv, sp, action of the tongue and lips in tasting. 

Lat. sapor, taste, flavour ; sapio, to taste, savour of, have 
sense or discernment ; sapiens, wise ; sapercla, witty ; sapa, 
new wine boiled down. 

(raTripStjs, Lat. saperda, a salted fish ; irairepSis, a fresh 
fish ; <Tr]7r[a, cuttlefish (much eaten). 

Goth, supon, to season, spice. 

Skr. svad, to season ; svcula, good taste ; svadu, sweet ; 
tjSvs, sweet ; ijSofxai, to take delight ; avSavao, aor. eaSov, euaSov 
(epaSov), to please ; acr/ixevos, glad (paS) ; ftuSu?, Elenn, sweet ; 
eSavo?, sweet ; Kapva'jSabiov, caraway (§ 18) ; crv(pa^, new wine 
(sweet grape, § 1). 

Lat. suavis, sweet. 

§ 20. mt, ml, mr, ms, action of the lips and tongue in tasting. 

Skr. mad' u, sweet, sweetness, honey, a sweet intoxicating 
drink; jueOv, wine; /ueBy, strong drink, drunkenness; ixeQuao, 
to be drunk. 

/me\i, Lat. mel, honey ; /ueXia-cra, bee ; Lat. mulsus, mixed 



sec. 25.] GROUNDS IMITATIVE OF ACTIONS OF THE MOUTH. 26 L 

with honey, sweet as honey; Goth, milith, honey (fxeXir-) ; 
leith/us, strong drink (milethusT). 

Lat. pro'mulsis, a relish beforehand. 

fiplTV = yXvKV (/ULpiTV ?) 

Lat. muria, brine, pickle; moretam, a salad of garlic, &c. 
Skr. mista, savoury, dainty; ixea-iriXov, medlar (§ 21) ; Lat. 
massaris, wild grape. 

§ 21. p, jor, ^, £», action of the lips, or of the lips and 
tongue, in tasting. 

amos, pear tree ; airiov, Lat. apium, parsley ; dir-wpu, 
autumn (time of fruit). 

Lat. pirum, pear. 

/mea-'TTiXov, medlar (§ 20). 

i'nlsov, food taken as a relish. 

§ 22. sr, action of the tongue in tasting. 

G-'ipaiov, new wine boiled down ; Lat. sircitula, genus uvae 
coudituris aptae ; sircula, genus uva3 ollis aptissimas ; sirium, 
herba condimentis ciborum apta (v. serpyllum, Face). 

| 23. hap, opening the mouth from throat to lips. 
Skr. g'ab', to open the mouth, snap at; (/rami) , to open the 
mouth. 

§ 24. as, sya, ya, opening the mouth and the passage over 
the tongue. 

Skr. as, dsya, the mouth ; Lat. os ; oro ; osciio, to yawn 
(asya) ; osti'um, an opening ; osttgo, scab on the mouth (i. 25) ; 
coram, face to face {cow or' am, am, adv. ace, i. 2). 

irap'i'fi'ov, cheek {irap'asya) ; irapeia, id. 

triaycov, jawbone. 

Lat. jejunus, fasting, hungry; jento, to breakfast; guneo, 
glutton, debauchee. 

§ 25. It, m, putting out the tongue, making mouths. The 
pressure of the tongue and the closure of the lips is accom- 
panied by a tendency to protrude each of these organs. 

Skr. lat, linguam exserere. 

fjiuao), /xoiyuuaco, make a mouth. 

/uLaa-dofxai, to push out the lips (the breath passing through 
makes a sibilation). 



CHAPTER XL 

ROOTS OF INTERACTIONAL ORIGIN, THE INTERJECTIONS TAKING 
SUFFIXES OF A VERBAL OR NOMINAL NATURE TO EMBODY 
THEM IN FACT OR THING. 

§ 1. all strong desire, astonishment, indignation ; at.' grief; 
otf oioi ! pain, grief, pity, astonishment ; oi/j-oi ! id.; «/ / joy, 
grief ; Lat. hei ! hen ! eheu ! grief , pain, fear. 

aia'Tao, to wail ; arcrw/9, direful ; cu'ij'tos, a-tyrog, mighty, 
great ; arvos, dire. 

drfci/9, woe ; oTktos, pity ; oiiuu)\u>, to wail aloud. 

o/'i'o?, wailing ; ayX'e/uLo?, a wail ; Lat. ej'ulo, to wail. 

§ 2. From a stronger interjection, ach ! 
®X 0? ' distress ; ayavaK'Teo), to be very vexed. 
From a milder form of the same. 

Lat. oyer, sick, distempered ; ay'a'/xou, aya-ofxai, to 
wonder, admire, grudge ; ayaiofxai, to be angry, envy. 
Goth, agis, fear. 

From an interjection of contempt. 
Skr. aga, evil ; afig' , to despise ; Goth, agls, shameful. 

§ 3. eva! eval ! evot ! joy; Lat. evax ! eja ! ehem ! joy. 
surprise, exhortation ; hem ! surprise, joy, grief ; eho ! An 
exalted sense of life expresses itself in hau ! a u ! 

eva Xu>, to celebrate ; Lat. ovo, to exult. 

ctyavos, noble ; ayavp'6$, proud ; yav-p'os, exulting ; yalw, 
to exult (yafi'w) ; yyO'eoo, Lat. gawd'eo, to rejoice ; av'd'eo, to 
dare. 

Skr. av, to be happy, enjoy, satisfy, love, wish ; u'ti, delight, 
enjoyment ; Lat. utor, Old Lat. odor (avitor, oitor, Curtius) ; 
urns ; usurpu (ii. 53) ; aveo, haveo, to be happy, desire 
earnestly ; ava'rus, eagerly desirous. 

262 



sec. 7.] ROOTS OF INTERACTIONAL ORIGIN. 263 

av-^i), Kaux't], boasting ; ev^o/uai, to boast. 
Goth, hvopan, to boast (cf. vopyan, ix. 2). 

§ 4. vae ! pain or dread ; vah ! astonishment, joy, anger ; 
oval ! pain, anger ; ova. ! admiration or astonishment ; ea, sur- 
prise or displeasure; ee / pain or grief; Goth, vai / woe. 

Goth, vainei ! would that (-a, relative pronominal suffix). 

Lat. vii'is, mean, base (weaker form of interjection). 

Goth, uwvahs, blameless. 

Goth, vainans, wretched. 

§ 5. Lat. pro ! proh ! wonder, lamentation. 

Lat. pro'brum, disgrace; im'pro'pero, to reproach (redupl.). 

§ 6. iroTra £ / surprise, anger ; iroiroi ! surprise, anger, pain ; 
irairal ! pain. 

fiaflui ! Lat. papa; ! surprise, amazement ; (3ol ! dislike or 
scorn. 

<pev ! grief or anger ; ^/6 ! scorn. 

| 7. Lat. tat! tatm! surprise; ottoto'i! arrarai! pain, grief. 
From an interjection of contempt, Skr. ait, despicere, vili- 
pendere. 

e\e\ev ! war-cry. 

fw ! Lat. mu ! murmuring. 

Lat. st ! silence. 



From the classification of Indo-European roots in the 
preceding chapters it appears, that when the roots of kindred 
meaning and kindred form are grouped together, there are 
found going through the groups certain elements of meaning 
attached to certain combinations of letters as the grounds of 
the roots. In each group there are generally more than one 
of such combinations, often quite distinct from each other 
though like in meaning. They may be variously combined 
with each other in the roots, or varied by the addition of 
other letters bearing a kindred sense ; but the similarity of 
meaning and of form in the roots which are grouped together 
is such as to make it apparent that the roots all belong to 



2G4 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. xi. 

the same invention of expression, varied from one to another to 
give more precise expression to the radical idea of each. And 
though the ground-meanings of the roots which are grouped 
together may not be identical, but only like, yet the element of 
thought in which those meanings agree may be abstracted, and 
when abstracted it is found to be one which directly suggests 
the act of uttering the consonants, this act being noticed 
specially in one of the parts into which it may be analysed ; 
and thus the roots are traced up through their grounds to 
the efforts of expression from which they sprang, whether 
amongst the Indo-Europeans themselves, or amongst anterior 
races whom the Indo-Europeans assimilated, or out of whose 
confluence they were formed. 1 

If the radical meanings have been correctly abstracted from 
the uses of the words, and are actually involved in these uses 
as a common element, then the fact that the roots fall of them- 
selves into the above classification points directly to their 
origin. For it exhibits the whole language as embodying in 
expression just those elements of thought which immediately 
suggest certain actions of the organs of speech, which them- 
selves, when perceived by another, suggest to him the corre- 
sponding thought. 

1 General Principles of the Structure of Language, vol. i. p. 41. 



CHAPTER XII. 

ON THE FORMATIVE ELEMENTS IN GREEK AND LATIN WORDS. 

It may be seen from many of the words which in the index 
have two references with the sign + between them, that in the 
preceding etymologies elements are frequently regarded as 
radical which have usually been taken to be mere abstract 
suffixes. Thus, to give a few examples out of many, the suffix 
in Kpvo-r-aWos, &c., in vii. 38, seems to denote a stony nature ; 
in comix, &c, in v. 28, the suffix seems to denote the free 
flight of a bird ; in "ip'iy^, &c, /uu'ip-ivOo?, &c, kvX-ivSw, &c, 
ii. 32, the suffixes seem to denote flexure or movement round. 
And the radical part of Indo-European words is thus repre- 
sented as being a stronger element than is generally supposed, 
sometimes producing dissyllabic roots, though the tendency to 
general thought hindered the prevalence of these in such a 
degree as characterises the Malayan and other Oceanic lan- 
sruasres. 1 More abstract than those added elements which have 
been mentioned, but still with a radical significance, are those 
which. Curtius called root-determinatives, as determining the 
root to more special meanings (see the Introduction to this 
book, § 4). But more abstract still are the formative elements 
which are distinct from the root, and which express elements 
of thought added to the root in the ideas which words express. 
Some of these last are to be found in the words with com- 
pound references in the index, but a more special study of them 
remains to be made, the other two classes belonging properly 
to the etymology of the roots. 

The nature and origin of these formative elements can be 
ascertained only by first analysing carefully the ideas which 
the words express, in order to find out distinctly the elements 
of thought added to the radical idea in the idea of the word, 
which correspond to the formative elements ; and then by 

1 General Principles of the Structure of Language, vol. ii. p. 277. 

265 



266 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. xii. 

seeing how it is that in the language such elements of utter- 
ance become expressive of such elements of thought. When 
this is done the following varieties of formative elements 
come into view : — 

I. Those which express correspondence or attachment. 

II. Those which express transition either from one correla- 
tive to another, or from mere idea into fact. 

III. Those which express fulness or large scale. 

IV. Those which add diminutiveness to the root. 

I. Now in the first division the meanings are such as are 
expressed by the roots of the first chapter, whose expressive- 
ness lay in the first phase of utterance. 

Thus, -lis, Eng. -like, -ly, Ger. -lich, in tails, godiike, godiy, 
I'-nndcriich express correspondence. See i. 26. 

-aster, in lot-aster, wild lotus, fulvaster, yellowish, expresses 
likeness. 

-airs, -aris, -'Ms, -vis, in corporalis, consul'aris, servilu, 
campest'ris, belonging to. 

-ic'us, -vus, -ikos, -tog, in civicus, aecusatorius, \i0-ikos, 
ovpdvios, belonging to. 

-st in dom'est'icus, camp'e'st'ris, seems to be locative (see i. 2), 
as also -t, -ti, -tim, -stim, -<tti, -sti, in infinvas, aqua'tiiis, aqua-- 
Ircus, rus-ti'cus,fini m tim'us, legvtim/us, fixed by law, soli •stim 'tis, 
on the ground, clandesti'nus, irpo/j-vrj-crTl-voi, one before another. 

-aceus, -ic-ius, in chartaeeus, of paper, latericius, of brick, 
expresses close connection as with material ; for the guttural 
gives a sense of junction (Introd., § 10). 

-eus, -neus, -nus, -inus, -inus, -tvos, in fcrreus, eburneus, 
eburnus, divinus, cedrinus, of cedar, X/Ovvo?, of stone, express 
close or abiding connection as with material or nature ; the 
short c suggesting closeness, and the n abiding continuance 
(Introd., § 10). f 

-anus, -Inus, -ensis, in mont'anus, TaseuVanus, Zapdcavos, 
Paul'inus, adj., Tapavr-tvos, circensis, bini, deni, express quies- 
cent connection. 

-ia, -la, -inm, -itia, -tat, t>;t, in miscria, KaK'la, dissid'ium, 
mnic-itia, felic-vtas, icto-tw, equality, are pronominal, and 
express the act of attention directed to a quality in abstracting 
it as a substantive object. 



OHAP. xii.] FORMATIVE ELEMENTS IN GREEK AND LATIN. 20 7 

-ta and -rrjs also, in navi'ta, sailor, and 7roArr//9, citizen, are 
pronominal. 

And s in the neuter substantives which have -as in Skr., 
-09 in Greek, and -or- in Latin is probably also pronominal. 

-ivus in cest'ivus, captivus, express coincidence with time, 
nature, or condition (i. 9). 

II. The meanings in the second division are like those of 
roots in the sixth chapter, whose expressiveness lay in the sixth 
phase of utterance. 

Skr. -tri-, -rep, Lat. -ter, in pi'tri, 7rdrr]p, pater, and the 
other nouns of kindred, seem to have the same significance as 
Skr. tar, to pass over, and to express correlation, as transition 
from one correlative to another (vi. 9). 

-rep, -ter, in iroTep-os, e-rep'os, wter, alter express simi- 
larly the thought of an alternative as transition from one to 
another. 

Skr. -tri, -n'ip, -rcop, -rpl?, -rpla, Lat. -tor, expressing the 
agent, add to the root what gives transition from idea to fact ; 
and a similar element is added in nouns of the instrument by 
the suffixes -rpov, -trum, Tpa, as apo'rpov, a plough ; Lat. 
ara'trum ; ^va-rpa, a currycomb. 

A similar significance belongs to -6po-, -6pu, -tAo, -6\o, 
-r\r], -6\j], all which form nouns of realisation ; and to -tills, 
-His, in vokctilis, ag'ilis. And the breaking forth of the utter- 
ance in the sixth phase gives a similar significance of realisa- 
tion to -brum, -Iris, -bra, -bidum, -crum, -cris, -culum, -bilis, 
both passive and active, as ventil&brum, a winnowing instru- 
ment ; fune'bris, what constitutes a funeral ; late'bra, a hiding- 
place ; vena'bulum, a hunter's spear ; sepul'crum ; volu'cris, 
a bird ; operculum, a lid ; visvbilis ; vulnerabilis, wounding. 

-ulus, -ellus, -ela, -lus, -la, -r, -or, -ur, -ura, -pos, -A09, 
express realisation in trem'idns, miscellus, querela, nubi'lus, 
scaia, intcyer, elam'or, fulg'ur, fig'ura, Xvir'pos wretched, 
SpyiXos passionate. 

Skr. tu, to have worth or might, i.e. development (vi. 53), is 
immediately connected in meaning with the suffix -/// which 
forms the verbal noun, that furnished the Skr. infinitive and 
the Latin supines. It gives to the root a sense of development 
into fact. 



268 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. xu. 

It occurs with a prefixed in -atus, which forms nouns of 
office, as tribun-atiis, and with pronominal t subjoined, in -tu't, 
which forms abstract nouns, as virtus. 

The w without the t is in ypa(p'eu?, a scribe, and nocuus, hurt- 
ful ; and t without the u occurs with the same significance that 
it has in tu, forming verbal adjectives and substantives, not 
only of completion, as ama'tus, loved, turrl'tus, turreted, XeK'rog, 
spoken, but also active, as ferttcs, fertile, kwkvtos, a wailing, 
7rtoA>;-n/9, a seller, tcyes, a covering. In all these it gives to 
the root development into fact. 

T is an active element in prodi'tius, treacherous, and in the 
Latin frequentative verbs which are formed in -to. 

A softer element of realisation, d, forms adjectives of state, 
as cali'dus ; and combined with n, which gives continuance, it 
becomes -din, and forms nouns of state, as cupvdo, dulce'do. 
This element subjoined to -tu forms nouns expressive of state 
of realisation, as cegri'tu'do. In Greek, -dS gives realisation in 
cfyop'dg, bearing, \oyas, chosen. 

Sis an element of realisation related to Skr. su, parere (vi. 80), 
as t is related to tu, and is greatly used in the formations of 
the Indo-European verb. As a suffix of realisation it is in -crt?, 
which forms the noun of action, as Troirj'crig, a making, in -sius, 
as ama'sius, a lover, and in -a-<xo'?, as irepi-araros, excessive. 

In connection with -vr\, which gives it continuance, the full 
element of realisation, su, forms the suffix -crvvt], which expresses 
habit, as Sucaio-o-vvr], justice ; and s combined with the guttural 
in -sco, -cr/cco, expresses progressive realisation, and forms what 
are called inceptive verbs. 

C as an element of realisation is in bubul'cus, ox-herd, and 
with a in pugn'ax, edrcx. 

Akin to this guttural is g, which expresses action in navvgo, 
miti'go, having a significance similar to what it has in ago (vi. 
63), and very near both in utterance and meaning to the y of 
the Sanskrit causative and denominative verbal element -aya-, 
which is represented in Greek by -dfy. But the y of realisa- 
tion seems itself to be in lud'ius, a player, suspic'io, sus- 
picion. 

The nasal series of suffixes of realisation agree in their sig- 
nificance with what has been said in Introd., § 10, of the natural 
significance of the nasals; they express an effect or a state or 



chap, xii.] FORMATIVE ELEMENTS IN GREEK AND LATIN. 269 

an energy as abiding in a subject, and give a sense of continu- 
ance when combined with other suffixes. 

Thus -mdna, which forms the atmane present participle in 
Sanskrit, and -/uevos, which forms the passive and middle 
participle in Greek, express an action or effect abiding in the 
subject ; and a similar significance belongs to -men in flwmen, 
&c, to -/u.€i> in 7ror/xj/i', and, combined with the t of realisation, 
to -men't'um in expcrvmentum, &c. -Mwi/ in /u^'f/uLwv, mindful, 
tjye-ftwv, a leader, ser'mo, a discourse, expresses an abiding reali- 
sation. -En, -in, also, in pcct'cn, a comb, expresses an abiding- 
power of realisation, and combined with the t of realisation in 
ungu'entum, an ointment; and -vo- in opya'vov, an instrument, 
y\v(j)u'vos, a carving-tool, has similar significance. In arrvy- 
vo$, hateful, utt'vos, sleep, >)So'vi'i, pleasure, dig'nus, worthy, 
reg'num, royalty, patr'onus, patron, erro. a vagrant, the suffix 
gives abiding realisation to the root. k\oiv6/u6s, weeping, 
fxv/fjm.)], remembrance, Suva'juu?, power, apre-jm^, safe, Jlanvma, 
flame, involve a similar element. 

In -/xar- as irpay/xa, deed, e'xfJ-a, what holds, the pro- 
nominal t is taken to express the act of attention which 
defines strongly a substantive object. 

N expresses the abiding quiescence of completion in -ana, 
of the perfect atmane participle in Sanskrit, and in faci'n'us, 
fcivus in Latin. 

N gives continuance to the t of realisation in the present 
participle, -nt, to the active ti in the Latin suffix, -Hon, as actio, 
to d and g in didce'do, orvgo, to d in the Latin, -ndtis, and to c 
in latwcin'ium, patwcin'hcm. -nt combined with -id makes 
identus, as in opulcntus ; and -nd, combined with the elements 
of realisation -bic and -cu, forms -bundus, -cundus, as in mira'- 
bundus, full of admiration, ira'cundus, passionate. 

And in the same way various suffixes may be combined wit h 
each other to give strong or combined meanings. 

III. The suffix -vat, -vant (vi. 34), forms in Sanskrit posses- 
sive adjectives, as d'anwvat possessed of wealth, corresponding 
to -evT- in 7reTp7} m eis, stony, ape/moeis, windy, and also it forms 
the perfect active participle in Sanskrit to which the Greek 
corresponds. To this also, or to the kindred roots of vi. 36, 
belongs the Latin suffix -osus, which expresses abounding. 



270 GREEK, LATIN, AND GOTHIC ROOTS. [chap. xn. 

The ampliative suffix -wv, -on, in -^eiX'oDu, labe'O, large-lipped, 
comes from the same source, which expresses magnitude, as 
in Skr. tavant, Lat. tantus. 

IV. The diminutive suffixes involve two essential elements. 
One is the slender vowel i, which by its contracted volume of 
breath gives a sense of weakness, which fits it to express the 
feminine as well as the diminutive. And the other is I or r or 
sk, expressive of coming into realisation, as if the development 
were not complete, so that there is a close analogy between 
some of the diminutive suffixes and some of the suffixes of 
realisation. These elements are variously combined or used 
separately to express various thoughts of the diminutive. 



INDEX. 



SANSKRIT. 



a-, v. 25. 

a-, iv. 1. 

ax', iv. 7 ; vi. 31. 

ax'a, ii. 9 ; iv. 7. 

a X 'u, vi, 82. 

asa, ii. 7. 

ak, ii. 9. 

aksa, ii. 9 ; vi. 124. 

ak'ila, ii. 2. 

agni, vi. 124. 

agra, vii. 3. 

ag, v. 1. 

ag'a, xi. 2. 

ai'ig', v. 1 ; xi. 2. 

ak', v. 1 ; vi. 108. 

ak'k'a, vi. 124. 

ag', v. 1 ; vi. 63. 

ag'a, v. 1. 

an'k', v. 1. 

-an'k', ii. 9. 

an'g', i. 18; vi. 124. 

att, xi. 7. 

anda, vi. 58. 

ati, vi. 59. 

atta, vi. 58. 

at'a, vi. 59. 

at'o. vi. 59. 

ad, x. 3. 

adya, vi. 127. 

ad'ama, vi. 60. 

ad'ara, vi. 60. 

ad'i, vi. 60. 

ad'una, vi. 57. 

an, viii. 1. 

anas, vi. 99. 



anix'am, ii. 26. 

anu, ii. 58. 

anta, vi. 110. 

antara, i. 5 + vi. 9. 

and'a, iv. 4 + vi. 127. 

and'as, vi. 58. 

anna, vi. 101. 

any a, i. 5. 

ap, v. 23. 

apa, iv. 6. 

apara, iv. 6. 

api, vi. 40. 

ab'i, i. 8. 

ab'ra, ii. 17 ; vi. 117, 

am, vii. 45 ; ix. 21. 

amba, vi. 47. 

ambu, v. 22. 

amb', ix. 21. 

amb'as, v. 22. 

ay as, vi. 137. 

ara, ii. 56 ; v. 13. 

arati, ix. 19. 

ari, vii. 34. 

arg', vi. 97 ; vii. 30. 

arg'a, vi. 97. 

ark', vi. 97. 

arg', vi. 94. 

ard'a, i. 26 + iv. 1. 

arb'a, vi. 90. 

arh, vi. 97. 

-ala, i. 7. 

alam, vi. 86. 

alpa, iii. 32. 

av, xi. 3. 

ava, ii. 16. 



a vara, ii. 16. 

avara, ii. 16 + ii. 13. 

avi, iii. 27. 

ax', x. 4. 

ax'iinya, iii. 21. 

ax'va, v. 1. 

ax'ra, v. 25 + v. 6. 

astan, iv. 7. 

as, iii. 17 ; vi. 137. 

asan, v. 25 + v. 27. 

asi, vii. 14. 

asu, viii. 5. 

asrig', v. 25 + v. 6. 

ast'i, i. 29. 

asma-, viii. 4 + i. 32. 

asra, v. 25 + v. 6. 

asru, ax'ru, v. 25 + v. 

ah, ix. 10. 

ahan, vi. 124. 

aham, viii. 4 + viii. 1. 

ahi, ii. 9. 

a, v. 25. 

atman, viii. 16. 

adi, vi. 58. 

ap, vi. 45. 

ama, vii. 45. 

ayus, v. 24. 

ara, vi. 137. 

ardn, iii. 24. 

arya, vi. 97. 

-ala, i. 7. 

avis, vi. 119. 

ax'u, v. i. 

as, iii. 17 ; x. 24. 

asya, x. 24. 



1272 



INDEX. 



i, i. 5 ; v. 24. 

ing, v. 30. 

ik", vi. 108. 

itara, i. 5 + vi. 9. 

iti, i. 5. 

id', vi. 133. 

in, v. 27. 

ina, v. 27. 

indu, v. 27 + v. 24. 

indra, v. 27. 

ind', vi. 133. 

ib'a, vi. 96. 

ib'ya, vi. 96. 

iyat, i. 5 + vi. 34. 

iva, i. 9. 

is, v. 24 ; vi. 108. 

isu, v. 24. 

i, vi. 108. 

Iks, vi. 124. 

i X ', vi. 108. 

ih, vi. 108. 

uks, iii. 28. 

uksan, iii. 28. 

uk'lc'a, vi. 34. 

ut, vi. 34. 

uta, i. 5. 

utaho, i. 5. 

ud, vi. 34. 

uda, iii. 27. 

udara, vi. 34. 

und, iii. 27. 

upa, vi. 6 '2. 

upari, vi. 62. 

upala, vi. 118 + vii. 38. 

ub' a, i. 8. 

uru, iv. 14. 

urvl, iv. 14. 

urga, ii. 12. 

uluka, ix. 20. 

ulka, vi. 117. 

ulva, ii. 50. 

us, vi. 116. 

usa, vi. 116. 

usasa, vi. 116. 

uti, xi. 3. 

ud'as, vi. 34. 

una, iii. 29. 

ay, ii. 37. 

uru, iv. 14. 

Rrg', vi. 25. 

iirna, iii. 2. 



us, iii. 27. 

eka, iv. 5. 

eg', v. 30 ; vi. 124. 

ed'. vi. 59. 

ena, i. 5. 

eva, i. 5. 

evam, i. 5. 

og', vi. 51. 

ri, v. 13. 

riks, vii. 30. 

riksa, vii. 30. 

rig', vi. 94 ; vi. 109. 

rin, v. 15. 

rid', vi. 83. 

ris, v. 13. 

risab'a, iii. 2 + vi. 96. 

ri, v. 13. 

-ka, i. 21. 

kak, v. 1. 

kakud, vi. 70, 

kaksa, ii. 9. 

karik, v. 1. 

kaiikani, ix. 8. 

kata, ii. 6. 

kat'ina, i. 22. 

kana, iii. 21. 

kant', viii. 4. 

katt', ix. 11. 

kat', ix. 11. 

kad, viii. 4. 

kan, vi. 108 ; vi. 134. 

kanaka, vi. 134. 

kanl, vi. 66. 

kanda, vi. 66. 

kandala, vi. 66. 

kanya, vi. 66. 

kapala, ii. 8. 

kapi, v. 1 ; viii. 13. 

kapola, ii. 8 + ii. 10. 

kapoli, ii. 8 + ii. 10. 

kap'a, iii. 22. 

kam, vi. 108. 

kamp, v. 1. 

kara, ii. 4. 

karala, iv. 9. 

karkata, ii. 4 + ii. 6. 

kardama, i. 23. 

karpara, ii. 4 + ii. 17. 

karpiira, viii. 19. 

kal, iv. 10 ; v. 4 ; vi. 5. 

kala, ix. 7. 



kalana, i. 23. 

kalab'a, vi. 3 + vi. 96. 

kalarava, ix. 7. 

kala, iv. 10. 

kalevara, iii. 6 + iii. 2. 

kalp, i. 13. 

kalpa, i. 13. 

kalya, vi. 129. 

kav, vi. 130. 

kavi, vi. 130. 

kas, vii. 9. 

ka, i. 5. 

kastlra, vi. 124 + vi. 128. 

kasturi, vi. 67 + vi. 9. 

kanks, vi. 108. 

kara, ii. 4. 

kala, i. 23 ; vi. 8. 

kalaka, i. 23. 

ka%', kas, vi. 124. 

ki, vi. 133. 

kit, iii. 9. 

kiyat, i. 5 + vi. 35. 

kim, i. 5. 

kil, v. 4 ; vi. 129 ; vii. 2. 

kila, vi. 5. 

kix'ala, vi. 67. 

ki^'ora, vi. 67. 

kit, ii. 6. 

kil, ii. 1. 

ku, ix. 10. 

kuk, ii. 5. 

kukkuta, ix. 10. 

kukkura, ix. 10. 

kuksi, ii. 5. 

kuk', ii. 5 ; ix. 10. 

kug', ii. 5. 

kun'k', ii. 5. 

kun'k'a, ii. 5. 

kut, ii. 6. 

kuti, ii. 6. 

kutt, iv. 8. 

kuni, ii. 6. 

kunt', iii. 9. 

kunt', vii. 11. 

kup, v. 1 ; ix. 12. 

kubg'a, vi. 77. 

kumara, iii. 9 + vi. 28. 

kurd, v. 5. 

kul, ii. 2. 

kulya, v. 4. 

kux', ii. 5. 



INDEX. 



273 



kux'a, vi. 67. 

kns, ii. 5. 

kuh, ii 5. 

kii, ix. 10. 

kun, ii. 6. 

kiird, v. 5. 

kill, ii. 2. 

kri, vi. 6 ; vii. 1. 

krit, iv. 9. 

-krit, iv. 9. 

-kritvas, iv. 9 + i. 9. 

kritsna, iv. 9 + i. 32. 

krix', iii. 7. 

kris, vii. 1. 

kri, v. 5 ; vii. 1. 

keta, iii. 9 ; vi. 133. 

kep, v. 1. 

kev, vi. 107. 

kevala, iv. 7 + ii. 11. 

kex'a, vi. 67. 

kex'ara, vi. 67. 

kOx'a, ii. 5. 

knuy, viii. 11. 

kmar, ii. 7. 

krad, ix. 6. 

krand, ix. 6. 

kravis, v. 6. 

kravya, v. 6. 

kri, ii. 4. 

krun'k', ii. 3. 

krux', ix. 6. 

kriira, v. 6. 

krostar, ix. 6. 

klat, vii. 2. 

klad, ix. 6. 

kland, ix. 6. 

klain, iii. 6. 

klid, iii. 6. 

kva, i. 5 + i. 9. 

kvat', vi. 114. 

kvan, kun, ix. S. 

k-an, vii. 9. 

ksap, v. 1. 

ksapas, ii. 29. 

ksam, vi. 111. 

ksama, vi. 111. 

ksai, iii. 9. 

ksi, iii. 9 ; vi. 6. ; vii. 9. 

ksip, v. 1 ; viii. 7. 

ksipra, v. 1. 

ksiv, iii. 9. 



ksiv, viii. 7. 

ksu, viii. 9. 

ksud, vii. !'. 

ksudra, iii. '.• 

ksud', vi. 10S. 

ksnb', v. 2. 

ksctra, iii. 9. 

ksnu, vii. 9. 

ksmil, ii. 9. 

ksvel, v. 2. 

k'akk', ix. 10. 

k'ad, x. 4. 

k'an, vii. 5. 

k'ara, iii. 7 ; vi. 129. 

k'ard, x. 4. 

k'arb, v. f>. 

k'alu, vi. 5. 

k'ad, x. 4. 

k'ila, iv. 10. 

k'und, v. 1. 

k'elj v. 4. 

kut, v. 1. 

k'od, v. 1. 

k'or, v. 1. 

k'ol, v. 1. 

k'ya, vi. 124. 

gagg', ix. 10. 

ganga, v. 1. 

ganda, ii. 6. 

gad, ix. 11. 

gam, v. 1. 

gamb, k'amb, v. 1. 

gar, vi. 6 ; x. 13. 

garb'a, vi. 3. 

garv, vi. 1. 

gal, v. 4; x. 13. 

gala, x. 13. 

galb', vi. f). 

galla, ii. 1. 

gaves, vi. 107. 

gad, ix. 11. 

ga, v. 1. 

giri, vi. 1. 

gu, viii. 11 ; ix. 10. 

gud, gund, ii. 6. 

gunt', gud', ii. 6. 

guda, ii. 6. 

gur, vi. 4. 

guru, vi. i, 

gurd, v. 5. 

guh, ii. 5. 



gfid', vi. 7. 

gfl, ix. 6 ; x. 13. 

go, vi. 67; vi. 130; ix. 10. 

gaura, vi. 129. 

grat', ii. 3. 

grant', ii. 3. 

gras, glas, x. 13. 

grah, ii. 4. 

grama, ii. 4. 

gravan, vii. 1. 

grisma, vi. 129. 

glai, iii. 6. 

glau, vi. 129. 

gagg, ix. 10. 

gat, i. 22. 

g'ata, i. 22. 

g'amb, v. 1. 

g'ar, g'ri, vi. 129. 

g'arma, vi. 129. 

g'as, x. 4. 

g'asa, x. 4. 

g'ur, ix. 6. 

g'us, ix. 11. 

g'ra, viii. 19. 

k'a, i. 5. 

k'akas, vi. 124. 

k'aks, vi. 124. 

k'aksus, vi. 124. 

k'an'ic', v. 1. 

k'ataka, ix. 11. 

k'and, viii. 4. 

k'andala, iii. 9. 

k'atur, i. 4. 

k'and, vi. 134. 

k'anda, vi. 134; 

k'ap, v. 1. 

k'amb, v. 1. 

k'ar, v. 5. 

k'araina, ii. 3. 

k'arman, ii. 4. 

k'arv, x. 4. 

k'al, v. 4 ; vi. 6. 

k'as, vii. 9 ; x. 4. 

k'ataka, ix. 11. 

k'ara, ii. 4. 

k'i, i. 31 ; vi. 133. 

k'it, vi. 133. 

k'itra, vi. 133. 

k'int, vi. 133. 

k'ira, vi. 8. 

k'il, ii. 2. 

S 



274 



INDEX. 



k'Irna, iv. 9. 
k'ut, k'unt, iii. 9. 
k'un, iv. 7. 
k'ut, k'yut, v. 1 . 
k'up, v. 1. 
k'ur, ii. 4. 
k'ur, vi. 129. 
k'yu, v. 1. 
k'yus, v. 1. 
k"ad, ii. 6. 
k'ard, viii. 7. 
k'alli, ii. 2. 
k'as, vii. 9. 
k"id, iv. 8. 



g'as, ii. 6. 



g'ang'a, ii. 6 + ii. 9. 

g'at, ii. 6. 

g'at'ara, ii. 6. 

g'ada, vii. 2. 

g'an, vi. 66. 

g'ab', x. 23. 

g'am, x. 2. 

g'ampati, i. 7 + vi. 41. 

g'amb'a, x. 2. 

g'arat'a, iii. 7 ; vi. 4. 

g'arat, iii. 7. 

g'aras, g'ara, iii. 7. 

g'araya, ii. 4. 

g'al, ii. 2. 

g'ala, v. 4 ; vii. 2. 

g'as, vii. 9. 

g'agri, vi. 6. 

g'atu, vi. 57. 

g'ani, vi. 66. 

g'anu, ii. 6. 

g'ami, i. 7. 

g'amatri, i. 7 + vi. 9. 

g'ala, ii. 2. 

g'i, vi. 6. 

g'inv, v. 1. 

g'iri, vii. 1. 

g'ihva, x. 17. 

g'iv, vi. 102. 

g'u, v. 1. 

g'ut, vi. 130. 

g'yut, vi, 130. 

g'us, ii. 5. 

g'ur, iii. 7. 

g'urv, iii. 7. 

g'us, vii. 9. 

g'ri, iii. 7. 



g'ai, iii. 8. 
g'na, viii. 4. 

g'.Vii, "J- 8. 
g'yu, v. 1. 
g'ramb', x. 23. 
g'ri, vi. 6. 
g'var, iii. 7. 
g'val, vi. 129. 
g"as, ii. 9 ; vii. 9. 

g"ji, iii- 7. 

ell, v. 26. 

ta, i. 3. 

taku, v. 24. 

takman, vi. 53. 

taks, vi. 53. 

tad, vi. 74. 

tatia, i. 3 + i. 1. 

tada, i. 3 + vi. 57. 

tadanim, i. 3 + vi. 57. 

tan, vi. 57 ; ix. 17. 

tanu, vi. 57. 

tantu, vi. 57. 

tandra, iii. 11. 

tap, vi. 138 ; vii. 42. 

tam, iii. 15. 

tamas, ii. 24. 

tay, i. 21. 

taru, vi. 9. 

taruna, vi. 9. 

tark,' vi. 126. 

tal, ii. 19. 

tala, i. 12. 

-tas, i. 1. 

tata, vi. 58. 

tamara, v. 33. 

tay, i. 21. 

tara, vi. 128. 

tavat, i. 3 + vi. 34. 

-ti, vi. 13. 

tik, vii. 24. 

tig, vii. 21. 

tig', vii. 24. 

tittiri, ix. 4. 

tiv, vi. 53. 

tivra, vii. 43. 

tu, i. 5. 

tu, vi. 53. 

tunga, vi. 53. 

tun, ii. 24. 

tund, ii. 21. 

tud. vi. 74. 



tup, vi. 74. 

tumula, v. 33. 

tur, tvar, v. 11 ; v. 24. 

turv, vi. 11. 

till, vi. 12. 

tus. iii. 11. 

tusnika, iii. 11. 

trill, vi. 9. 

triks, ii. 20. 

tiid, tard, vii. 39. 

trip, iii. 13. 

trimp, iii 13. 

trimp', iii. 13. 

tris, tars, vii. 13. 

trl, vi. 9. 

teg'as, vi. 126. 

tuka, vi. 53. 

torana, ii. 20. 

-tya, i. 1 . 

-tra, i. 1. 

tras, vi. 126. 

tras, v. 11. 

tra, trai, ii. 21. 

trix'at, i. 3 + iv. 7. 

tri, i. 3. 

trap, vii. 39. 

tva, i. 5. 

tvaks, ii. 24. 

tvak', ii. 24. 

tvam, i. 4 4- viii. 1. 

tvis, vi. 127. 

dax', vi. 12t3 ; x. 3. 

dan, vi. 126. 

daks, vi. 53. 

daksa, vi. 53. 

daksina, vi. 53. 

data, danta, x. 3. 

danv, v. 26. 

dam, vi. 76. 

dania, i. 34 ; vi. 76. 

day, i. 21 ; iv. 1. 

dax'an, iv. 7. 

dah, vi. 126. 

da, iv. 1. 

daman, vi. 54. 

day, iv. 1. 

daru, vi. 11. 

daruna, vi. 11. 

dax', iv- 1. 

das, iv. 1. 

dasa, i. 21. 



INDEX. 



275 



dina, vi. 12". 

div, v. 24 ; vi. 12" ; vii. 

43. 
divasa, vi. 127. 
di x ', iv. 1 ; vi. 12G. 
dih, i. 21. 
di, iii. 11. 
dina, iii. 11. 
dirg'a, vi. 13. 
du, v. 24 ; vii. 43. 
dugg'a, x. 8. 
dus, vii. 43. 
das-, dur-, vii. 43. 
<luh. x. 8. 
duhitri, vi. 5 '. 
• lata, v. 24. 
dura, vi. 57. 
th'i, vi. 126. 
drip, vii. 39. 
drix', vi. 126. 
cirih, vi. 11. 
drl, dar, vii. 39. 
deva, vi. 127. 
do vara. iii. 15. 
devri, iii. 15. 
deha, i. 21. 
dosa, iii. 11. 
dos, ii. 20. 
-dya, i. 1. 

dyu, v. 24 ; vi. 127. 
dyut, vi. 127. 
dram, v. 11. 
dra, v. 11. 
draksa, iii. 13. 
drag', vi. 11. 
dru, vi. 11. 
drud, iii. 13. 
druma, vi. 11. 
druh, vii. 39. 
drai, iii. 13. 
dva, i. 6. 
dvar, ii. 20. 
dvara, ii. 20. 
dvis, vii. 43. 
dvis, i. 6 + i. 9. 
-d'a, i. 1. 
-d'a, -d'yam, iv. 1. 
d'an, ix. 17. 
d'ati, vi. 56 ; ix. 17. 
d'ana, vi. 56. 
d'anv, v. 26. 



d'am, d'mfi, viii. 16. 
d'aranl, vi. ] 1. 
d'ara, vi. 11. 
d'arma, vi. 11. 
d'ava, iii. 15. 
d'a, i. 1. 
d'atri, i. 1. 
d'a man, i. 1 ; vi. 12 
d'ara, v. 11. 
dav, v. 24 ; vii. 13. 
d'inv, v. 26. 
d'i, vi. 61. 
d'lvara, ii. 24. 
d'u, v. 24. 
d'upa, viii. 16. 
d'uma, viii. 16. 
d'ri, vi. 11. 
d'jis, vi. 11. 
d'o, x. 8. 
d'ya, vi. 127. 
d'ran, ix. 4. 
d'ras, vi. 11. 
d'ru, vi. 11. 
d'vas, iii. 11, 
d'var, ii. 20. 
d'vanta, ii. 24. 
na, iv. 4. 
nakk, iii. 31. 
naktain, ii. 26. 
naks, i. 10. 
naksatra, i. 10. 
nak', v. 28. 
nak'a, vii. 20. 
naga, vi. 66. 
nagna, iv. 4. 
nat, v. 29. 
nad, iii. 30. 
nada, iii. 30. 
nad, v. 29 ; ix. 22. 
nada, v. 29. 
nand, ix. 22. 
nandana, i. 10. 
nanda, L 10. 
nandinl, i. 10. 
napat, i. 10. 
naptri, i. 10. 
napti, i. 10. 
naptri, i. 10. 
nab'as, ii. 26. 
nara, viii. 18. 
nava, i. 10. 



navan, iv. 5. 

nax', iv. 4. 

na«, viii. 1. 

nah, ii. 9. 

nad!, ii. 58. 

nat', nad', vi. ]n0. 

nana, i. 5. 

nab'i, vi. 78. 

naman, viii. 4. 

nara, v. 8. 

narikera, v. 8 4- v. 6. 

ni, vi. 99. 

nig', v. 28. 

nitamba, vi. 58 + vi. 78. 

nid, i. 10 ; viii. 8. 

ninv, iii. 23. 

nir, iv. 4. 

nix', •'• 26. 

nis, iv. 4. 

ni, vi. 98. 

nida, iii. 30. 

nila, ii. 26. 

niv, vi. 78. 

nu, ix. 8. 

-nu, i. 5. 

mid, v. 29. 

nunam, i. 5. 

nri, nar, viii. 3. 

nema, iv. 3. 

no, iv. 4. 

pas, vii. 41. 

paks, ii. 35. 

paksa, ii. 35. 

paksman, ii. 34 + ii. 38. 

panka, iii. 28. 

pankti, iv. 6. 

pak', iii. 28 ; iv. 6. 

pan'k', iv. 6. 

pan'k'an, iv. 6. 

pat, ii. 33 ; iv. 15 ; vi. 

IIS ; ix. 2. 
patu, i. 8. 
patta, i. 8. 
pat', ix. 2. 
pan, vi. 42. 
pand, iv. 15 ; vi. 42. 
pat, iii. 26 ; v. 19 ; vi 41. 
pati, vi. 41. 
patnl, vi. 41. 
patra, iv. 15. 
pat', v. 19 ; vi. 40. 



276 



INDEX. 



pat'a, vi. 40. 

pat'in, vi. 40. 

pad, v. 19 ; vi. 40, 46. 

pada, vi. 40. 

pan, vi. 52. 

pant', v. 18 ; vi. 40. 

pant'an, vi. 40. 

pamb, v. 23. 

pay, v. 23. 

para, vi. 20. 

param, vi. 20. 

parama, vi. 20. 

parax'u, vii. 27. 

para, ii. 16. 

pari, ii. 16. 

parna, i. 12. 

pal, ii. 15. 

pala, ii. 15. 

palala, ii. 15. 

palita, i. 15. 

pa X ' ; ii. 35 ; vi. 120. 

pax'u, ii. 35. 

pax'k'a, ii. 16. 

pasas, vi. 40. 

pa, ii. 35 ; x. 9. 

pfitala, vi. IIS. 

pani, ii. 30. 

pat'a, v. 19 ; vi. 118. 

papa, viii. 9. 

par, vi. 20. 

para, vi. 20 + ii. 13. 

parx'va, ii. 17. 

parsni, vi. 17. 

pal, ii. 15. 

piivaka, vi. 118. 

pavana, vi. 118. 

pi, vi. 33. 

pik'k', iv. 6. 

pik'k"a, i. IS ; ii. 31. 

pin'g', i. 18. 

pitri, vi. 3S-l-vi. 9. 

pityivyas, vi. 38 + vi. 
i. 8". 

pinv, vi. 38. 

pippali, x. 2. 

pix', i. 18 ; iv. 6. 

pix'una, i. IS. 

pis, vii. 41. 

pid, vi. 40. 

ply, viii. 9. 

piv, vi. 33. 



9 + 



piis, vi. 38 ; vii. 41. 

punk'a, ii. 30. 

punga, vi. 48. 

puk'k"a, ii. 34. 

pun'g'a, vi. 48. 

put, vi. US. 

punya, vi. 118. 

pund, vii. 41. 

pundarlka, vii. 41. 

putra, vi. 38. 

putri, vi. SS. 

punar, ii. 30. 

pumas, vi. 38 + vi. 31. 

pur, vi. 20. 

pura, purl, ii. 17. 

puras, vi. 20. 

pura., vi. 20. 

purusa, iii. 2, 

purv, vi. 17. 

pul, vi. 15. 

pu, vi. 118. 

puga, vi. 48. 

puy, viii. 9. 

piiya, viii. 9. 

purva, vi. 20. 

pri, vi. 17. 

prik', prig', prin'g', i. 15. 

prin, vi. 17. 

prit', iv. 14. 

prit'ak, iv. 14. 

prit'ivi, prit'vi, iv. 14. 

prit'u, iv. 14. 

pris, iii. 2. 

pri, vi. 17. 

pex'ala, i. 18. 

pyai, vi. 38. 

pra, vi. 20. 

prak", vi. 22. 

prati, vi. 20 + i. 1. 

prat', iv. 1-1. 

pravana, vi. 20 + ii. 32. 

pratar, vi. 20 + vi. 9. 

pradus, vi. 20 + vi. 127. 

pri, vi. 22. 

pru, v. 9. 

prut', viii. Ii. 

prus, iii. 2 ; vi. 117. 

prot'a, viii. 14. 

plaks, x. 1. 

plihan, vi. 22. 

phi, v. 10 ; viii. 1 1. 



plus, vi. 11 7. 

pull, vi. 15. 

bah, vi. 48. 

banig', vi. 42. 

bad, vi. 46. 

bad', ii 33 ; viii. 9. 

bad'ira, iii. 26. 

bad'u, ii. 33. 

band, ii. 33. 

band', ii. 33. 

band'n, ii. 33. 

bab'r, v. 9. 

bab'ru, vi. 117. 

barbara, iii. 2. 

barh, vi. 19, 117. 

bal, iv. 13; v. 10; vi. 19 ; 

vi. 21 ; vi. 117., 
bala, vi. 21. 
balh, vi. 117. 
bahis, iv. 5. 
bahu, vi. 48. 
bad', vi. 40. 
bah, vi. 49. 
bahu, ii. 31. 
bid, ix. 2. 
bil, iv. 13. 
bud, ix. 27. 
bud', vi. 118. 

bund, ix. 27. 

bund', ix. 27. 

bru, ix. 13. 

b'aks, x. 1. 

b'aga, iv. 6. 

b'ag', ii. 35 ; iv. 6 ; vi. 
52; vii. 19. 

b'an'g', iv. 6. 

b'at, x. 1. 

ban, ix. 2. 

b'ant, v. 18. 

band, viii. 9. 

b'adra, vi. 115. 

band, ix. 2. 

b'arts, vii. 29. 

barb', vi. 19. 

b'as, ix. 1. 

b'a,"vi. 115. 

b'ama, vi. 115. 

b'as, ix. 2. 

b'as, vi. 115. 

bid, iv. 15. 

b'il, iv. 13. 



INDEX. 



277 



b'i, vii. 29. 

b'lru, vii. 29. 

b'ug', ii. 34 ; x. 1. 

b'ii, vi. 38. 

b'umi, vi. 3S. 

b'uyas, vi. 48. 

b'urg'a, vi. 14. 

b'ri, vi. 17. 

b'rig', vii. 29. 

b'rix', iv. 14. 

b'ri'x'a, vi. 17. 

b'rax', iv. 14. 

b'rag'g', vii. 29. 

b'rani, v. 9. 

b'rag', vi. 117. 

b'ratri, vi. 17 + vi. 9. 

b'rax', vi. 117. 

b'ri, vii. 29. 

b'ru, ii. 17. 

b'ifg', vi. 117. 

b'laks, x. 1. 

b'lfix', vi. 117. 

b'las, vi. 117. 

mah, iii. 25 ; vi. 121. 

makak, v. 31. 

maks, vi. 31 ; viii. 2. 

maksa, v. 31. 

maksika, v. 31. 

inak', v. 31. 

mag a, iii. 25. 

maiik, v. 31 ; vi. 121. 

mangala, vi. 52. 

uiang', v. 31 ; vi. 121. 

niak', vi. 121. 

inag'g', iii. 25. 

mag'g'an, i. 20. 

man'k', v. 31 ; vi. 52 ; 

vi. 121. 
inan'g', ix. 21. 
inan'g'ara, vi. 121. 
man'g'ari, vi. 121. 
man'g'u, vi. 121. 
mat', iii. 5 ; vii. 43. 
mani, vi. 121. 
mant', viii. 1. 
mand, v. 21 ; vi. 121. 
mandala, ii. 38. 
mat', v. 21. 
mad, v. 21. 
mad'u, x. 20. 
mad ya, ii. 39. 



man, viii. 1. 

iiianas, viii. 1. 

manak, iii. 5. 

manu, viii. 1. 

maims, viii. 1. 

mantra, viii. 1. 

mant, v. 21. 

mant'ara, iii. 5. 

mand, iii. 5 ; v. 21. 

manda, iii. 5. 

manday, iii. 5. 

manyu, viii. 1. 

marakata, vi. 121. 

martya, iii. 4. 

marman, ii. 42. 

marya, iv. 16. 

mala, i. 20. 

mas, i. 1 1. 

masg', iii. 25. 

mah, vi. 52. 

mah J, vi. 31. 

mil, i. 11 ; iv. 4 ; viii. 1. 

masa, x. 5. 

milnks, vi. 52. 

matri, vi. 31. 

liiatar, vi. 31. 

matra, vi. 31. 

man, viii. 1. 

niana, viii. 1. 

maya, vi. 121. 

mara, viii. 3. 

mas, i. 11. 

masma, iv. 4 + i. 32. 

mi, v. 22. 

mit', i. 11 ; vii. 44 ; viii. 

2. 
mit'yil, v. 21. 
mid, i. 20 ; viii. 2. 
mis, iii. 25. 
mista, x. 20. 
mih, iii. 25. 
ml, iii. 5 ; v. 22 ; vii. 45 ; 

viii. 2. 
nilna, v. 22. 
mini, v. 8. 
mil, ii. 41. 
mukula, vi. 31. 
mukta, vi. 121. 
muk'a. \i. 121. 
muk', iii. 25. 
mug', ix. 21. 



mut, vii. 1 J. 

mant, vii. 44. 

mund, vii. 44. 

munda, \ii. 44. 

muni, viii. 1. 

mur, ii. 43. 

murv, ii. 42. 

raus, ii. 39. 

muh, v. 22. 

muhus, v. 22. 

muhurta, v. 22. 

mu, ii. 42. 

muka, i. 28. 

murti, vi. 28. 

murd'an, vi. 28. 

mils, ii. 39. 

musa, ii. 39. 

mri, iii. 4. 

mriks, Lq.mraks. 

mrig', vii. 45. 

mrid, iii. 4. 

mrin, inarn, vii. 45. 

niriti, iii. 4. 

mrid, mard, vii. 45. 

mrida, viL 45. 

mridu, vii. 45. 

mpx'j v ii- 45 ; viii. 3. 

mris, iii. 4. 

me, v. 22. 

mgg'a, i. 20. 

media, vi. 35. 

met, i. 11 ; i. 20 ; vii. 

44 ; viii. 2. 
medas, i. 20. 

med, i. 11 ; vii. 44 ; viii. 2. 
nana, viii. 1. 
mraks, vii. 45. 
mlai, iii. 3. 
yakut, vi. 102. 
yaks, vi. 108. 
yag', vi. 10S. 
yat, i. 6. 

yadii, i. 5 + vi. 57. 
yadi, i. 5. 
yam, vi. 76. 
yama, i. 7. 
yava, vi. 102. 
yax'as, vi. 124. 
yas, vi. 108; vi. 114. 
ya, i. 5. 
ya, v. 24. 



278 



INDEX. 



yak', vi. 108. 

yiitri, i. 7. 

yavat, i. 5 + vi. 34. 

yu, i. 6 ; v. 24. 

yug', i. 6; v. 24. 

yud', i. 6. 

yuvan, vi. 102. 

yusa, vi. 114. 

yusma, i. 4 + i. 32. 

raks, ii. 49. 

rang', vi. 122. 

rang', i. 25. 

rag'ani, i. 25. 

rag'as, i. 25. 

rat, ix. 19. 

rat', ix. 19. 

rat'a, ii. 56. • 

rad, vii. 32. 

rail', vii. 32. 

rand'ra, vii. 32. 

rap, ix. 19. 

rab', ii. 53. 

ram, iii. 14. 

ravi, vi. 135. 

ras, vi. 97 ; ix. 19. 

rah, iv. 17. 

ra, iv. 17. 

ragn, vi. 97. 

rag, vi. 109. 

rag', vi. 94 ; vi. 122. 

rag'a, rag'an, vi. 94. 

rag'i, vi. 94. 

rik', iv. 17. 

rig', vii. 30. 

rl, v. 6. 

ru, vii. 30 ; ix. 15. 

ruk', vi. 122. 

rug', vii. 30. 

rut, vi. 135. 

rud, v. 14. 

rud', vi. 85. 

rud'iia, v. 14. 

rup, vii. 37. 

ruh, vi. 89. 

luksa, vii. 30. 

ret, ix. 19. 

rai, vi. S3 ; ix. 19. 

Ionian, ii. 50 + ii. 38. 

rohita, vi. 122. 

laks, vi. 123. 

lag, i. 25 ; x. 17. 



Iaguda, vi. 92. 

lag, lang, v. 16. 

lag'u, v. 16. 

lag', vii. 31. 

lag'g', vii. 31. 

lan'g', vi. 123 ; vii. 31. 

lat, ix. 20 ; x. 25. 

lad, v. 14 ; vi. 97. 

lap, ix. 19. 

lab', ii. 51. 

lal, v. 12. 

las, vi. 97. 

las, v. 14 ; vi. 136. 

la, iv. 17. 

lag', vi. 109. 

langula, vi. 92. 

lag', lan'g', vii. 31. 

lip, i. 24. 

li X ', v. 16. 

lih, x. 17. 

II, i. 25 ; iii. 19. 

Ilia, v. 12. 

lug', vi. 123. 

lun'k', vi. 93. 

lut, v. 14. 

lut', v. 14. 

lud, ii. 55 ; v. 14. 

hint, ii. 55. 

Lund, ii. 55. 

lunt", vii. 33. 

lup, vii. 38. 

lub', vi. 95 ; vii. 38. 

lumb, vii. 38. 

lus, ii. 55. 

lu, vii. 33. 

lup, ii. 51. 

lex'a, v. 16. 

lok, vi. 123. 

lok', vi. 123. 

lot, lud, laud, v. 14. 

lOpax'aka, ii. 51 +ii. 35. 

lOha, vi. 123. 

lohita, vi. 123. 

van, vi. 50 ; vi. 120. 

vakak, v. 30. 

vakra, ii. 3 J. 

vaks, vi. 50. 

vaksas, vi. 50. 

vauka, ii. 34. 

vankri, ii. 34. 

vanga, vi. 120, 



vak', ix. 2. 

vag', v. 30. 

vat, ii. 33 ; iv. 6 ; ix. 2. 

vanig', vi. 42. 

vant, iv. 6. 

vand, ii. 33 ; iv. 6. 

-vat, i. 9. 

vatsa, vi. 34. 

vatsara, vi. 34 + v. 6. 

vad, ix. 2. 

vad', vi. 40. 

vad'u, ii. 33. 

van, vi. 52, 102 ; vii. 20. 

vana, v. 18. 

vand, ix. 2. 

vap, ii. 37 ; v. 23. 

vapa, ii. 25. 

vapus, ii. 25. 

vab'r, v. 23. 

vain, viii. 6. 

vay, v. 23. 

vayam, viii. 5 + viii. 1. 

vayas, vayasya, vi. 103. 

var, vi. 26. 

vara, vi. 26. 

varaha, vii. 27. 

vark'as, vi. 117. 

varna, ii. 13. 

vartaka, ix. 13 + ix. 3. 

varh, vi. 117. 

val, ii. 11. 

valb', x. 7. 

vallab'a, vi. 26. 

valh, vi. 117. 

vax', vi. 52. 

vas, vii. 25. 

-vas, i. 9. 

vas, ii. 36 ; iii. 27 ; vi. 

52, 116. 
vasanta, vi. 116. 
vasu, vi. 36. 
vasna, vi. 36. 
vah, vi. 49 ; viii. 1 2. 
vahanta, viii. 12. 
vahis, iv. 5. 

va, i. 5 ; vi. 52 ; viii. 12. 
vanks, vi. 52. 
vak', ix. 2. 
van'k", vi. 52. 
vata, viii. 12. 
vad', vi. 40. 



INDEX. 



279 



vama. iii. 29 ; vi. 52. 

viimana, iii. 29. 

vfiyu, viii. 12. 

vara, vi. 23 ; vi. 27. 

varana, vii. 27. 

vilri, v. 9. 

vax'i vas, ix. 2. 

viisara, vi. 116. 

vastu, iii. 27. 

villi, vi. 49. 

vilha, viii. 12. 

vahu, ii. 34. 

vix'ati, i. 6 + iv. 7. 

vi, iv. 5 ; v. 23. 

vik', iv. 5. 

vig', v. 30. 

vit', ix. 2. 

vid, ii. 33; vi. 119; ix. 2. 

vid', ix. 2. 

vidava, iv. 6. 

vina, iv. 5. 

vip, v. 23. 

vil, iv. 13. 

vi*', i- 17. 

vi^'va, i. 8 + i. 31. 

vis, i. 18 ; iii. 27 ; iv. 5. 

visa, i. 18. 

visa, i. 18. 

visu, i. 6 + iv. 8. 

vi, v. 23 ; vi. 52. 

vig', viii. 12. 

vlra, ii. 12 ; vi. 25. 

vri, ii. 13 ; vi. 26. 

vrik, ii. 13. 

vrika, ii. 13 ; vii. 27. 

vrik', ii. 13. 

vrig', iv. 14. 

vrin, x. 7. 

vrit, ii. 12 ; vi. 26. 

vritra, vii. 27. 

vrit'a, v. 9. 

vrid', vi. 23. 

vris, iii. 2. 

vrisa, iii. 2. 

vrisana, iii. 2. 

vrisab'a, iii. 2 + vi. 96. 

vrisni, iii. 2. 

vrih, vi. C3. 

vri, vi. 26. 

ve, ii. 37. 

vega, v. 30. 



vep, v. 23. 

\T>x'a, i. 17. 

vesa, ii. 36. 

vest, ii. 36. 

vai, i. 5 ; vii. 8. 

vyad', vii. 25. 

vyala, v. 23. 

vye, ii. 36. 

vrag', v. 9. 

vran, bran, vii. 27. 

vrata, vi. 26. 

vrax'k', iv. 6. 

vri, vi. 26. 

vrid, vii. 29. 

vris, vii. 27. 

vrihi, vi. 23. 

vii, vi. 26. 

vleks, vi. 117. 

x'ils, ix. 11. 

x'ak, vi. 63. 

x'aka, viii. 11. 

x'akrit, viii. 11 + viii. 7. 

x'ank, viii. 4. 

x'ank'a, ii. 6. 

X'ak', ix. 10. 

x'at, iii. 9. 

X'at', iii. 9. 

x'ana, ii. 6. 

X'and, i. 31 ; iii. 9. 

x'ata, iv. 7. 

x'atru, vii. 11. 

x'ad, iii. 9. 

x'ana, vi. 65. 

x'anais, vi. 65. 

X'ap'a, ii. 8. 

X'am, iii. 21 ; vi. 132. 

x'ara, v. 6. 

x'arab'a, ii. 4. 

x'aru, v. 6. 

x'arkara, vii. 1. 

x'arb, vii. 1. 

X'arv, vii. 1. 

x'arvarl, ii. 4. 

X'alab'a, ii. 2. 

X'ax', v. 1. 

X'ax'a, v. 1. 

x'ax' vat, vi. 65 + iv. 6. 

x'aspa, vi. 67. 

-X'as, iv. 7. 

x'asya, vi. 67. 

x'ak, ii. 9. 



x'aka, ii. 9. 



ix. 10. 



viii. 13. 



x'ada, vi. 70. 

x'Sn, vii. 5. 

X'ala, ii. 2. 

X'i, vii. 3. 

X'ii''g. X'ig. X' n . «"• 13. 

X'iti, ii. 29. 

x'ira, x'i ras i vi. 1. 

x'il, vii. 4. 

x'ila, vii. 4. 

x'ila, vii. 2. 

x'iva, vi. 107. 

X'ix'ira, vii. 12. 

X'is, iv. 8. 

X'I, iii. 8. 

Xita, vii. 12. 

Xina, vii. 12. 

X'uk', vi. 124 ; 

X'ut', iii. 9 ; v. 1. 

x'unt', v. 1 ; vii. 9. 

X'nd', vi. 134. 

X'nnd', vi. 134. 

X'ub', vi. 130. 

X'umb', vi. 130. 

x'us, vii. 9. 

X'usma, vi. 130 

x'ukara, ix. 10. 

x'unya, iii. 21. 

x'ur, vi. 4. 

x'ura, vi. 4. 

X'us, vi. 67. 

x'ringa, vi. 4. 

X'rl, iv. 9. 

X'o, vii. 3. 

X'k'and, vi. 134. 

x'nat', vii. 11. 

x'yama, ii. 29. 

x'yala, i. 31 + i. 7. 

Xyava, ii. 29. 

x'ya, vii. 12. 

x'rat, vi. 4. 
x'ram, iii. 7. 
x'ramb', vi. 4. 
X'ra, vi. 12P. 
X'ris, vi. 129. 
X'ri, vi. 6; vi. 129. 
x'ru, v. 6 ; ix. 27. 
x'rcyas, vi. 6. 
X'ron, vi. 1. 
x'roni, vi. 1. 
X'lak', ii. 2. 



280 



INDEX. 



X'lis, ii. 2. 

x'van, ix. 8. 

x'vab'ra, ii. 5. 

x'vax'ura, i. 31 + vi. 4. 

X'vas, vi. 130 ; viii. 13. 

x'vi, vi. 67. 

X'vit, vi. 130. 

x'vcta, vi. 130. 

sas, iv. 7. 

sa, i. 3. 

sakala, i. 32 + ii. 2. 

sakrit, iv. 7 + iv. 9. 

sak'a, sak'i, i. 30. 

sag, ii. 29. 

*ak', i. 30. 

sag'g', i. 18. 

satt, vi. 105. 

sat, vi. 105. 

satra, i. 32 + i. 1. 

satya, vi. 105. 

sad, iii. 17 ; vi. 71. 

sada, vi. 64 + vi. 57. 

sadyas, i. 32 + i. 1. 

sana, vi. 64. 

sanatana, vi. 64 + vi. 57. 

sap, i. 30. 

saptan, iv. 7. 

sam, i. 32. 

sama, i. 32. 

samagra, i. 32 + ii. 4. 

samam, i. 32. 

samprati, i. 32 + vi. 20. 

saras, v. 6. 

sarit, v. 6. 

sarva, iv. 7 + iv. 6. 

salila, v. 7. 

savana, v. 3. 

savya, v. 3. 

sasya, vi. 80. 

sah, vi. 63. 

saha, i. 30. 

sahasil, i. 30. 

sahasra, i. 30. 

sfikani, i. 30. 

sam, iii. 14. 

sami, i. 32. 

saya, iii. 10. 

si, ii. 22. 

sikatii, vii. 8. 

sik', vii. 48. 

sindura, vi. 132 )- vi. 117. 



sind'u, v. 27 + v. 24. 

sib', vi. 130 ; vii. 18. 

sima, i. 32. 

sitiob', vi. 130 ; vii. 18. 

siv, ii. 22. 

slta, vi. 64. 

slman, vi. 64. 

slra, vi. 64. 

su, v. 3 ; vi. 80. 

su-, vi. 104. 

sub', vi. 130; vii. 18. 

sumb', vi. 130; vii. 18. 

sur, vi. 131. 

su, v. 3 ; vi. 80. 

sukara, ix. 24. 

suksma, vii. 8. 

suk'l, vii. 7. 

surya, vi. 131. 

sus, vi. 80. 

sri, v. 6. 

srig', v. 6. 

grip, v. 6. 

sri, vii. 13. 

sena, vi. 64. 

sev, vi. 107. 

sai, iii. 10. 

so, iii. 10. 

s5ma, v. 3. 

skand, v. 2. 

sku, ii. 29. 

sk'al, v. 2. 

stak, vi. 72. 

stan, ix. 17. 

stana, vi. 9. 

stab", vi. 71. 

stamb', vi. 71. 

stig', vi. 71. 

stu, ix. 17. 

stub', iii. 15 ; ix. 17. 

stumb", vi. 71. 

stri, vi. 128. 

stri, vii. 47. 

sten, iv. 19. 

stoka, iv. 19. 

stoma, ii. 22. 

styai, vi. 71. 

stri, vi. 9. 

stag, ii. 29.! 

st'avira, i. 29. 

st'a, i. 29. 

st'urin, i. 29. 



st'una, vi. 71. 

st'ura, i. 29. 

sna, v. 27. 

snayu, yi. 64. 

snu, v. 27. 

snusa, i. 10. 

sparx', i. 15. 

spax', vi. 120. 

spri, vi. 22. 

sprih, vi. 22. 

sp'at, iv. 12. 

sp'ant, iv. 12. 

spar, v. 3. 

sp'al, v. 3. 

sp'ay, vi. 68. 

sp'ik', vi. 68. 

spit, ii. 25 ; iv. 12. 

sp'ita, vi. 68. 

sp'ut, iv. 12. 

sp'utt, iv. 12. 

sp'unt, iv. 12. 

sp'und, iv. 12. 

spur, v. 3. 

sp'urg', ix. 25. 

-sma, i. 32. 

smaya, iv. 12. 

smi, iv. 12. 

sniri, smar, viii. 3. 

syala, i. 31 + i. 7. 

siiv, v. 6 ; vii. 1 3. 

sru, v. 6. 

sva, viii. 5. 

svag, v. 3. 

svang, v. 3. 

svak'k''a, vi. 131. 

svag'ana, i. 31+vi. 66. 

svad, x. 19. 

svan, ix. 24. 

svap, iii. 14. 

svar, vi. 131 ; ix. 24. 

svaru, vi. 131. 

svasri, vi. 80. 

svasti, vi. 104. 

svada, x. 19. 

svaduj x. 19. 

svid, iii. 14. 

svit, i. 5. 

svri, vii. 18 ; ix. 24. 

svri, vii. 18. 

hasa, ix. 8. 

hat'a, vii. 11. 



INDEX. 



281 



had, viii. 7. 
han, vii. 5. 
hanu, vii. 5. 
liamsa, ii. 7. 
hay, iii. 8. 
haras, vi. 129. 
hari, harita, vi. 129. 
harina, vi. 129. 
hary, vi. 7. 
has, ix. 1 1 . 
ha, iv. 1 1. 
hi, v. 1. 



hima, vii. 12. 
hid, vii. 11. 
lm, v. 1. 
hund, i. 31. 
hri, ii. 4 ; vii. 1. 
hrid, vi. 6. 
hris, vii. 1. 
hetu, v. 1. 
hes, ix. 6. 
hnu, ii. 26. 
hyas, iii. 9. 
hrad, ix. 6. 



hrap, ix. 6. 
hras, ix. 6. 
hrasva, iii. 7. 
hii, vi. 129. 
hiiku, vi. 129. 
hres, ix. 6. 
hlas, ix. 7. 
blad, vi. 6. 
hliku, vi. 129. 
hval, v. 1. 
hvri, ii. 5. 
live, ix. 10. 



d-, i. 32 ; iv. 4 ; v. 25. 
d-, i. 32. 

dd/tues, vi. 82 + ii. 38. 
ddvda, ix. 27 + ii. 58. 

da, vi. 116. 
daw, v. 23. 
aj3aKTjS, iv. 4 + ix. 2. 
d/3aXata, vi. 26. 
d/3a£, i. 12. 
d/3AXw, ii. 15. 
d/^Xrepos, iii. 1 . 
d|36r<rw, vi. 52. 
dj3\adiws, iii. 1. 
d/3XejU7js, iii. 1. 
a(i\rixpbs, iii- 1. 
d£Xo<?a>, vii. 28. 
d/3o\ew, i. 32 + vi. 19. 
d/3oXos, ii. 15 ; v. 10. 
dfipapis, v. 9 + v. 22. 
dtfpo's, iii. 2. 
d/Spordfw, v. 9. 
dfipbrovov, iii. 2 + vi. 57. 
&pv9os, iv. 4 + vi. 40. 
djivpraKr], x. 1. 
tijivtraos, iv. 4 + vi. 40. 
d/3ai, vi. 116. 
dyadls, ii. 6. 
tiyadbs, vi. 107. 
dya.lop.aL, xi. 2. 
a7aXX/s, vi. 2. 
d-yaXXoxof, vi. 2 + vii. 31. 
a7aXXw, vi. 129. 
tiyap.ai, xi. 2. 



GEEEK. 

d7ae, vi. 50. 
dyav6s, iii. 21. 
d7afaKre'w, vi. 50 + xi. 2. 
d7ao/txai, xi. 2. 
a7a7rdw, vi. 50 + ii. 35. 
dyapinbv, vi. 1. 
dyappis, ii. 4. 
d-j acrvWLs, i. 18. 
07a vos, xi. 3. 
dyavpos, xi. 3. 
a77eXos, v. ] . 
C1770S, ii. 9. 
tiyyovpiov, vi. 1. 
tiyyovpos, vii. 1. 
dyupw, ii. 4. 
dyeX-q, i. 32 + ii. 2. 
dyeptoxos, vi. 1. 
ay-r], vi. 108. 
dyrjvwp, vi. 50 + viii. 3. 
#7105, vi. 108. 
dyKiarpov, ii. 9. 
dytcovos, vi. 98. 
dyKopes, iv. 4 + iii. 7. 
dyxos, ii. 9. 
dyKT-rjp, vi. 98. 
d7*(;Xo?, ii. 9. 
tiyKvpa, ii. 9. 
dyKwv, ii. 9. 
a7Xaos, vi. 129. 
a7Xis, vi. 2. 
cfyi'os, ii. 6. 
a7c6y, vi. 108. 
tiyvvpi, iv. 6. 



dyvvs, vi. 63 + ii. 58, 

dyop, v. 23 + v. 13. 
a70pd, ii. 4. 
0.70s, vi. 108. 
#705, vi. 108. 
dyo<TTos, ii. 9. 
a7pa, ii. 4. 
dyptp-wv, ii. 4. 
dypeto, ii. 4. 
d~,pTj6eTO, vi. 7. 
tiyp-qvov, ii. 4. 
dypriUKerai, vii. 3. 
dypirpT], vii. 3. 
a7pos, vi. 63. 
dypvirvos, vi. 6 + iii. 14. 
aypwcms, vii. 3. 
d7utd, vi. 63. 
tiyvpis, ii. 4. 
d- 7Xt , i. 10. 
d7Xouo~a, ii. 9. 
a7xw, viii. 1. 
&7W, vi. 63. 
dywv, vi. 63. 
dSdXaiOs, vii. 24. 
dSa^w, vii. 24. 
dddpKT), iii. 13. 
ddaxew, vii. 24. 
ddoavos, vii. 24. 
d55i£, vi. 59 + i. 21. 
ddeia, iv. 4 + iii. 11. 
d5eX06s, i. 32 + vi. 10. 
tides, vi. 60. 
d5^w, iii. 11. 



282 



INDEX. 



adrifAwv, iii. 11. 

&di]i>, iii. 11. 

dbrjv, vi. 58. 

adrjs, iv. 4 + vi. 119. 

<xSlkt], vii. 24. 

ddivos, vi. 59. 

adiov, vi. 60. 

doitf/ddeov, viii. 16. 

fiSyaa^cw, vi. 59. 

do/xenoes, vi. 76. 

do/xoXirj, v. 33. 

dtfos, iii. 11. 

dopd^??, iii. 13. 

dSpoj, vi. 59. 

tiSpva, vi. 31 + vi. 9. 

dedXov, ii. 33. 

de0Xoy, ii. 33. 

deidw, ix. 2. 

deipu, vi. 84. 

dfXioi, i. 31 +i. 7. 

deXXa, viii. 12 + ii. 10. 

defifxa, v. 23. 

aeaa, iii. 27. 

de<ji<ppwv, v. 23 + vi. 22. 

dfa, vii. 24. 

a-frxys, vii. 24. 

dj~w, vii. 24. 

a^o/xai, vi. 108. 

a7?5c6i', ix. 2 + ix. 5. 

drj/jLL, viii. 12. 

dTjp, viii. 12. 

drjcrvpos, viii. 12. 

dijTos, xi. 1. 

dddpa, vi. 9. 

adapts, vi. 9. 

ddeXpu, iv. 4 + i. 24. 

d^e'\7w, x. 8. 

ddeprjs, vi. 10. 

dSeplfa, iv. 4 + vi. 11. 

d#??p, vi. 9. 

atfXcw, ii. 33. 

d<?Xos, ii. 33. 

ddpeoj, vi. 126. 

6.6 poos, vi. 11. 

d6>i'>pw, v. 25 + v. 24. 

al, xi 1 . 

at, xi. 1. 

ala, vi. 67. 

aid'gw, xi. ]. 

alarms, xi. 1; v. 24 + vi. 37. 

aryaee'a, vii. 5. 



aiyetpo?, v. 30. 
alyes, v. 1. 
aiyiaXos, v. i. 
aiyidaXXos, v. 1 4- v. 7. 
aiyivdos, v. 1 + v. 29. 
cu'71'y, v. 1 ; vi. 50. 
aiyiXuif/, vi. 50 + vi. 96. 
atyX V , vi. 129. 
aiyviribs, v. 1 4- ii. 7. 
aiydiXios, v. 1 + ii. 11. 
didrjXos, iv. 4 + vi. 119. 
dtdrjs, iv. 4 + vi. 119. 
ai'Sws, vii. 29. 
aliXioi, i. 31 +i. 7. 
aUv, atfs, aid, v. 24. 
alerds, v. 25 + v. 23 + v. 

24. 
aifyos, aiffios, vi. 102. 
ai'TjTos, xi. 1. 
aid-qp, vi. 133. 
cu'0oi«ra, vi. 133. 
aWpa, vi. 133. 
aWvia, v. 25 + v. 24. 
aidvo-ju), v. 25 + v. 24. 
aWw, vi. 133. 
cuVdXXw, v. 4. 
due (7, v. 30. 
al/cXot, vii. 4. 
di'/cXop, iii. 27 + iii. 6. 
a'iXovpos, v. 12 + ii. 16. 
alfxa, v. 25 + v. 6. 
aiyudXwi/', vi. 96. 
ai/uLaaia, ii. 37. 
ai/xos, ii. 37. 
aip.offdT7]s, v. 25 + v. 6 + 

i. 29. 
aijiu'Xoj, ii. 37. 
a'ifxwv, ii. 37. 
cuVe'w, ix. 10. 
aivlocrop.a.1, ix. 1(1. 
aZVos, ix. 10. 
aiVdy, xi. 1. 
aXvvp.ai, ii. 33. 
atW, viii. 12. 
ai£, v. 1. 

aWXoj, v. 23 + v. 1 2. 
alovdu, v. 25 + v. 18. 
aiirdXos, v. 1 + ii. 14. 
aiirvs, vi. 40. 
afpa, vii. 34. 
aiptui, ii. 13. 



ai'pw, vi. 84. 
alaa, ix. 10. 
aicrdXwv, v. 25 + v. 7- 
aiaddvop-ai, ix. 27. 
dttrdw, viii. 12 + viii. 17. 
d'tcrau, v. 30. 
ai<xu/j.vdw, ix. 10. 
alcr^os, viii. 7. 
diras, vi. 52. 
airei*), ix. 2. 
airia, vi. 58. 
cuVtos, vi. 58. 
a'i(pv7]s, v. 23. 
cu'xp-i?, vii. 3. 
ali//a, v. 25 + v. 20. 
dtw, ix. 27. 
aidiv, v. 24 + vi. 37. 
cu'wpa, vi. 84. 
d/ca§?}ircu, viii. 4. 
anaiva, iv. 7. 
d/ca/caXis, vii. 4. 
d\-a/ua, vii. 3. 
dKaXavdis, vii. 4 + vi. 58. 
dKaXrj<p7j, vii. 4 + i. 8. 
d/caXos, iii. 8. 
&Kavda, vii. 4 + vi. 58. 
aKavdls, vii. 4 + vi. 58. 
aKavos, vii. 5. 
dicapei, iv. 4 +iv. 9. 
aKapvjs, iv. 4 + iv. 9. 
&Kapi, iv. 4 + iv. 9. 
&KaaKa, iii. 8. 
&Karos, v. 2. 
d^ax/x^o?, vii. 3. 
dneoixai, iii. 8 ; vii. 3. 
dKepcr€K6/J.7]s, iv. 4 + iv. 9 

+ vi. 70. 
dutarpa, vii. 3. 
aKtuTpia, vii. 3. 
d/v^wi', iii. 8. 
d/CT7, vii. 3. 
d/cjji', iii. 8. 
dKTjparos, iv. 4 + i. 23. 
tiKidvos, iii. 9. 
aKlvaypia, v. 1 . 
&KLVOS, viii. 18. 
dicipos, iii. 8. 
d/cKi7T77<nos, ii. 9+ v. 19. 
aKpLT), vii. 3. 
&Kp.T)vos, iv. 4 + ii. 8. 
&Kp.ij>v, vi. 63. 



INDEX. 



283 



&KUOW, vi. 124. 
&Kvr]<rTis, vii. 5. 
olkotj, ix. 27. 
&k6\ovOos, i. 32 + v. 4. 
di<6vr], vii. 5. 
d/cofiToi', vii. 5. 
&Kopva, vii. 3. 
&Kopov, viii. 19. 
liKopos, viii. 19. 
a/tourr], vii. 9. 
d/cot''a>, ix. 27. 
aKpipfjs, vii. 3. 
aKpis, ix. 6. 
aKpoaofiai, ix. 27. 
&Kp6(3vcrTos, vii. 3 + ii. 36. 
aKpos, vii. 3. 
d/crcuVw, v. 2. 
&KTea, ii. 6. 
oktt;, iv. 6 ; vi. 50. 
dart's, vi. 124. 
(Lkv\os, vii. 2. 
d/c^aXi/Sap, ii. 9 + vi. 17. 
d/cx *) ii. 9. 
d/cwe, vi. 52. 
aXafiatTTOs, vi. 136. 
dXd/3??, i. 24. 
d\7/37?j, ii. 50. 
dXafw!', ix. 20. 
dXaXrj, ix. 20. 
a\a\KTTjpLov, vi. 109. 
dXaoy, iv. 4 + vi. 136. 
d\a7rdfuj, iii. 32. 
dXacrr^w, vii. 33. 
dXdffrwp, vii. 33. 
dXyos, vii. 31. 
dXdaivw, vi. 87. 
dX<?a, v. 12 ; vi. 131. 
dX^-yw, vii. 31. 
dXeiaoe , ii. 55. 
a\ei(pu), i. 24. 
aXdnruip, ix. 20. 
dXe'fw, vi. 109. 
dX4op.ai, v. 12. 
dXe(5poc, vii. 34 + vii. 28. 
dXa'w, v. 12. 
dXe'a>, vii. 34. 
dXeaip^, v. 12 + ii. 13. 
dXrj, i. 25 ; v. 12. 
dXrjOrjs, iv. 4 + ii. 55. 
dX-qp-tvai, ii. 11. 
dXtfcua, iii. 33. 



dX0w, vi. 87. 

dXia, ii. 11. 

dXt/3as, vi. 96. 

dXtV 10 *, >• 32 + vi. 123. 

d\u>5<fw, ii. 10 + ii. 32. 

dXt£, vii. 31. 

dXios, v. 7. 

aXts, vi. 86. 

dXiaytw, i. 25. 

dXiaKo/xai, ii. 11. 

tiXio~p.a, vi. 86. 

dXire'w, v. 12. 

dXti/-, vi. 96. 

dXKap, vi. 109. 

dX/ce'a, ii. 46. 

dX*77, vi. 109. 

clXktj, v. 16. 

dX/a'/3ios, ii. 46 + ii. 37. 

dXKvuiv, v. 16 + v. 18. 

dXXa?, ii. 10 + vi. 34. 

dXXi£, ii. 47. 

dXXo5a7ros, i. 5 + vi. 60. 

&XXop.cu, v. 7. 

&XXos, i. 5. 

dXXo<pda<TW, i. 5 + ix. 1. 

dXodw, vii. 34. 

dXorj, vii. 31. 

dXo£, vii. 27. 

dXoxos, i. 32 + iii. IP. 

dX7rf6s, vi. 26. 

dXs, 6, v. 7. 

dXs, 77, v. 7. 

dXcros, vi. 87. 

dXrts, vi. 87. 

dXuKT], v. 12. 

dXvs, v. 12. 

dXi/crts, ii. 10. 

dXvaatj, v. 12. 

dXi)(TTarat, ii. 55. 

dXi'w, v. 12. 

dX<paivu, vi. 96. 

&X<pt.Tov, vii. 34 + vii. 41. 

dX0os, vi. 136. 

dXair/, ii. 10. 

dXc67r?;|, ii. 51 + ii. 35. 

dXw7roj, ii. 51. 

dXws, ii. 10 ; vii. 34. 

ap.a, i. 32. 

dp.aip.di<eTOS, viii. 2. 

d|UaXa7TTw, vii. 45. 

dfxaXdvvu, vii. 45. 



dfiaXXa, ii. 41. 
d/xaXoj, iii. 3. 
dp.dp.a^i's, i. 32-hii. 35. 
apdva, ii. 38. 
dua£a, i. 32 + ii. 35. 
dfxdpa, v. 8. 
dpdpaicos, viii. 20. 
dp.aprdi'w, v. 8. 
dp-apTTJ, i. 32 + i. 26. 
dp.apvo~au, vi. 121. 
dfxavpos, ii. 43. 
d,udw, i. 32. 
&ix(3r), vi. 78. 
&>/3i£, ii. 44. 
dfxpXiaKu, iii. 3. 
dp.f3X6ofj.ai, iii. 3. 
dfj.(3Xus, iii. 3. 
dfj,f3Xvw<jeti}, iii. 3 + vi. 

124. 
afxf3u)i>, vi. 78. 
dfj.d(3u}, v. 22. 
dfieivuv, vi. 35. 
d/iei'pw, iv. 16. 
dpieXyw, vii. 45. 
dp.evqvos, iv. 4 + viii. 1 . 
dp.epyw, vii. 45. 
d/xepdio, iv. 16. 
dp.evop.ai, v. 22. 
d,u??, v. 22 ; vii. 45. 
d,u??j, x. 5. 
d/xta, v. 22. 
ti/xida, x. 5. 
dp.Ldt.o5, x. 5. 
d/xiXXa, i. 32 + vii. 45. 
dp.is, v. 22. 
dp.p.05, vii. 45. 
dp.vap.os, ii. 39. 
dp.j>6s, iii. 5. 
dp.vlov, v. 22. 
dp.60ev, i. 5. 
&p.oXyos, ii. 41. 
dp.6pa, x. 6. 
dpopjibs, ii. 43. 
dp.6pyq, vii. 45. 
dp.opyos, vii. 45. 
dp-orov, viii. 2. 
&p.TreXo$, ii. 44. 
dp.ir^x ,jJ , ii- 44 + vi. 63. 
dp.TrXaKi<TKU), v. 10. 
dp.wpov, ii. 44. 
apLirvi;, ii. 44. 



284 



INDEX. 



dfivySaXtj, vi. 31 f- vi. 10. 
a/Auois, i. 32 + i. 1. 
d/j.v5p6s, ii. 39. 
dfitifa, x. 9. 
dfivXov, vii. 45. 
dp.vp.wv, iv. 4 + viii. 6. 
dfivpcj, ii. 39. 
d/xiKTaco, vii. 46. 
dfjL<pa<jia, iv. 4 + ix. 1. 
dfupi, ii. 44. 

dfKpiyvTieis, ii. 44 + ii. 5. 
apQitcrluv, ii. 44 + iii. 9. 
dp,<piK7Vuv, ii. 44 + iii. 9. 
d/j.<f>i\vicr], ii. 44 + vi. 123. 
dp(pou5is, i. 8 + vi. 71. 
dfj.(p(j}, i. 8. 
du.ufj.ov, x. 5. 
dp-, iv. 4. 
&?, i. 5. 
dra-, iv. 4. 
d^d, vi. 110. 

avaj3p6xw, vi. 110 + x. 10. 
dca-yaXXis, vi. 2. 
di'd-y/oj, vi. 98. 
dvdyvpis, viii. 18 + viii. 19. 
dvdtSvos, iv. 4 + ii. 33. 
dvaeXtrros, iv. 4+vi. 26. 
dva.ivop.ai, iv. 4. 
dvanropiov, vii. 20. 
d^aKcDs, vi. 52. 
dvaXros, iv. 4 + vi. 86. 
dfdpr^s, vi. 110. 
aval;, vi. 52. 

dpd7Ti'ei'<rTos, iv. 4 + viii. 5. 
dvdaiWos, vi. 110 + vii. 13. 
dySdea), x. 19. 
dvdrjpov, vi. 110 +vi. 13. 
df5pa\-ds, viii. 3 + iv. 7. 
dvdpdtrooov, viii. 3 + ii. 3-1. 
dvdpdxXi], iii. 13 ; vi. 132. 
dvopdxvy], iii. 13. 
dvetcds, vi. 1 1 + i. 1 . 
dvep.os, viii. 1. 
deep:uiXtqs, iii. 5 + iii. 3. 
dvepusvy, vi. 110 + vi. 35. 
dvev, iv. 4. 
tivevOe, iv. 4 +i. 1. 
dvexpibs, i. 10. 
tfeecu, iii. 5. 
dvr]-, iv. 4. 
dvqOov, viii. 18+viii. 16. 



dc?7\t7ros, iv. 4 + ii. 51. 
dvrjp, viii. 3. 
dvqpdxpavTO, vi. 110 + ii. 

53. 
dvOepewv, vi. 9. 
dvSos, vi. 58. 
di/0pa£, vi. 132 + vi. 122. 
dv6pr]8d}v, ix. 5 + ix. 4. 
avdpwiros, viii. 3 + vi. 118. 
dw'a, vii. 21. 
dets, iv. 4. 

di'J7riJ', vi. 110 + ii. 16. 
avra, vi. 110. 
dvTrjv, vi. 110. 
di/ri, vi. 110. 
dvTidu}, vi. 110. 
dvTiKpv, vi. 110 + vi. 4. 
dpTX«?a>, vi. 110 + vi. 12. 
dirXos, vi. 110 + vi. 12. 
dvrouai, vi. 110. 
dvrpov, ii. 6 + ii. 21. 
&vtvI-, ii. 6 + ii. 24. 
dvvw, vi. 110. 
d^w, vi. 110. 
dvwya, vi. 98. 
d^wi'crros, iv. 4 + vi. 52. 
a£lvq, vii. 9. 
d£ios, vi. 108. 
d&v, ii. 9. 
dofos, vi. 103. 
doWrjS, i. 32 + ii. 11. 
dop, vii. 27. 
doprr], viii. 12. 
doprrip, vi. 84. 
doprpa, viii. 12. 
doacfTjTrip, vi. 103. 
d7ra\6s, iii. 1. 
a7ra£, iv. 7 + ii. 33. 
dirapivrj, vii. 27. 
dTracpLcTKw, iv. 6 + v. 23. 
a7raj, i. 32 + ii. 33. 
dirdTT), iv. 6 + v. 23. 
direCK-f], iv. 6 + ix. 20. 
aireWai, ii. 15. 
dWXXw, iv. 6 + ii. 11. 
d7re\os, iv. 4 + ii. 15. 
d-Ki)vr\, ii. 30. 
diTT/y^s, iv. 6 + ii. 32. 

6.TVLOV, x. 21. 
&TTIOS, 77, x. 21. 
d7r\aKeu' v. 10. 



d7r\ero9, vi. 15. 
dw\6os, iv. 7 + ii. 14. 
d7ro, iv. 6. 

awoepcre, iv. 6 + iii. 2. 
diroiva, vii. 41. 
dwoKpivopai, iv. 6+iv. 9. 
d7roXaLW, iv. 6 + vi. 96. 
S7ros, iii. 22. 
dirocnra.papddt<i), iv. 6 + 

v. 3. 
aTTocpuiXios, iv. 6 + iii. 1. 
d7T7ra, vi. 38. 
d7T/Kf, i. 15. 
aTTTW, i. 8. 

dirvw, ix. 1. 
d7T0('/s, vi. 38. 
dp, vi. 83. 
dpd, ix. 19. 
dpa, vi. 83. 
dpa/3os, ix. 19. 
dpaoos, ix. 19. 
dpdfw, ix. 19. 
dpaws, iii. 34. 
dp&KT], ii. 49. 
dpciKos, ii. 49. 
dpao~ffU), vii. 30. 
dpacxds, iii. 2. 
dpax'^a, ii. 49. 
dpax^y], iii. 19. 
dp37]\os. i. 26 + vi. 18. 
dp/3v\r), i. 26 + vi. 18. 
dp-yaXe'os, vii. 30. 
dpyiXocpoi, iii. 19 + vii. 38. 
dpye/xiovrj, vi. 122 + vi. 35. 
dpYei'j'os, vi. 122. 
dpyrjs, vi. 122. 
&pyi\os, i. 23. 
dp7ip6as, vi. 122. 
d/ryoy, v. 16 ; vi. 122. 
dp7t'pos, vi. 122 + vi. 117. 
apSts, vii. 3'_'. 
dp5w, iii. 24. 
dpad, ix. 19. 
apelwv, vi. 83. 
dp(<jK(j>, i. 26. 

dpiaxVj i''- -• 
dpeT77, vi. 83. 
dprjyu, vi. 109. 
dpripevos, iii. 34. 
dpflpoi', i. 26. 
dpi, vi. 83. 



INDEX. 



285 



dpla, ii. 56. 

dpidp.6s, i. 27. 

apis, vii. 32. 

api<TKi>§r)s, vi. 83 + ii. 29. 

dpitjTfpds, iii. 34. 

a*pi<jTov, vi. 83 + x. 3. 

dpKavrj, ii. 48. 

dpneiov, vii. 30. 

dpKevdos, ii. 48 + ii. 32. 

apKiiw, vi. 109. 

dpKrjXos, vii. 30. 

dp/cos, vii. 30. 

dpKTiov, vii. 30. 

&Pktos, vii. 30. 

dpKvs, ii. 49. 

dp/xa, i. 26. 

dpp-aXia, i. 26. 

dpfxos, i. 26. 

dpvaKis, iii. 20 + ii. 6. 

dpveop.ai, IV. 4. 

dp^i's, iii. 20. 

dpvbs, iii. 20. 

apvupai, ii. 57. 

apoi', ii. 56. 

dpos, v. 6. 

dpos, vi. 83. 

dpovpa, vii. 37. 

dp6w, vii. 37. 

dpTrdi'w, ii. 53. 

dp7re5?Js, i. 26 + vi. 40. 

dpTredovrj, ii. 22 + ii. 33. 

dpirei'os, vii. 37. 

iipm), ii. 53 ; vii. 37. 

dp-vis, ii. 53 + ii. 33. 

dpparos, iv. 4 + iii. 34. 

dp'privqs, ix. 19. 

dppixdop:ai, ii. 48. 

dppixos, ii. 48. 

dp'pwoew, vii. 1. 

dpcreei^i^vi. 129 + vi. 132. 

dpcrqv, iii. 2. 

dprafxos, i. 26 + iv. 2. 

dprdw, i. 27. 

dprefx-qs, i. 27. 

dprip.u>v, i. 27. 

dpTrjpia, viii. 12. 

dpri, i. 26. 

dprifw, i. 27. 

dprios, i. 27. 

dpros, vii. 30. 

dprvw, i. 27. 



dpvfiaXXos, vi. 85 + vi. 15. 
apvu, vi. 85. 
dpx6j, ii. 16 + i. 1. 
apxu, vi. 89. 
dpw, i. 26. 
&poj/j.a, viii. 19. 
ds, vi. 36. 
dadpivdos, vii. 18. 
dafioXos, vii. 15. 
d<re\777S, v. 7. 
dtr??, iii. 11. 
S.a8p.a, viii. 17. 
daiXXa, vi. 82. 
dcrlpanos, vii. 14. 
do-tj, i. 24. 
daKaipw, v. 2. 
d<XKdAa/3oj, ii. 28 + ii. 50. 
d<TKa\a(3wT7]s, ii. 28 + ii. 

50 + v. 23. 
dcncdXwiJ/, vii. 7. 
dcTKavrris, iv. 8. 
dcr/capi's, v. 2. 
dffKipa, ii. 29. 
dffK^oj, vii. 8. 
d<TK7)dr}s, iv. 4 + vii. 7. 
daubs, ii. 29. 
dcrKpa, vii. 7. 
duKvpov, vii. 7. 
dap-evos, x. 19. 
dcr7rdfo,ucu, vi. 79. 
daTralpw, v. 3. 
dcr7rd\a.0os, vii. 17 + viii. 

16. 
d<x7rdXa£, vii. 17. 
dcr7raXtei'S, v. 3. 
dcrwaXos, v. 3. 
dff7rdpa705, vi. 68. 
d<r7ris, ii. 25 ; vii. 17. 
dffwpis, vi. 68. 
dffirpos, vi. 68. 
dffijov, i. 10. 
dora/cos, i. 29. 
daTcupis, vi. 71. 
dc7T?7i/, daTTji'os, vii. 22. 
da-TTjp, vi. 128. 
dorXi7f, ii. 22 + ii. 3?. 
darpdyaXos, i'. 22 + ii. 1. 
darpairr], vi. 128. 
darpis, ii. 22. 
darn, iii. 27. 
dorp^s, i. 24. 



dcrviprjXos, viii. 7. 
dcrfiaXros, i. 15. 
dcr^dpa-yos, x. 10. 
datpudeXos, vi. 68+vi. 10. 
dtrxdXXw, vii. 8. 
dax^^pos, vii. 7 + vii. 39. 
dcrxtof, vi. 73. 
drat, iii. 11. 

drdXayros, i. 32 + vi. 12. 
drdXXw, iii. 12. 
draXos, iii. 12. 
drdp, iv. 18. 
drapp-VKTOs, iv. 4 + v. 11 

+ i. 28. 
draprripos, v. 11. 
drdcr^aXos, v. 11 + v. 7. 
dTe/j.[3u, v. 33. 
drep, iv. 18. 
dr^a;, v. 23. 
dr 77, v. 23. 
drtraXXw, iii. 12. 
dr/xv;, viii. 16. 
drp-riv, vi. 76. 
Stos, iii. 11. 
drpaKTOs, vi. 9. 
drpcnros, vii. 11. 
drpdcpa^is, ii. 20 + ii. 34. 
drptK-qs, iv. 4 + ii. 20. 
drpi'-yeTos, iv. 4 + vii. 39. 
arra, vi. 58. 
drTctYas, vii. 24. 
drTa/c^s, vii. 24. 
drravov, vii. 24. 
drrdpaYos, vii. 30 + iii. 13. 
drraTcu, xi. 7. 
drT^Xapos, x. 1 6. 
drrriyos, vii. 24. 
dr[''i"o//at, v. 23. 
a5, ii. 16. 
ai)aXe'os, vii. 8. 
ai'>7?7, vi. 120. 
at)5?7, ix. 2. 

atieXXa, viii. 12 + ii. 10. 
avdivT-qs, viii. 5 + i. 3 + ii. 

6. 
avOis, ii. 16. 
cu'Xa£, vii. 27. 
cu'Xaxa, vii. 27. 
at''X??, ii. 11. 
ailXijpa, ii. 10. 
cu-Xi?, ii. 11. 



286 



INDEX. 



avXos, ii. 10. 

avXwv, ii. 10. 

avXunris, ii. 10 + vi. 118. 

avXuiros, ii. 10 + vi. 118. 

aul-ls, vi. 50. 

atf£w, vi. 50. 

ados, vii. 8. 

aPpa, viii. 12. 

(dir)avpdw, ii. 13. 

adpi, v. 9. 

avpiov, vi. 116. 

avpoffxds, iii. 2. 

aSs, ix. 27. 

cuVtos, v. 17. 

avffTTjpos, vii. 8. 

avrdp, iv. 18. 

ai're, ii. 16. 

avTLKa, viii. 5 + i. 3 + vi. 8. 

af'Tis, ii. 16. 

avTfxr), viii. 12 + viii. 16. 

avTop-aros, viii. 5 + i. 3 + 

viii. 2. 
at>Tos, viii. 5+i. 3. 
avToxocovos, viii. 5 + i. 3 + 

v. 1. 
avxv, xi. 3. 
avxyv, i'. 34. 
cu'xm^S) v ii- 8. 
duto, ix. 2. 
ovw, ai!w, vi. lit). 
aiico, ix. 2. 
auws, vi. 116. 
dqiaKij, ii. 35. 
drpap, v. 9. 
d(pdpKTj, vii. 28. 
d0aupos, iii. 2. 
dtptX-qs, vii. 28. 
dcpevos, vi. 42. 
d0?7, i. 8. 
d00a, i. 8. 
drpXaarof, ii. 15. 
d<pXoiap.6s, vi. 15. 
d<pva.6s, vi. 42. 
a<pvw, v. 23. 
dcpopdiov, iv. 6 + iii. 2. 
dcppbs, vi. 14. 
a(f>vo-yeTOs, v. 20. 
drfwffcrti), v. 20. 
d0uco, vi. 115. 
dxat»"7, v. 1. 
dxdv77, ii. 6. 



dxapi'ws, ii. 4. 
dxdnjs, vi. 133. 
dxepoo?, vii. 3. 
dxv", iv. 11. 
&X^°) J - aL ! vi. 63. 
dx^os, vi. 63. 
dx'XXeros, vii. 4. 
dxMs, i. 23. 
ax*'??, iii- 21. 
dxos, xi. 2. 
dxpds, vii. 3. 
fix/", vi. 8. 
dxi'pof, ii. 4. 
dx^ip, ii. 4. 
a>, ii. 16. 
dxpivdos, vii. 41. 
di/-ij, ii. 16. 
d\pop"pos, ii. 16. 
ai/'os, i. 8. 

dw, iii. 11 ; viii. 12. 
dwv, v. 25 + v. 18. 
dwpos, iii. 2. 
dwpro, vi. 84. 
dtis, vi. 116. 
dwre'w, iii. 27. 
dWos, iii. 27. 
/3a/3cu, xi. 6. 
/3a/3dfu>, vi. 40. 
/3d/3a/cos, ix. 1. 
ftafipd'iw, ix. 15. 
/3d/3pi/ces, ii. 16. 
/3a/3i'/ids, ix. 1. 
(3dSas, iii. 26. 
/3a5ifw, vi. 40. 
j3dSop.aL, iii. 26. 
fSddos, vi. 40. 
f3a5us, x. 19. 
/?dfa>, ix. 2. 
fiddpov, vi. 40. 
/3a0i'/s, vi. 40. 
/3aivw, vi. 40. 
/3a«k, iii. 29. 
(3aira, ii. 33. 
ftaLrvXos, vi. 113. 
jiaiTv^, x. 9. 
(3aKeXos, iii. 28. 
(3dKTpov, vi. 40. 
(SaXaveiov, vii. 28. 
[3dXai>os, vi. 15. 
fjaXdvrwv, ii. 15. 
jiaXavcTLOv, ii. 1 5. 



/3aX/3is, ii. 15. 
£dXe, vi. 20. 
fiaX-qv, vi. 21. 
paXios, i. 15 ; v. 10. 
paXXlfa, v. 10. 
(3aXXipos, v. 10. 
/3dXXis, viii. 10. 
jMXXoj, ii. 15 ; vi. 19. 
fiaXXwrr), viii. 10 + vi. S7. 
j3dXaap.ov, ix. 23. 
fidXr-q, iii. 1. 
j3ap.j3a.iuw, ix. 23. 
{3dp.fiaK.os, i. 15. 
/Sai'd, vi. 66. 
(3dvavaos, vii. 26. 

(3dTTTU}, vi. 40. 

/3dpaYX 0S > i x - 1*>. 
fidpadpov, x. 10. 
/3dpa£, x. 2. 
(3dp(3apos, ix. 13. 
j3ap(3dpa, i. 15. 
fidpfiiXos, x. 2. 
/3dp/3troj, ix. 15 + ix. 1. 
[3dpr]Kes, ii. 16. 
pdpixoi, iii. 2. 
j3apvs, vi. 17. 
j3do-avos, vii. 41. 
fiacriXevs, vi. 40 + vi. 87. 
j3dais, vi. 40. 
fiao-Kalvo), ix. 2. 
f3aaK.ds, ix. 1. 
fidcrcrapa, v. 20 + v. 6. 
(3ao-rdfa, vi. 40. 
fSdraXos, iii. 26. 
pareoj, vi. 40. 
{3aTiaKT), ii. 33. 
/Jan's, vii. 41. 
f3dros, 6, vii. 41. 
(3dros, i), vii. 41. 
fidrpaxos, ix. 15. 
f3arTapi£a), ix. 1. 
(3aTToXoyew, ix. 1. 
/3ai»/3dw, iii. 27. 
ftavfa, ix. 1. 
(3avKaXdw, iii. 27 + iii. 6. 
f3avi<dXiov, ii. 35. 
(SavKis, ii. 35. 
j3ai>K6s, iii. 28. 
/3awos, vi. 1'20. 
(3odXXu), x. 9. 
/35AXa, x. 9. 



INDEX. 



287 



/ioeXi'TTw, viii. 9. 
P54w, viii. 9. 
pooXos, viii. 9. 
pSuXXu, v. 19 ; viii. !'. 
(dXt)p8vw, vi. 40. 
/3<?j3cuoy, vi. 10. 
peprjXos, vi. 18. 
Peppis, ix. 15. 
/3f/3pos, iii. 2. 
/3f5i', v. 1 7. 
fid/fas, iv. 5. 
pelican, i. 6+iv. 7. 
peip&Kr), ii. 13 + ii. 9. 
/3et>a$, ii. 13+ii. 9. 
peipjv, iii. 2. 
ptK&s, iv. 5. 
pe\eica, ii. 15. 
jSeXXw, vi. 23. 
peXovrj, vii. 27. 
jSe'Xoy, vi. 19. 
Pe\Tiwi>, vi. 26. 
/3<fc/3i£, ii. 44 ; ix. 23. 
Pep-Ppas, v. 23 + v. 9. 
jSe^os, vi. 40. 
piofiat, vi. 103. 
Peppepi, vi. 117. 
Peppepifa, ix. 13. 
pepP^piov, ii. 17. 
Pepexuvdai, ii. 16 + ii. 6. 
pepe<rxe8os, iii. 2 + iii. 10. 
/3epp77j, v. 9. 
/3<fO0os, ii. 33. 

05, ix. 1. 

jSTjfw, ix. 2. 
/3?;/o?, ix. 1. 
p7)\6s, vi. 18. 
/3>;Xd, vi. 18. 
pripvWos, v. 9 + vii. 38. 
prjtrcra, vi. 40. 
pr)cr<rw, viii. 12. 
/ita, vi. 25. 
/3t/3Xos, ii. 15. 

piPpiiHTKUJ, X. 2. 

pidiaioi, vi. 1 19. 
piKiov, ii. 34. 
piXXos, vi. 15. 
pLvioi, vi. 52. 
/3ioy, ii. 37. 
jSioy, vi. 103. 
pirraKOS, ix. 3. 
pXadapos, iii. 1. 



/3Xdj'w, iii. 1. 
p\aia6s, ii. 14. 
/3Ad£, iii. 1. 
pXdirrw, v. 10. 
pXaarus, vi. 1 5. 
p\ac(p7]p.loi, v. 10 -hi. 9 

+ ix. 1. 
p\arr6w, ix. 13. 
pXavTij, ii. 15. 
pXe/xeaivu, vi. 117. 
pXe'wa, i. 15. 
pXevvbs. i. 15. 
/3X<?7T«, vi. 117. 
pXtcpapov, vi. 117 + ii- 17. 
pXitpvpa, ii. 14 + ii. 16. 
/3X%,, x. 2. 
pXrjTov, vii. 27. 
pXrirpov, vii. 27. 
/3Xi7xi ix. 13. 
pXijxvov, ii. 14. 
pXrixp6s, iii. 1. 
pXrJxpos, ii. 14. 
pXrixw, ii. 14. 
pX'iKavos, i. 15. 
pXipdfa, i. 15. 
pXicrau, iv. 13. 
p\lras, iii. 1. 
p\iTop.d/j,pLas, iii.l + viii. 6. 
pXlrov, ii. 14. 
pXlrvpi, ix. 15. 
pXixavd>8ris, i. 15. 
pXixw5r]s, i. 15. 
/3\ocrii/}6y, vii. 28. 
pXuu, vi. 15. 
p\w8pos, vi. 15. 
pXw/j.6s, x. 2. 
pXwaKw, vi. 19. 
/3Ja£, ix. 1. 
#077, vi. 39 ; ix. 1. 
/3o?70jy, vi. 39. 
/3,i0poy, vi. 40. 
/3oj, xi. 6. 
/36X/3a, ii. 15. 
poXpiris, viii. 10. 
|3oX/3(fc, vi. 15. 
PoXioif, viii. 10. 
/3o\tf7?, v. 10. 
PoXivdos, v. 10. 
P&Xitos, vi i. 10. 
■poXos, vii. 27. 
Pop.pdt, ix. 23. 



/3o>/3oy, ix. 23. 
pd/ipvXos, ix. 23. 
|86u£i/£, ii. 44 ; ix. 23. 
povaaos, ix. 1 + v. 29. 
povdvXtvui, vi. 34. 
/3opd, x. 2. 
pSpaoaos, ii. 1 7. 
P' paroi', ii. 1 7. 
pbppop y, i. 15. 
poppopufa, ix. 13. 
popeas, vi. 23. 
popp.a£, vii. 27 + vii. 46. 
/3op(?oy, vi. 24. 
popa6s, vi. 24. 
Pocrnds, ix. 1. 
poaKw, vi. 39. 
poo-nopos, v. 20 + vi. 20. 
pocrrpvxos, ii. 32. 
pbrpvs, ii. 32. 
/3ou-, vi. 48. 
/3oua, vi. 31. 

povpdXiov, vi. 48 + vi. 1 5 
povpaXis, vi. 48 + v. 10. 
PovpaXos, vi. 48 + v. 10. 
Povpwv, vi. 48. 
PovkoXos, ix. 1 + v. 4. 

pOUKOS, ix. 1. 

povXoftai, vi. "?6. 
/Soueidy, vi. 48. 
povviov, vi. 48. 
/3owoy, vi. 48. 
/3o0y, ix. 1. 
PovraXis, ix. 1 . 
povris, ii. 33. 

pOVTOfXOS, v. 17. 

ppapevs, vi. 117. 
ppdpi'Xos, x. 2. 
Ppdyx°s> i x - 15. 
ppayxbs, ix. 15. 
ppadvs, iii. 2 + iii. 11. 
ppdfa, vi. 14; ix. 15. 
ppadv, vi. 17. 
ppdKai, ii. 17. 
ppdxaXov, vi. 14. 
PpaKava, vi. 1 4. 
PpiKos, vii. 28. 
ppd^is, ix. 13. 
ppdffcru, vi. 14. 
ppax'iuv, ii. 16. 
/3pax^y, iii. 2. 
ppdxu, ix. 15. 



288 



INDEX. 



fipeypa, iii. 2. 
fipipu, ix. 15. 
(Spfrdos, vi. 17. 
fiplras, ii. 17- 
/3pe'0os, vi. 16. 
(ipex/J-bs, iii. 2. 
]3pfxw, iii". 2. 
/9/h, vi. 21. 
(ipidu), vi. 21. 
ppiyKos, ii. 16. 
/3pifa, vi. 23. 
fipifa. vi. 17. 
fipidw, vi. 17. 
(BpLxeXos, vii. 29. 
(ipip.7), ix. 15. 
/3/H/n?, vi. 21. 
(Spiffxos, ii- 16. 
(ipiros, vi. 27. 
/3/kti>, x. 20. 
fipoayxos, ix. 1 5. 
fipbyxos, ix. 15. 
(Ipbp-os, ix. 15 ; x. 2. 
fipovTr), ix. 15. 
j3p6ros, vii. 45. 
(Uporos, iii. 4. 

fipOUKOS, x. 10. 

3poi>fc, x. 10. 
fipous, X. 10. 
Ppbxffos, x. 10. 
(3pbx°s, ii- 16. 
/3pi/a, v. 9. 
fipvafa, vi. 14. 

(3pVCL\iKT7}S, V. 9. 
(HpUKW, X. 10. 

jSpiS£, x. 10. 

f3>vbeis, vi. 14. 
/3pi!w, vi. 14. 
(Bpi'ffffoi, vii. 28. 
Ppvrea, vii. 45. 
ftpuTOv, vi. 3-f. 

fipVTTtil, x. 10. 

/■fy>i>X<xoMa', ix. 15. 
/3pt<w, vi. 14. 
Ppvwit, ii. 16. 
fipup-aop-ai, ix. 15. 
fipupm, viii. 10. 
/Si'os, ix. 1. 
pi'fiXos, ii. 15. 
/?f>fir, ix. 1. 
/3t/j'w, ix. 1. 
j3i/0Js, vi. 40. 



j3vko.vij, viii. 12. 
fivKT-rfs, viii. 12. 
jSi'ct;, vi. 38. 
{Svpp.a.%, vii. 27 + vii. 46. 
jjupoa, ii. 17. 
[Svcrcra, ix. 1. 
fivaabs, vi. 40. 
fivara^, x. 1. 
jSiyw, vi. 40. 
(3d)KKa\is, ix. 1. 
fiwXlrrjs, vi. 15. 
/3u>Xos, vi. 15, 
(3up.6s, vi. 40. 
fiwpevs, v. 9. 
/3cDpot, ii. 13. 
-yd, i. 5. 

7a,Y7a\i£to, vii. 2. 
yayydpt), ii. 6. 
■yd'VYXioj', vi. 2. 
YixYYpaiJ'a, vii. 1. 
YaSeci, vi. 107. 
7<x5oj, vii. 11. 
Ycxfa, ii. 6. 
7aia, vi. 67. 

7<iiw, xi. 3. 

7a\a, x. 1 1. 

yaKadrjvbs, x. 11 +x. 8. 

7aXa/ces, i. 23. 

yaXawvr], i. 7 + 1. 8. 

ya\tr), vii. 4. 

yaXebs, vii. 4. 

yakepbs, VI. 6. 

yaXewrrjs, vii. 4 + v. 23. 

ya\j)vyj, iii. 6 ; vi. 129. 

7aXiaYKWf, ii. 1 + ii. 9. 

7aXioi', vii. 4. 

7a\\i£, ii. 1. 

7a\Xos, vi. 24. 

7aXows, i. 7 + i. 8. 

yapfipbs, i. 7. 

7djiios, i. 7. 

yap.<pal, x. 2. 

yap<p7]Xai, x. 2. 

yap\pbs, ii. 7. 

7a^a, vi. 66. 

7ai'0j, vi. 134. 

yavvpai, vi. 134. 

7ap, i. 5. 

yapyaXLfa, vii. 2. 

7apYapa, vi. 1. 

yapyaptuv, vi. 1. 



yapyapifa, ix. 6. 
yapu'os, x. 18. 
yaplaKos, x. 1 8. 
yapov, x. 18. 
yapvpiao}, vi. 1. 
yatTTTjp, ii. 6. 
7a0\os, ii. 1. 
7CU>Xuj, ii. 1. 
7<z0pos, xi. 3. 
7au<rd7T7)s, vii. 15. 
7ai'<ros, ii. 5. 
(dXt')75oi)7ros, ix. 18. 
7*. i. 5. 
yiyaa, vi. 66. 
7^7etos, vi. 66. 
yiyuiva, ix. 8. 
7e?croi' ) ii. P. 
yeiiwv, vi. 67. 
yeubpas, vi. 67 + iii. 2. 
7eXdco, ix. 7. 
7A777, i. 23. 
7eX7i's, vi. 2. 
yeWi^ai, ii. 1. 
yiXovrpov, ii. 2. 

yipw, vi. 70. 

7ei'6a, vi. 66. 

yevrjh, vii. 5. 

ytvra., ii. 6. 

yevrep, ii. 6. 

yivTo, ii. 6. 

yivvs, vii. 5. 

yepaibs, iii. 7. 

yep&vdpvoi', iii. 7 + vi. 11. 

yepavos, ix. 6. 

yepapbs, vi. 1. 

yspas, vi. 1. 

ytpyvpa. ii. 3. 

7ep5io?, ii. 3. 

yip"pov, ii. 3 ; vi. 4. 

yepvvos, ii. 3. 

yipwv, iii. 7. 

yepuila, iii. 7. 

7et;to, x. 18. 

yecpvpa, ii. 5 + ii. 16. 

77), vi. 67. 

y-qdew, xi. 3. 

yi)0vou, vi. 67 + vi. 53. 

yrj'LTrjs, vi. 67. 

yrjpapa, iii. 7. 

7%>aj, iii. 7. 

yqpeioi', iii. 7. 



INDEX. 



289 



y-qpiw, ix. G. 
yrjTfiov, VI. 07 + VI. :>'j. 
-yi, i. [>. 
ylyaprov, vii. 1. 
717a?, vi. 66. 
71771s, vi. 66. 
yiyy\apos, ix. S + ix. 7. 
7177X1(7/1165, vii. 2. 
yiyyXvp,os, ii. 1. 
7i'77pas, ix. S + ix. 6. 
yiyvoixcu, vi. 66. 
yiyvibaKU, viii. 4. 
yi\\LKa, ii. 2. 
yivvos, ix. S. 
ylayov, i. 8 + iv. 6. 
7X1X70S, x. 1 1. 
7Xdj"w, ix. 7. 
yXdp.i), i. 23. 
yXd/xv&s, i. 23 + vi. 124. 
7\dcty, vii. 2. 
7\dvos, vii. 2. 
7X01/65, iii. 6. 
7Xdf, x. 11. 
yXapis, vii. 4. 
7Acu>k6s, vi. 129. 
7XaiVos, ii. 2. 
7Xatf£, vi. 129. 
7Xai>p6s, vi. 129. 
yXavaov, vi. 129. 
7Xai/C(jw, vi. 129. 
yXdcpv, vii. 4. 
yXd<pw, vii. 4. 
7X«Vos, i. 23. 
yXevKos, x. 1 7. 
yXtf/xtpois, ii. 17. 
yXrjpLT], i. 23. 
yXrjvr/, i- 23. 
yXrjvri, ii. 1. 
7X771/77, vi. 129. 
7^1'os, vi. 129. 
7X771/^7-0, iii. 6. 
yXrix&v, ii. 1. 
7X10, i. 23. 
7X0/77, i. 23. 
7XiVxpoj, i. 23. 
yXLrrov, i. 23. 
7Xt'xouat, vi. 7. 
7X010, i. 23. 
7X010 j~w, vi. 129. 
yXoirjs, v. 4. 
7X010S, v. 4. 



^X our 6s, vi. 2. 
y\vKvpL<xpis, x. 17 + i. 20. 
7Xi>kus, x. 17. 
yXufiio, vii. 4. 
yXwaaa, x. 17. 
-)XtDxes, vii. 4. 

7Xa>x"'> v >>- '• 
7i/d0os, vii. 5. 
yvapuTTW, ii. 6. 
7(/o7rTW, vii. 5. 
yva<pdXi.ov, vii. 5. 
7^?;o"ios, vi. 66. 
yvirpwi', vii. 5. 
yvo<pos, ii. 26. 
7vt';(?os, ii. 6. 
7odw, ix. 10. 
yjyypos, vi. 1 ; vii. 1. 
70771/fu, ix. 8. 
70771'Aos, ii. 1. 
7677s, ix. 10. 
yop.<plo%, x. 2. 
y6u(pos, i. 7. 
761/1/, ii. 6. 
yopyds, vii. 1. 
yopyvpa, ii. 3. 
7op5eX/fw, v. 5. 
70uc6s, vi. 66. 
7o0pos, vii. 1. 
7pa/36i's, vii. 1. 
ypdfiiov, vii. 1. 
ypalvw, vii. 1. 
ypawis, ii. 4 + ii. 33. 
7pdVo$, viii. 19. 
ypd(TTLi, vi. 1. 
7pa0s, ii. 4 ; iii. 7. 
ypd<pw, vii. 3. 
7pdw, vii. 1 . 
yplvTis, ii. 4. 
7pt7ros, ii. 3. 
ypupdadai, vii. 3. 
yp?<pos, ii. 3. 
7po / u<£ds, vi. 3. 
ypovdos, ii. 3. 
ypvdwv, ii. 3. 
7p6cr0os, vii. 3 
ypovvos, vii. 1. 
7pi'>, vii. 1. 
7pt/j"a>, ix. 6. 
7pOXos, ix. 6. 
ypvp-ala, ii. 4. 
7piu'6s, vii. 1. 



I -v 



pl'TTuS, II. -J. 

ypvaou)' 1 , ix. 6. 
ypiiTT}, \ ii. 1 . 
ypv\p, ii. 3. 
yplvos, ii. 3. 
71'a, ii. 5. 
71/010, vi. 67. 
7^0X01/, ii. 5. 
7^777$, ix. 10. 
71177s, ii. 5. 
71/101/, ii. 5. 
7iuos, ii. 5. 
7i/Xi6s, x. 13. 
7i'/j.f6s, iv. 4. 
7111/77, vi. 66. 
71/77-77, ii. 7. 
yvpya6os, ii. 3 + ii. 6. 
yvpii'os, ii. 3. 
yvpis, vii. 1. 
71/pos, ii. 3. 
71/1^, ii. 7. 
yv\jsus, vi. 130. 
7wXe6s, ii. 1. 
ywv'ia, ii. 6. 
7wpuTos, ii. 3. 
5a-, vi. 102. 
OC17US, i. 21. 
oaTJvai, vi. 126. 
oa77p, iii. 15. 

5cu, i. 5. 
5ai6"aXos, i. 14. 

Sai'fw, iv. 1. 

oaipiwv, iv. 1. 

oaivvp.1, iv. 1. 

6"dibs, vii. 43. 

Saipw, vii. 39. 

5ats, iv. 1. 

Safe, vi. 127 ; vii. 43. 

5at<ppwv, vi. 127 + vi. 22. 

oaioj, iv. 1. 

Saicj, vi. 127. 

5&ki"j}, x. 3. 

daKpv, vi. l-:6 + v. 6. 

ookti'Xos, i. 21. 

8ap.dfa, vi. 76. 

od/ixaXis, v. 33. 

od/xaXos, v. 33. 

5d/nap, i. 34 + i. 26. 

Sap-api-ir-ireus, i. 34 + ii. 52. 

dapiaawvLov, i. 34 + vi. 80. 

dap.vr]pu, vi. 76. 

T 



290 



INDEX. 



bdvos, iv. 1. 

davoTrjS, vii. 43. 

Sdos, vi. 127. 

SawavT], vii. 42. 

SdireSov, vi. 60 + vi. 40. 

SaVis, vi. 60. 

5a7TTW, vii. 42. 

SdpciTOS, vii. 13. 

dapM-n-TCj), vii. 39 + vii. 42. 

Sapddvu, iii. 13. 

BdffKios, vii. 13. 

5d<r/aXXos, vii. 13. 

8aap.6s, iv. 1. 

8ao-ir\rJTi.$, vi. 1 02 + vi. 22. 

Satri's, vii. 13. 

oarrip, iv. ]. 

ScxDkos, vii. 24. 

Sai'Xos, i. 34. 

6ai'X>"7, ii. 28. 

davoj, iii. 1 1. 

8d<pvq, ii. 28. 

8a\pi\r)S, vii. 42. 

-5e, i. 1. 

-de, i. 5. 

5?, i. 5. 

Sea, vi. 58. 

Sea.ro, vi. 127. 

Seoia, iii. 11. 

Seoiaaoixai, iii. 1 1. 

StSoaca, iii. 11. 

5<?eXos, vi. 127. 

Set, iv. 1 

Sa'Sta, iii. 11. 

SetSlaKOfiai, vi. 126. 

Seidiacro/xai, iii. 11. 

oeiooiKa, iii. 11. 

oeioui, iii. 11. 

SdeXos, iii. 11 + vi. 131. 

8eiKa.vdop.ai, vi. 126. 

HeiKvvfii, vi. 126. 

oetX??, iii. 11 + vi. 131. 

StiXos, iii. 11. 

SetVa, i. f>. 

oeiVoj, ii. 58. 

Seivus, iii. 11. 

Seibs, iii. 11. 

8tlwvov, vii. 42. 

oe/pTj, vi. 13. 

oeipco, vii. 39. 

octs, i. 5. 

oetcra, iii. 15. 



oe\-a, iv. 7. 

SeKeTTjpis, iv. 7 + vi. 34 + 

vi. 27. 
Se'Xeap, x. 16. 
SeXXis, vii. 40 + vii. 25. 
SAos, x. 1 6. 
5A0a£, vi. 10. 
SeXcpt's, vi. 10. 
Se\<pus, vi. 10. 
Se'p-a, vi. 54. 
o^as, i. 34. 
otp.vt.ov, i. 34. 
Se'p-w, i. 34, 

8ev8i\\w, vi. 12o + v. 7. 
8ev8pov, vi. 11. 
SeV^os, viii. 9. 
5e^'o?, vi. 53. 
Seb/xat, iv. 1. 
Saras, x. 9. 
depKW, vi. 126. 
Stpp-a, vii. 39. 
oepp.T]o-Tr)s, vii. 39 + x. 3. 
8epix<uKbo), vii. 39 + vii. 

45. 
Sepos, vii. 39. 
oeppy], Seprj, vi. 13. 

Seppis, vii. 39. 

Se'pw, vii. 39. 

8eap.6s, vi. 54. 

Se'criroiva, vi. 54 + vi. 41. 

deo-TroTt]?, vi. 54 + vi. 41. 

SeO/cos, x. 17. 

5et/o,ucu, iv. 1. 

5ei»pt i. 5. 

SeDpo, i. 5. 

SeOre, i. 5. 

Sei'w, iii. 15 ; iv. 1. 

6e'0w, vii. 42. 

5e'xo/xtu, i. 21. 

oe'i/'co vii. 42. 

Sew, iv. 1 ; vi. 54. 

oij, vi. 58. 

drj, i. 5. 

5?}0a, vi. 57. 

Srjdev, i. 5. 

St/iow, vii. 43. 

SrjXe'op.ai., vii. 40. 

o?;Xo/xcu, vi. 13. 

SrJXos, vi. 127. 

Ar}p.rjrijp, vi. 58 + vi. 31. 

S^uos, vi. 58. 



5r]p.6s, vi. 60. 

St^, vi. 57. 

OTjpea, vi. 126. 

5#f, x. 3. 

S^pts, vii. 39. 

Srjp6s, vi. 57. 

5?}Ta, i. 5. 

Stjw, vi. 126. 

5i-, i. 6. 

Sid, iv. 1. 

Sidfo/xat, iv. 1. 

SiaiVw, iii. 15. 

Slaira, iv. 1 +ix. 10 ; vi 

102. 
SiaKOvos, v. 26 + v. 1. 
SiaKTwp, v. 26. + v. 1. 
St'aXos, vi. 127. 
Siairpijcnos, iv. 1 + vi. 20. 
Starros, iv. 1. 
SiSdtTKW, vi. 126. 
StSpdaKio, v. 11. 
SiSvp-os, i. 6 + i. 34. 
8i8uipu, iv. 1. 
Suipw, iv. 1 + vi. 85. 

Siepos, v. 24. 

8Lfapai, vi. 61. 

5£fw, i. 6. 

8i9upaupos, v. 24 + iii. 13. 

Sabs, vi. 127. 

OLKaairo\os, vi. 126 + ii. 
14. 

8iKe1v, v. 24. 

SiVeXXa, i. 6 + vii. 4. 

8iKri, vi. 126. 

St'/cpaios, i. 6 + vi. 4. 

SlKpavos, i. 6 + vi. 4. 

8 Ik poos, i. 6 + vi. 4. 

8'iKTap.vov, ii. 28 + i. 34. 

Slktvov, ii. 2S + ii. 22. 

oivT], ii. 58. 

Si£as, i. 6 + iv. 6. 

5i£6s, i. 6. 

Slop.ai, iii. 11. 

Sibs, vi. 127. 

dioo-Ke'u, iv. 1 + vi. 121. 

8t-, i. 6. 

Sis, i. 6 + i. 9. 

-Sis, i. 1. 

Sicr/cos, v. 24. 

Siffcrds, i. 6. 

8io-t&£(jo, i. 6. 



INDEX. 



291 



OKpdffios, i. C I- ii. 16. 

0((/)do), ii. 24. 

dupdepi, vii. 42 + vii. 39. 

8i<povpa, i. 6 + ii. 16. 

o'uppos, vi. 60. 

ct'x<x, i. 6 + iv. 11. 

mx0a, i. 6 + iv. 11. 

8i\J/a, x. 9. 

oL\J/a.Kos, vii. 42. 

8t\pds, vii. 42. 

5/w, iii. 11. 

SiuKw, v. 26 + v. 1. 

cUwXirytos, iv. 1 + ix. 20. 

o/xuij, vi. 76. 

SvowaXlfa, v. 26 + v. 10. 

8v6<pos, ii. 26. 

Soap, vi. 57. 

SodcrcraTO, vi. 127. 

codify, vi. 58. 

-Sot, i. 2. 

5o?5i>£, vii. 24. 

8oirj, i. 6. 

ooi.6s, i. 6. 

oo/ceww, vi. 126. 

6Ww, vi. 126. 

Sokos, vi. 72 ; vi. 126. 

ooXlxos, vi. 13. 

ooXtx^^'oSj vi. 13 + vii. 7. 

56Xos, ii. 19. 

86X0$, ii. 19 + i- 30. 

ooXwv, vii. 40. 

86/j.os, i. 34. 

-Sop, i. 2. 

ooKaf, v. 26. 

Sovew, v. 26. 

<5o£a, vi. 126. 

SopiXXos, iii. 13. 

oopt's, vii. 39. 

OcjpiJ, V. 11. 

86pirov, iii. 13. 
56pu, vi. 11. 
SopuaXos, iii. 13. 
OopvKVLOv, vi. 11 + vii. 5. 
oof'Xoj, vi. 1 2. 
5o07ro?, ix. 18. 
b~ovpi]veK7]S, vi. 9 + vi. 37. 
ooxp-te, ii- 28. 
8pd[3i>), iii. 13. 
Sp&Kuv, ii. 20. 
Spafiov/iiai. v. 11. 
SpairerT]S, v. 11. 



Spclffcrw, ii. 21. 
Sparus, vii. 39. 

Spo-XV-y, "• 21. 

opdw, vi. 11, 126. 

op(Tru), vii. 39. 

opL\a$, vii. 39. 

8plXos, vii. 39. 

opifivs, vii. 39. 

opfos, vi. lh 

Opoirr), iii. 13, 

npjyuos, v. 11. 

opoo-aXXis, iii. 13 + ii. 10. 

opacros, iii. 13. 

5pw>i/', vi. 11 + i. 30. 

dpVTris, vii. 39. 

5p(y7T7ra, iii. 13. 

bpinrro), vii. 39. 

5p0s, vi. 11. 

opuipaKTos, vi. 11+ii. 35. 

5pco7rdfa;, vi. 126 + vi. 

118. 
5pw7ra£, vii. 39. 
8pu>TTTw, vi. 126 + vi. 1 1 8 ; 

vii. 39. 
oyr/, vii. 43. 
SlWucu, vi. 53. 
oi';o, i. 6. 
8vtttw, vi. 60. 
oi/popiat., ix. 4. 
5wr-, vii. 43. 

8va-rjXeyris, vii. 43 + vii. 31. 
SvaKoXos vii. 43 + v. 4. 
duo-fiavrjs, vii. 43 + v. 22. 
8ucnrip.<peXos, vii. 43 + v. 

23. 
ducrTTivos, vii. 43 + vii. 22. 
S^w, vi. 60. 
5£, i. 34. 
owoeKadeov, iv. 1. 
8Qp.a, i. 34. 
Swpd/fii'oj', iii. 13. 
dQipof, ii. 21 ; iv. 1. 
e, viii. 5. 
£a, xi. 4. 
iavos, ii. 36. 
£ap, v. 6 ; vi. 116. 
eavrov, viii. 5 + i. 3. 
edw, iii. 17 
e/3dw, iii. 27. 
t/iiaxos, ii. 37. 
i^OofiriKOVTa, iv. 7. 



(yypavXis, ii. 1) + ii. 10. 

iyyvrj, i. 1 + ii. 5. 

tyyvOrjK-rj, i. 1 + ii. 5 + i. 1. 

tyyvs, i. 10. 

iyelpw, vi. 6. 

e'Y/cds, i. 1 + vi. 112. 

£yKa.Ta, i. 1 +ii. 6. 

eyKiaadu}, i. 1 + vi. 67. 

eyKlo-rnjcns, i. 1 + vi. 67. 

iyKoXypafa, i. 1 +x. 13. 

eyKovls, vi. 98. 

eyKpU, i. 1 +i. 23. 

ZyuvTOL, i. 1 +ii. 6. 

iyKvri, i. 1 + ii. 6. 

eyX e ^s, ii. 9 + ii. 10. 

eyxos, vii. 20. 

tyXovcra, ii. 9. 

e"7c6, viii. 4. 

iyihv, viii. 4 + viii. 1. 

tydivT), viii. 4 + viii. 1. 

e8av6s, x. 19. 

£8a(pos, vi. 60. 

ZSeOXov, iii. 17. 

e'Siw, ii. 33. 

£5os, iii. 17. 

iBufi], vii. 43. 

e'oa;, x. 3. 

U, xi. 4. 

ee. viii. 5. 

ie'iKocn, i. 6 + iv. 7. 

teiTTtv, ix. 2. 

iepfxivos, ii. 22. 

ffojucu, iii. 17. 

tdeipa, vi. 9. 

edeipw, vi. 9. 

etfe'Xa;, vi. 13. 

^pos, viii. 5. 

?#os, viii. 5. 

e#pts, iv. 6. 

el, i. 5. 

ei'a, vi. 102. 

dap-ivi), vi. 102. 

ei'/3w, iii. 32. 

ei'Sw, vi. 119. 

eWap, vi. 55. 

eid}, v. 30. 

eucoai, i. 6 + iv. 7. 

elKoaivqpi.Tos, id. + i. 27. 

e&cw, iii. 28. 

etVtiv, vi. 124. 

elXap, ii. 11. 



292 



TNDEX. 



fi'Xas, ii. 10. 

et\e6s, i. 12; ii. 10, 11. 

eiXrj, vi. 131. 

e'iXrj, ii. 11. 

dXiKpivrjs, iii. 18 + iv. 9. 

elXlaaw, ii. 10. 

eiXirev-qs, ii. 10 + vi. 57. 

ei'XXw, ii. 10. 

flXofiai, ii. 10. 

eTXop, ii. 11. 

elXvcp.ai, ii. 10. 

ciXvs, iii. 18. 

6tXi'<r7rdo,u.a£, ii. 10 + v. 3. 

eikvtpdu, ii. 10. 

el\vu, ii. 1 1. 

d'Xu>, ii. 11. 

dp.a, ii. 36. 

elp.1, iii. 17. 

el/xi, v. 21. 

eivarepis, i. 7. 

eipyw, ii. 13. 

ei'pepos, ii. 22. 

ei'/DT/, ii. 13. 

dp-ijv, ii. 1 3. 

elprjvr], iii. 2. 

eipnos, ii. 22. 

a/jos, iii. '2. 

eipi'w, vi. 85. 

ei'pw, ii. 22. 

et'pw, ix. 14. 

d'puv, ii. 13. 

eis, i. 1. 

eh, iv. 7. 

eiiTKW, vi. 124. 

euros, i. 6 + iv. 8. 

tlra, v. 24. 

eirev, v. 24. 

in, iv. 5. 

e/cds, iv. 5. 

e/cacTToj, iv. 7. 

e/axrepoj, iv. 7. 

€ko.t6v, iv. 7. 

eV5i5w, iv. 5+vi. CO. 

eVe?, i. 5. 

ckcIvos, i. 5. 

cKr/Xos, iii. 27 + iii. 6. 

e/0?T£, vi. 52. 

ticXety/jia, iv. 5 + x. 17. 
iK-rrayXos, iv. 5 + vi. 19. 
Zktwp, vi. 63. 
€xvp6s, i. 31 + vi. 4. 



eXaia. i. 24. 

e'Xcuoi', i. 24. 

eXdrr), i. 12. 

eXtxrlvT], ii. 54. 

eXauvu}, v. 12. 

tXcupos, v. 15. 

eXtMpptis, v. 15. 

e'Xayi;?, v. 16. 

eXoouai, vi. 26. 

eXeyos, ix. 20. 

eXeyxu, vii. 31. 

eXeiSs, vii. 2. 

eXeXev, xi. 7. 

eXeXffw, ii. 10. 

eXeVT?, ii. 10; vi. 131. 

eXeviov, ii. 10. 

Ae6s, i. 12; ix. 20. 

£Xeos, iii. 18. 

eXeairh, iii. 18 +vi. 40. 

tXevdeiv, v. 14. 

eXevOepos, v. 14. 

iXerpa.lpop.ai, v. 10 + v. 9. 

e'X??, vi. 131. 

eX^XdSaro, v. 12. 

eXdew, v. 14. 

e'Xiwaj, iii. IS. 

eXivos, ii. 10. 

iXicrau), ii. 10. 

e'X/cos, vii. 31. 

?\kw, vi. 21. 

e'XXa, iii. 18. 

f'XXdj, ii. 10. 

eXXf/3opos, iii. 18 + x. 2. 

eXXoj, eXXos, v. 7. 

(?XX6s, iii. 18. 

eXXoi/', iii. lS + ix. 2. 

eXpuvd-, ZXpLiyy-, ii. 10 + 

ii. 38. 
tX^ivrj, ii. 10. 
t'Xos, iii. 18. 
gXirco, vi. 26. 
fXup-a, vii. 27. 
e'Xvp.os, ii. 11. 
Auw, ii. 10. 
("pairov, ii. 45. 
e^, viii. 1. 
e/x^w, viii. 6. 
ip.Trdi'ofxaL, i. 1+ii. 35. 
Hpiirains, i. 1 +ii. 35 ; i. 1 

+ M 23. 



ip.irdp.wv, i. 1 -I ii. 35. 

tp.irQ.s, i. 1 +ii. 33. 

epLTretpia, vi. 20. 

ip.irk, v. 22 + vii. 41. 

epuroXdu), i. 1 + ii. 1 4. 

eptropos, i. 1 + vi. 20. 

eV^s, v - 22. 

iv, i. 1. 

ivaipio, iv. 4. 

Zvapa, iv. 4. 

eVSaTros, i. 1 + vi. 60. 

eVoeXex^S) i- l + vi.. 1 3. 

ivZl-qpi, i. 1 +iii. 11. 

eVoios, i. 1 + vi. 127. 

eVooi, i. 2. 

ecSo^, i. 2. 

ivSvKius, i. l + vi. 53. 

eV5i;w, i. 1 + vi. 60. 

iveyKOj, vi. 98. 

eve'imc, vi. 98. 

'eveKa, vi. 52. 

evevrjKOvra, iv. 7. 

eVeos, iii. 5. 

eveirw, i. 1 + ix. 25. 

evepoi, vi. 99. 

eV^i??, iii. 30. 

«V0a, i. 5 + i. 1. 

hi, i. 1. 

eviavrbs, vi. 37 + vi. 34. 

eWi, i. 5. 

eviore, i. 5 + vi. 57. 

iv'nrTio, i. 1 + viii. 7. 

eviairo), i. 1 + ix. 25. 

iwea, iv. 5. 

fwe'iru, i. 1 + ix. 25. 

evvewpos, iv. 5 + vi. 8. 

'ivvvp.i, ii. 36. 

eVos, vi. 37. 

ivoaixOov, v. 29 + vi. 111. 

ewxepci, i- 1 + i. 30. 

evTCLvda, i. 5 + i. 1 + viii. 5 

+ i.3. 
evravOoL, i. 5 + i. 1 + viii. 5 

+ i. 3. 
("urea, ii. 33. 
eVreXex 1 /*; i- 1 + vi. 13. 
e'vrepov, i. 1 + vi. 9. 
ivrevdev, i. 5 + i. 1 + viii. 5 

+ i. 3. 
eVros, i. 1. 
Hvrv/iov, i. 1 + vii. 4 2. 



INDEX. 



■><):) 



ivTvvw, ii. 33. 

ew6s, i. 10. 

% iv. 5. 

*!, iv. 7. 

i^aitpv^, iv. 5 + v. 23. 

i$<nrLi>r)'s, iv. 5 -I- v. 23. 

i^epdu, iv. 5 + v. 6. 

e£7?s, i. 30. 

e^oijXij, iv. 5 + ii. 11. 

?o, viii. 5. 

Hoikcl, vi. 124. 

eopTq, iii. 2. 

e<k, viii. 5. 

eoffarjTrip, vii. 103. 

(href, vi. 40 + v. 24. 

eirfiyu, vi. 40 + vi. 63. 

(TTT]yKei>ldes, vi. 40 + ii. 34. 

eir-qeTavbs, vi. 40 4- vi. 60. 

tirr/peia, vi. 40 + ix. 19. 

(TrrjTrjs, iii. 22. 

eirrjTpi/xos, vi. 40 + vi. 60. 

e7rt, vi. 40. 

iiripda, vi. 40 + x. 9. 

tTrir/pavos, vi. 40 + i. 26. 

eiriKovpos, vi. 40 + vi. 4. 

e7ri7roXi7S, vi. 40 + i. 12. 

iirippodos, vi. 40 + vi. 11 ; 

vi. 40 + ix. 19. 
eiriaeiop, vi. 40 + vii. 48. 
tTTiGKvviov, vi. 40 + ii. 29. 
eViV/a'pos, vi. 40 f v. 2; 

vi. 40 + vi. 63. 
fTriffXepti, vi. 40 + i. 30. 
eTTiT&ppodos, vi. 40 -t- vi. 1 1 . 
(Triravpos, vi. 40 + vi. 11. 
ewLTrides, vi. 40 + vi. 61. 
eiropai, i. 30. 
iiropov, vi. 20. 

^7TOJ, ix. 2. 

en-ox];, ix. 1. 

€7T7d, iv. 7. 

&ru, i. 30. 

fya, vi. 83. 

epafe, vi. S3 + i. 1. 

epda>, vi. 97. 

ep-xvos, vi. 83. 

-epdio, v. 6. 

Zpyov, vi. 25. 

ep7w, ii. 13. 

("vow, vi. 25. 

c r qia>Oos, ii. 53 + vi. 5. c . 



fpefios, ii. 53. 

iptdw, vii. 34. 

epeetVw, ix. 14. 

tpeidoj, iv. 91. 

epeiKT], vii. 30. 

ipel/cw, vii. 30. 

ipetTro}, iii. 32. 

cpep.vbs, ii. 53. 

ipewTop.a.1, x. 15. 

epe'craw, ii. 56. 

iper/uLov, ii. 56. 

^pecrxeX^w, ix. 1 4 + vi i i. 7. 

eptuyopai, ix. 15 ; x. 11. 

ep-vvdw, vii. 37. 

epetpu, ii. 53. 

ipixQw, vii. 30. 

epecj, ix. 14. 

ep7)/j.os, iv. 17. 

epTjTuo), vi. 85. 

epj, vi. 83. 

ipLTjpos, vi. S3 + i. 26. 

epidd.Ky), vi. 129 + vi. 124. 

(pidaKos, vi. 129 + vi. 12 J. 

epiOos, i. 2T. 

e'p'K'7, vii. 30. 

epivov, vii. 32. 

epiov. iii. 2. 

(pis, vii. 34. 

i'pupos, vi. 90. 

epubXr], ii. 12 + ii. 10. 

t'p/cos, ii. 13. 

?pp:a, ii. 22 ; vi. 91. 

h'pp.a.%, vi. 91. 

ep/LLTjvevs, ix. 14 + viii. 1. 

fywos, vi. 83. 

Zpofiai, ix. 14. 

£p7TW, v. 6. 

eppaos, iii. 2. 
^ppw, v. 9. 
epcrr;, iii. 2. 
ipvdplis, v. 1 4. 
epuKLo, vi. 85. 
epvp.v6s, ii. 53. 
epvalpT], v. 14 + vi. 38. 
epuw, vi. 85. 
ipi'io/xai, ii. 53. 
Hpxa-ros, ii. 13. 
epXOfJ-ai, v. 16. 
epwotos, ix. 19. 
epuew, iii. 34 ; v. 6. 

f/JMlJ, v. 6. 



epojTuo), ix. 1 4 + ix. 27. 

<?s, i. 1. 

eVtf?}?, ii. 36. 

€<rd\6s, vi. 105. 

&r0a>, x. 3. 

?<TtS, v. 24. 

ea-yujy, v. 24. 

io-irepx, iii. 27 + vi. 27. 

^cnrere, ix. 25. 

eo-arjv, v. 27. 

(o-ffcov, iii. 8. 

iaria, vi. 116. 

'i<TT03p, i. 29. 

eaxdpa, vii. 8. 

e<Txaros, i. 30. 

¥(FX ov y v >- 63. 
frctfa;, vi. 105. 
iratpos, vi. 34. 
erapos, vi. 34. 
e're6s, vi. 105. 
^repos, i. 5 + vi. 9. 
e'rTjj, vi. 34. 
e+£, vi. 59. 
^TVOS, x. 3. 

eTotfios, i. 32 + i. 1. 

^ros, vi. 34. 

eros, v. 17. 

e'Tv/j.os, vi. 105. 

erticrio?, v. 17. 

e#, vi. 104. 

e5a, xi. 3. 

eua-yTjs, vi. 104 + vi. 120. 

eudfw, xi. 3. 

euai, xi. 3. 

et''Oiatos, v. 17. 

eiiSiavds, vi. 104 +vi. 127. 

f-v'oios, vi. 104 + vi. 127. 

eiiow, iii. 27. 

ei''#ec77s, vi. 104 + vi. 56. 

eudrjvrjs, vi. 104 + \i. 5b'. 

ei/0tf, vi. 104 + vi. 55. 

tvduwpos, vi. 101 + vi. 55 

+ ii. 12. 
tvKrfKos, iii. 27 + iii. 6. 
ei)V-o\os, vi. 101 + v. 4. 
evKTLTos, vi. 104 + iii. 9. 
ev\&Ka, vii. 27. 
et''\?7, ii. 10. 
f i f X?jpa, ii. 1 0. 
evp-apr/s, vi. 104 + ii. 4:). 
€i''p.fv^j, vi. 104 + v;ii. 1. 



294 



INDEX. 



evvij, iii. 27. 

tDfis, iv. 5. 

evdi, xi. 3. 

evpai, ii. 12. 

evpdi;, ii. 12. 

ei* plana), ii. 13. 

evpos, vi. 11G + viii. 12. 

eupvs, iv. 14. 

ei'pwj, iii. 2. 

ei5s, vi. 104. 

ef'Tf, i. 5 + vi. 67. 

eiHppaLvu, vi. 104 + vi. -2. 

eu'xo/xat, vi. 52 ; xi. 3. 

evw, vi. 116. 

ecpOos, iii. 26. 

e<pLd\T7]S, vi. 40 + v. 7. 

f'xfc's, iii. 9. 

eX#o5o7rd?, viii. 4. 

e'X#os, viii. 4. 

e^Sva, ii- 9 + ii. 58. 

ex^os, vii. 5. 

t'X'OJ', ii. 9. 

e'X'S, ii. 9. 

ex/ia., vi. 63. 

^X w i vi. 63. 

e\pla, v. 20. 

ei/'w, iii. 26. 

eais, vi. 36. 

kws, vi. 116. 

ja-, vi. 102. 

frnopos, v. 26 + v. 1. 

fd\rj, v. 7. 

ia7re5oe, vi. 60 + vi. 40. 

(iirMaptw, vi. 4. 

jap6s, x. 16. 

fo^eXiJy, vi. 102 + v. 10. 

£a.xpVVS> v '- 102 + vi. 4. 

jaw, vi. 102. 

-j'e, i. 1. 

j"ea, j'etu, vi. 102. 

i'4X\u, v. 7. 

£epe0pov, x. 16. 

fcvyvv/xi, i. 6. 

Zeus, vi. 127. 

£e(pvpos, ii. 21 + viii. 12. 

j'ew, vi. 114. 

fiyXos, vi. 114. 

i'rinia, vi. 7<i. 

i'rjr^cj, vi. 61. 

'irfrpuov. vi. 76. 



P77-/30S, vi. 76. 
£6p.(ipos, vii. 15. 

#/>£, v. 11. 

£6<pos, ii. 24. 

jY<0os, vi. 114. 

JU/U77, vi. 114. 

^aiypiai, vi. 102 + vi. 6. 

fouus, vi. 114. 

fwj/77, ii. 32. 

j-wuj, vi. 102. 

favreiov, vi. 76. 

ja>pjs, vi. 102. 

ij, i. 5. 

^, i. 5. 

7?,3?7, vi. 102. 

ijyavov, iii. 16. 

riyeofxai., vi. 03. 

tjot;, vi. 57. 

riOop-ai, x. 19. 

7;5i)s, x. 19. 

ijipios, vi. 116 ; viii. 12. 

7]9(Xos, ii. 33. 

f/0os, viii. 5. 

t/0w, vii. 48. 

ijideos, iv. 6. 

771a, vi. 102. 

?}i'u»', vi. 66 ; ix. 27. 

TJKa, iii. 8. 

iJKiffTos, iii. 8. 

?j/cw, i. 17. 

i)\ai.i'U}, v. 12. 

rj\aKa.T7i, vi. 92. 

yjXeKTpov, vi. 131. 

7]\^KTlOp, Vi. 131. 

r)\e/uLaTos, v. 12 + viii. 2. 
?')\iaia, ii. 11. 
tjXIIScltos, vi. 96. 
i?Xt0a, v. 12 + i. 2; vi. 86 

+ i. 2. 
?'/\i0tos, v. 12. 
t]\Lkos, i. 5 + vi. 92. 
rjXioj, vi. 131. 
•77X1^, ii. 51. 
17X65, v. 12. 
i)\os, vi. 24. 
■i)\vyT], ii. 47. 
*}Xv£, ii. 17. 
i7>'Viof, vi. 131. 
7)/xat, iii. 17. 
77/xap, vi. 131 +iv. 16. 
rj/xedairos. viii. I I vi. 60. 



77P-€?s, viii. 4 + i. 32. 

V,uepa, vi. 131 + iv. 16. 

■rjp-tpos, iii. 14. 

•77/xt, ix. 10. 

■ijfucrvs, i. 32 + iv. 8. 

7/\uos, vi. 37. 

rjpiuw, ii. 7. 

rjv, i. 5. 

7]va<rjS, vi. 37. 

V;a, vi. 76. 

fy^/ca, i. 5 + vi. 37 + vi. 

fjvis, vi. 37. 

rjvoperj, viii. 3. 

7>of, vi. 132 + vi. 118. 

rj-rravia, iii. 14. 

/;7rap, vi. 102. 

-,)/re<5ai'6s, iii. 22. 

■TjTreipos, iv. 4 + vi. 20. 

rj-jrepowevs, iv. 6 + ix. 2. 

7)W7)T1]S, i. 8. 
■ipridXris, v. 23. 
ijirlaXos, v. 23. 
7771-10X05, v. 23. 
ijiTLos, iii. 22. 
?;7Ti''c<;, ix. 1. 
•^p, vi. 116. 
ijpa, i. 26. 
ijpavos, i. 26. 
i]pep.a, iii. 14. 

-77p77S, i. 26. 

7)pt, vi. 116. 
Tjpi'oi', vi. 23. 
ijpvyyos, vii. 30. 
7?pa;s, vi. 25. 
ijaaa)i>, iii. 8. 
77a-i>xos, iii. 17. 
■Tjrop, vi. 102. 
ijrpLOV, ii. 20. 
Tjrpov, vi. 102. 
7;iire, vi. 34. 
ijxavev, ix. 10. 
W?", i v - H- 
?7X 0S > ix. 10. 
rjibv, vi. 66. 
i]J)S, vi. 116. 
-0a, i. 1. 
Oadaaai, iii. 1. 
0atp6s, ii. 20. 
OaKos, iii. 11. 
0aXdp.77, ii. 18. 
'ViXauos, ii. 18. 



INDIA. 



Of 



205 



OdXaava, v. 7. 

DaXla, vi. 10. 

OdXinrpov, ii. 18. 

0dXXw, vi. 10. 

6&\ttu), iii. 12. 

OaXvKpos, iii. 12. 

OaXuw, iii. 12. 

0a/*ct, i. 34. 

Odfxfios, iii. 15. 

0d/j.vos, i. 34. 

Odvaros, iii. 11. 

Odofiat, vi. 127. 

Odiro^, iii. 1 5. 

OdirTw, vi. 60. 

OapyrjXia, vi. 133 + iii. 6. 

Odpcros, vi. 11. 

8av/j.a, vi. 127. 

0dw, x. 8. 

-0e, i. 1. 

0e'a, vi. 127. 

OeijKSXos, vi. 61 +v. 4. 

0ei.\6Tredoi>,v.. 12/" + vi.40. 

ddvw, vi. 74. 

flew, viii. 16. 

0£ios, vi. 58. 

0et's, vi. 5(5. 

OeXyw. iii. 12. 

Q£Xvp.vov, vi. 12. 

0e'Xw, vi. 13. 

0e,ua, i. 1. 

6ep.edXov, i. 1, 

de/xeiXov, i. 1. 

6ep.4\ios, i. 1. 

Oe/xepbs, i. 1. 

0<?/uJ, i- 1. 

-fop, i. 1. 

devap, i. 34. 

Oeoirpoiros, vi. 61 + vi.117. 

tfeos, vi. 61. 

depdrtrwv, vi. 11. 

Oepfxavarpa, vi. 133 + vi. 

11(3. 
8ep/xos, vi. 133. 
6epp.os, ii. 21. 
depos, vi. 133. 
0epw, vi. 133. 
0f<TKeXos, vi. 61 + vi. 124. 
0ecr,u6s, i. 1. 
Oea-iTLS, vi. 61+ix. 25. 
fliaaaodai, vi. 61. 
-0£otos, vi. 61. 



Oeafiaros, vi. 61 + ix. 1. 
0<?a>, v. 24. 
Oeupbs, vi. 127. 
0r}yw, vii. 24. 
077X17, x. 8. 
OrjXvs, x. 8. 
6-qp.wv, i. 1. 
077?, i. 5. 
0»fo v. 11. 
07js, vi. 58. 
0T](Tavp6s, i. 1 + ii. 23. 
drjcreiof, vii. 13. 
-0i, i. 1. 
Oiacros, v. 24. 
0i/3p6s, vi. 13S. 
0i7Y<xj'w, i. 21. 
0iV, vi. 56. 
0is, vi. 56. 
dXaoias, vii. 40. 
OXdw, vii. 40. 
0X£/3w, vii. 40. 
dvrjiTKU), iii. 11. 
do'ivt], x. 8. 
0oX6s, i. 24. 
06Xos, ii. 18. 
0oo's, v. 24; vii. 24. 
66pi>v/u.i, v. 11. 
0op6s, v. 11. 
66pv(3os, v. 11 ; ix. 4. 
Oovpos, v. 24. 
Opdyp-os, vii. 39. 
dpavis, vii. 39. 
dpavow, vii. 39. 
0pdop.cu, vi. 11. 
Opdaaui, v. 11. 
OpavXos, vii. 39. 
OpaviraXos, ii. 20. 
dpainris, ix. 4. 
dpavw, vii. 39. 
6peo/xai, ix. 4. 
dprjvos, ix. 4. 
OpTJvv;, vi. 11. 
OprjlTKOS, vi. 11. 
Opid'gw, v. 11. 
0/uat, v. 11. 
0piap.j3os, iii. 13. 
Opiyicos, ii. 21. 
0/3ida£, iii. 13. 
0pti/af , i. 3 + vii. 20. 
0/>t£, vi. 9. 
0pt'(w, i. 3. 



0ptos, ii. 20. 
0pi'i/<, vii. 39. 
0p6}i ftos, vi. 11. 
Opbvov, vi. 9. 
Opovos, vi. 11. 
0p6os, ix. 4. 
dpvaXXis, ii. 20 + ii. 10. 
Opvyavdu, vii. 39. 
dpvWlaaw, vii. 39. 
0pCXos, ix. 4. 
0piW, ii. 20. 
dpinrTw, vii. 39. 

OpUUKIjJ, v. 11. 

dvavia, iii. 15. 

duapos, vii. 39. 

0i>da>, iii. 15. 

dvydrrjp, vi. 53. 

dveia, ii. 24. 

OueXXa, v. 24 + ii. 10. 

0w'a, viii. 16. 

0iuds, v. 24. 

0woi', viii. 16. 

dvXaKos, ii. 18. 

9vp.dXw\p, viii. 16 + vi. 96. 

6 ufj.fi pa, viii. 16. 

dvfids, viii. 16. 

6vp.os, viii. 16. 

duvvcs, v. 24. 

0WW, v. 24. 

0ww, viii. 16. 

0t'/oj, viii. 16. 

dvo/TKoos, viii. 6+ vii. 9. 

0^a, ii. 20. 

0yp<roj, vi. 9. 

0('cravoj, v. 24. 

duacruj, v. 24. 

0i'-w, v. 24 ; viii. 16. 

0w?J, iv. 1. 

6uikos, iii. 11. 

0u>M'7sf> ii- 22 + ii. 38. 

Oojpids, i. 1. 

0cipa£, ii. 21. 

0w?, ix. 18. 

OQiaOai, x. 8. 

Ouvcrcro), ix. 18. 

0wi/', viii. 16. 

t or £, viii. 5. 

iaivw, iii. 8. 

<d\Xa>, v. 7. 

i!ap.(3os, viii. 7. 

i'ai/00?, viii. 21 + vi. 58. 



296 



INDEX. 



i ^ofjiat, in. 8. 

i&TTTW, V. 1. 

iaaubvy), ii. 32. 

iaa-rns, vi. 137 + vi. 130. 

lavw, iii. 11. 

ict^w, ix. 10. 

ifiavri, vi. 40. 

?/35?7, vi. 40. 

IfiiaKos, ii. 37. 

*/3i5fw, ix. 1. 

rjSu^, ix. 1. 

tydLS, vi. 63. 

iyicpos, i. 1 + vi. 1. 

ryinjTes, i. 1 + vi. 66. 

iyvva, i. 1 + ii. 6. 

iSe, i. 5. 

i'ckos, viii. 5. 

i'ofco, iii. 14. 

iovoisi, ii. 58. 

Topis, vi. 119. 

iopvcj, iii. 17. 

iopiJos, iii. 14. 

£e'pa£, ii. 13+ ii. 9. 

iep6s, vi. 10S. 

i'ja>, iii. 17. 

t?7, ix. 10 ; xi. 1. 

irfCos, xi. 1. 

ii]\ep.os, xi. 1. 

h]fXL, v. 24. 

lOaivw, vi. 133. 

i'(?ap, vi. 55. 

i'^/ia, vi. 55. 

Wpis, iv. C. 

Wis, vi. 55. 

Wvpjios, v. 21. 

i/v-a^os, i. 17. 

iVeXos, vi. 124. 

iKfTTjs, vi. 108. 

LKKOS, V. 1. 

iKfids, vii. 48 4- iii. 5. 
iKp.evos, i. 17. 
'iKpiov, vi. 03. 
LKrap, i. 17. 
iKTepos, vi. 121. 
IktIvos, vii. 11. 
i'fvm, vii. 1 1. 
i\-oj, i. 17. 
IXap, ii. 11. 
iXapjj, vi. 0. 
t'Xuos, iii. 18. 
i',\?;, ii. 11. 



i'Xry£, ii. 10. +ii. 32. 

i'XXos, vi. 124 + v. 7. 

l\\6s, ii. 10. 

i'XXw, ii. 10 ; ii. 11. 

IXvos, ii. 11. 

l\fo, iii. 18. 

i\vd}, ii. 11. 

!>«?, ii. 22 + ii. 38. 

1/j.a.Tiop, ii. 36. 

Imw, vi. 108 + v. 22. 

'lp.epos, vi. 108 + viii. 3. 

iV or IV, viii. 5. 

&», i. 1. 

IVa, i 5. 

iV5dXXo/xcu, vi. 110. 

iVe'w, iii. 5. 

Im, vi. SO. 

% vii. 11. 

i|aX6y, v. 30. 

l*5s, i. 18. 

tfi/s, ii. 9. 

iJp.wpoi, i i. 11 +viii. 3. 

tov, viii. 21. 

iovOos, vi. 53. 

i'op/cos, v. 11. 

t'is, i. 18. 

i'os, iv. 5 ; v. 24. 

UTT]S, vi. 1 OS. 

i'ouXos, ii. 10; ii. 11 ; iii. 1. 

iirvri, ix. 3. 

iirvbs, iii. 26. 

17TOS, vi. ^0. 
iirbw, vi. 40. 
i7T7ra, ix. 3. 
i'7nros. v. 1 . 
'Lirra/xai, v. 19. 
i'7Tro,uai, vi. 40. 
iiriia, ii. 25. 
tp^, ii. 13 + ii. 9. 
i'p:77es, ii. 12 + ii. 32. 
tpis, ii. 12. 
is, ii. 34. 
iaixTis, ii. 32. 
IVt/jUI, vi. 111'. 
iaOpos, viii. 1 7. 
IffKCLl, i. 18. 

iW-Xos, ii. 29. 
iaKco, vi. 124. 
i'uos, i. + iv. 8. 

'i(TT7]f.U, i. 29. 

iaroptw, vi. 11 '.'. 



ioros, i. 29. 
tV^as, vii. 8. 
lax^-ov, ii. 28. 
iax"6s, vii. 8. 
i'o'Xi'S, vi. 25 + vi. 63. 
t<rxw, vi. 63. 
ira\bs, vi. 34. 
Wa, ii. 32. 
tY0Ai7, ii. 33. 
LTptov, vii. 41. 
irus, ii. 32. 
tu'7^, ix. 10. 
t'tffw, ix. 10. 
'{(pdipios, vi. 96. 
I0i, vi. 96. 
'C<pvov, viii. 21 . 
t'xMs, v. 1 + v. 24. 
i'Xi'oT, vi. 63. 

'X'ty. v - 6 - 
i'i/', vii. 41. 

Idjyrj, ii. 5. 

i'u>77, ix. 10. 

t'w/cij, v. 26 + v. 1. 

liopbs, ii. 13. 

lu\p, v. 1. 

/ca/3aXX?7S, v. 1. 

K&fieipos, ii. 8. 

k6.(3os, ii. 8. 

k<x7kw, vii. 9. 

K-a7xds"w, ix. 10. 

K<x7xaXdw, ix. 10. 

Ka.op.eia., vi. 134. 

Ka.5p.os, vi. 134. 

kcicSos, ii. 6. 

Kidapbs, vi. 134. 

A-ai, i. 5. 

/ccudSas, iv. 1 1. 

Kalap, iv. 11. 

KaiKias, vii. 1 2. 

Kctivos, vi. 66. 

Ko.ivvfia.1, vi. 1 3 (. 

Kaivo), vii. 11. 

Kaipos, vi. 8. 

Kcupos, vii. 1. 

Kaipoaewv, vii. 1. 

Kat'w, vii. 9. 

Kaicakia, vii. I. 

K&Ka.\oi>, ii. 2. 

KaKKapTj, vi. Ill; ix. 10. 

KaKKafa, ix. 1 0. 

K&KK7], viii. 11. 



INDHX. 



297 



kokos, viii. 11. 
kciktos, vii. 3. 
KaXafiis, v. 4. 
KaXados, ii. 1. 
A-ctXcuj, vi. 129. 
KaXd/jir], vi. 2. 
KuXa/xos, vi. 2. 
K&Xavdpos, ix. 7. 
KctXapis, ix. 7. 
Ka\avpo\p, ii. 2 + iii. 32. 
K<x\eti}, ix. 7. 
icaXid, ii. 2. 

xa\iv8io/j.ai, ii. 1+ii. 32. 
KdXtos, ii. 2. 
KciWaiov, vi. 129. 
KaWapias, v. 4. 
KaWtas, v. 4. 
Ka\ov, vi. 2. 
Ka\6s, vi. 129. 
kclXttt}, ii. 1 ; v. 4. 
/idXi'f, ii. 1. 
KaXvTTTW, ii. 2. 
/cdXx??, i. 23. 
tfdXws, ii. 1. 
*cd/xaf, v. 1. 
Kafidpa, ii. 7. 
KCLftapos, ii. 7. 
Ka/j-aaijues, v. 1. 

KOLfXaCTGW, v. 1. 

Kapxvos, ii. 7. 
KapLvoj, iii. 21. 

K&/J.TT7;, ii. 7. 

/cd|U7ros, ii. 7. 

Kap-TTTCi}, ii. 7. 

Kapxj/a, ii. 8. 

Kava(3os i. 23. 

Ka.va.dpov, ii. 6. 

Ka^ax^, ix. 8. 

/cd^eoi', ii. 6. 

Kdvdapos, ii. (i. 

KavOapv^u), v. 1 + v. 11. 

Kavdos, ii. 6. 

/cdi'(?oj, ii. 6. 

Kavvafiis, ii. 6. 

Kavuiv, i. 23. 

Kai'to7roi', vi. 134 + vi. 11?. 

Kairavj], ii. 8. 

Kairerts, ii. 8. 

K'd7r€Tos, vii. 7. 

Kavrj, x. 14. 

KainjXos, iv. 20. 



KaWTJTOV, x. 14. 

KairiOr), ii. 8. 
KaTi^s, viii. 13. 
Kd7ros, viii. 13. 
KdVos, iii. 22. 
\-d7T7rapty, x. 2. 
Kairpos, vii. 7. 
Ka7TTW, x. 14. 
Kainju}, viii. 13. 
Ka.Trwv, vii. 7. 
Kap, ii. 3. 
Kapafiaia, ii. 4. 
Kapafios, ii. 4. 
KapadoKew, vi. 1 + vi. 126. 
KapaKaWov, vi. 1 + ii. 2. 
Kapa/j.fiios, ii. 4 + ii. 45. 
/cdpai'oj, vi. 1. 
Kappdfa, ix. 6. 
Kapfiavos, ix. 6. 
KapfiarivT], ii. 4 + ii. 33. 
KapdapLov, x. 4. 
KapSa/xvcrcrw, v. 2 + i. 28. 
Kapodp.wp.ov, x. 4 + x. 5. 
KapSonos, i. 23. 
Kapdia, vi. 6. 
/cap??, vi. 1. 
Kaprivov, vi. 1. 
Kapi's, ii. 4. 
KapKaipco, v. 5. 
KapKapov, ii. 4. 
KapKlvos, ii. 3 ; ii. 4. 
Kapvafiddiov, x. 18 + x. 19. 
Kipoivov, x. 18 + vi. 102. 
Kapov, X. 18. 
Kapos, iii. 7. 
Kapovadai, ii. 4. 
Kapirai, v. 5. 
Kapirala, v. 5. 
Kapird\ip.os, v. 5. 
KapTris, vi. 1. 
Kapwds, ii. 3 ; vi. 1. 
Kap'pov, vi. 4. 
Kappwv, vi. 6. 
KapCLOs, ii. 3. 
Kapra, vi. 6. 
KclpraWos, ii. 3 + ii. 18. 
KapVKTJ, x. 18 + x. 11. 
Kapvov, ii. 4. 
Kap(po), vii. 1. 
KapxaX^os, vii. 1 . 
\-dpx a / ) °5. vii. 1. 



Kapxv<rtoi, ii. 3 + ii. 9. 

Kapwrbv, vii. 3. 

-Kas, iv. 7. 

Ka7d\(3ri, vi. 67 + vi. 9 i. 

Kaaiyv-qTos, vi. 67 + vi. 

66. 
Kadis, vi. 67. 
Kaacra, vi. 67. 
Kaaais, vi. 67. 
Kao-oirepos, vi. 124 + vi. 

128. 
Kaa-inyw, vi. 112 + ii. 22. 
Kaaawpis, vi. 67 + ii. 13. 

Kd<7T(ZI'0I', vii. 9. 
KaCFTUIp, X. 4. 

/card, vi. 112. 

KaTcuVi>£ , vi. 1 1 2 + ii. 21. 

Karr;i/j;)s, vi. 112 + vi. 115. 

kotottw, vi. 112 + ii. 16. 

Karra, x. 4. 

Kava^, ix. 10. 

Kavapos, viii. 1 1. 

KHD/ca\:as. ix. 10. 

KavKaXiov, ii. 5. 

KavKciXis, ii. 5. 

kolvkIs, ii. 5. 

/caO/cos, ii. 5. 

Kav\6s, vi. 2. 

KavvdKrjs, vii. 15 + vii. 21. 

Kawos, iv. 7. 

Kavpos, viii. 11. 

Kai>xv, xi. 3. 

Ka<pos, viii. 13. 

Ka<povpa, viii. 13 + viii. II'. 

Karpdipr], vii. 7. 

/caxdj'w, ix. 10. 

Kax^a, vi. 124. 

/caxXdfw, vii. 2. 

Kax^yi;, vii. 2. 

raxpi'S, vii. 1. 

/caxpf'''"', ii. 3. 

Kdtpa, ii. 8. 

*ce, i. 5. 

/cedj'w, iv. S. 

K-edi'w^oj, vii. 5. 

K^ap, vi. 6. 
KefiXi], vi. 77. 

Keyxpk, ix. 8. 
Keyxpos, v 'ii. 1. 
Kiyxpuv, ix. 8. 
Keoaiix), iv. 8. 



298 



INDEX. 



K(5v6s, viii. 4. 
Ktopoiva, ii. 6 + ii. 53. 
KeSpos, viii. 13. 
KeOpuaris, ii. 6 + ii. 56. 
Ke?/j.ai, iii. 8. 
Keifj.rf\iov, ii. 8 + ii. 11. 
Keivos, i. 5. 

KflTTOS, v. 1 . 

Keipia, ii. 3. 
Kelpis, ii. 3. 
KiipW, iv. 9. 
/ceiw, iv. 8. 
K£K7](pe, viii. 13. 
KeXaSos, ix. 7. 
KeXaivos, i. 23. 
KeXdpv^a, ix. 7. 
Kekapufa, ix. 7. 
Ke\<zj3ri, ii. 1. 
Ke\evdpoi>, ii. 1. 
KeXeovrei, ii. 1. 
KtXeos, vi. 2. 
KeXevdos, v. 4 + v. 14. 
/ceXeuw, ix. 7. 

K€\7]S,V. 4. 

iv-AXu, vi. 5. 
/lAoyuai, ix. 7. 
Ke\v(f)rj, ii. 2. 
KeXwp, ix. 7. 

K€pLCLS, V. 1. 

Ke/ufxa, iii. 8. 
kcj'j i. 5. 

Keveos, Kevos, iii. 21. 
Kivrew, vii. 5. 

K(TT(pOS, V. 1. 

Kepa'tfa, vii. 1. 
Kepcuris, vi. 1. 
Kepdfj.^r]Xov, ii. 4 + ii. 45. 
Kep&nj3v£, ii. 4+ii. 45. 
Kepafxos, i. 23. 
K^pas, vi. 4. 
K(paaos, vii. 1. 
Kepavvos, v. 6. 
Kepdio, i. 23. 
Kep&epos, ii. 4. 
K^pdos, ii. 4. 
KepK(T7)s, vi. 4. 
KfpKis, vi. 4. 

KtpKLUV, ix. 6. 

K^pKos, ii. 3. 
Kipvov, vii. 1. 
Kipvos, i. 2 I. 



Kcpoim'as, vi. 4 + vi. 34. 
K^px"Vi ix. 6. 
Kepxvos, vii. 1 ; ix. 6. 
Kdpxw, ix. 6. 
KiaKiov, iv. 8. 
Kearpov, vii. 9. 
Kevda), ii. 6. 
KecpaK-q, vi. 77. 
Ke'x^aSa, vi. 6. 
Kexpa/xos, ix. 6. 
/cew, iv. 8. 
kt}, i. 5. 

KTJfioS, V. 1. 

/17780s, viii. 4. 
/ctj0is, ii. 6. 
Kr/xas, viii. 11. 
K7]Kiu<, vi. 48. 
ktjXus, viii. 15. 
nrfKdoTpa, ii. 1. 
KTjXaarpos, ii. 1. 
uriXeio, iii. 6. 
£77X77, vi. 2. 
ktjXIs, i. 23. 
KrjXov, vi. 2. 
ktjXuv, vi. 2. 
K7]p.6s, ii. 8. 
KTJfios, iii. 21. 

/C77V0S, i. 5. 
K77^, ix. 10. 
ktJttoj, ii. 8 ; v. 1. 
K77p, vii. 1. 
KTjpcupis, ii. 4. 
Kjpivdos, i. 23 + vi. 129. 
Kijpjs, i. 23. 
Kijpvi;, ix. 6. 

KTJTOS, iv. 11. 
K77L^, ix. 10. 

Kr}(p-i}v, iii. 22. 
K77XOS, i. 5 + i. 1. 
K7]ibo7is, viii. 13 + viii. 16. 
KTjdieis, viii. 13. 
Ki(3or]Xos, viii. 7. 
/a'/35os, viii. 7. 
nipicns, ii. 8. 
Kifidipiov, ii. 8 + ii. 13. 
ki(3wt6s, ii. 8. 
KiyicXis, ii. 6 + ii. 1. 
kLjkXos, v. 1 . 
Kt7X a^; i- 17. 
/cioaXoj', iv. 8. 
Kioapis, v. 2. 



KL5d<f>T], v. 2. 

Kida<pos, v. 2. 

/aoVos, iii. 9. 

Kiddpa, ix. 11. 

klOujv, ii. 6. 

KiKa/xa, vi. 67. 

kiksip, vi. 63. 

/a/a, vii. 10. 

kIkiwos, ii. 6. 

KiKKafiav, ix. 10. 

kIkkos, vii. 10 ; ix. 10. 

kLkv(3os, ix. 10. 

Ki.Kvfj.is, ix. 10. 

kIkvs, vi. 63. 

/aXXt£, ii. 1. 

/a\Xos, iii. 6. 

KiXXovpos, ii. 1 + ii. 16. 

Ki,updfa, ii. 7. 

/d,u/3t£, vii. 5. 

Kivdfjpa, viii. IS + viii. 10. 

/aVaSos, v. 2. 

/aVcuoos, vi. 112. 

Kivdpa., vii. 5. 

/aVSaf, v. 1 . 

/d^Swos, v. 1 + vii. 43. 

KLViOi, v. 1. 

KLPvdj3a.pl, vi. 134 + vi. 

117. 
Kivvapos, i. 23. 
Ktvvpbs, ix. 8. 
KiVLOTreTov, vii. 5. 
KipKos, ii. 3. 
nippos, vi. 129. 
Kipaos, vi. 1. 
/as, vii. 3. 
-/us, iv. 7. 
KicrTjpis, vii. 9. 
Kicrcra, ix. 11. 
Kiaadio, vi. 67. 
kkjuos, i. 18. 
Kiaavfiiov, i. 18 + ii. 7. 
k'uttt), ii. 9. 
Kiaros, i. 18. 
Klrpou, viii. 13. 
/aX 7 ? 1 " 05 ) viii. 13. 
kixXt?, ix. 7. 
KixXifa, ix. 7. 
Kixopa, vi. 67. 
/aw, v. 1. 
xta?, vi. 63. 
^Xaoctw, v. 4. 



INDEX. 



•J!)'.) 



A-Xdoos, v. 4. 
A-Xd<"w, ix. 7. 
nXalw, ix. 7. 
A'Xa/^/36s, iv. 10. 
KXaviov, ii. 1. 
A-Xd£, ii. 2. 
kXclw, iv. 10. 
KAeeipos, ix. 27. 
/cXetj, ii. 2. 
A-XftTopi's, iii. 6. 
kX^h/xvs, ii. 2. 
A'Xe'o?, ix. 27. 

K\fTTTW, ii. 2. 

K\rjdpa, ii. 1. 
kXti'is, ii. 2. 
K-X?)/xa, ii. 1. 
A-X-ijpos, iv. 10. 
K\L(3d5iov, ii. 1. 
KXijiavos, vi. 129. 
hcXifiai;, ii. 1. 
kXIvco, ii. 1. 
kXows, ii. 1. 
kXows, vi. 1. 
/v-Xucos, v. 4 ; vi. 2. 
uXoTOTreuu, v. 4. 
A'Xj'/Scmj, ii. 1. 
(cXi'fw, vii. 2. 
A-Xi'^epos, ii. 1. 
kXvcj, ix. 27. 
/cXw/ios, ii. 2. 
A-Xaifw, ix. 7. 
KXwdoj, ii. 1. 
K\w/xai;, vii. 2 + vi. 31. 
kXiLv, ii. 1. 
Kp.eXe6pov, ii. 8. 
KvaSaXXto, vii. 5. 

KVa/XTTTO}, ii. 6. 

KvairTU, vii. 5. 
Kcdaj, vii. 5. 
Kvicpas, ii. 26. 
Kvcwpos, vii. 5. 
hfiji'no, vii. 5. 
kvtjkos, vii. 5. 
Ki>ri/Lir], ii. 6. 
Kvrj/xis, ii. 6. 
kv7]/j.6s, ii. 6. 

KVTjCpT], vii. 5. 

Kvidr], vii. 5. 
Kvi'gw, vii. 5. 
kvLtttw, vii. 5. 
kvlttolo, vii. 5. 



Kviaa, viii. IS. 
Kn(p6s, vii. 5. 
a-c/i^, vii. 5. 
a-i'oos, vii. G. 
A-j't'fa, vii. 5. 
Ki'iij'cta, ii. 26. 
Kvvfa, ix. 8. 
kvi/os, vii. 5. 
kww, vii. 5. 
A'^woaXoi', vii. 5. 
Kvwdai;, vii. 5. 
Ki'iooovres, vii. 5. 
Kvihaaio, iii. 2 I. 
Ki>d>\p, vii. 5. 
A-od£, ix. 10. 
K6j3a\a, v. 1. 
Koj3a\os, v. 1. 

Ko5u/j.a\oi>, vi. 70 + vi. 29. 

ko^o), ix. 27. 

Kudopvos, ii. 6 + ii. 13. 

/cd^oi'pos, iv. 8 + ii. 16. 

A-o't, ix. 10. 

(com, ii. 5. 

Koirj/na, vi. 67. 

A-otTjs, vi. 107. 

koikvXXw, vi. 124 + v. 7. 

/coiXos, ii. 5. 

A'oiXta, ii. 5. 

Koifx6.il], iii. 8. 

koivos, i. 31. 

koioXtjs, vi. 107. 

/coios, i. 5. 

a-cuoj, i. 31. 

Koipavos, vi. 4. 

koItv, iii. 8. 

kokkos, vii. 10. 

KOKKV, ix. 10. 

KOKKvyea, vii. 10. 
kokkv!;, vii. 10 ; ix. 10. 
KOK^ac, vi. 67. 
k6Xcl, v. 4. 
KoXafieco, x. 13. 
KoXapos, v. 4. 
KoXaflpos, v. 4 ; x. 13. 
A-oXdfw, iv. 10. 
A-6Xai;, v. 4. 
/coXd.7rTw, vi. 5. 
KoXcupos, vi. 5. 
KoXiKavos, iii. G. 
AoXeos, ii. 1. 



KoXcTpdw, vi. 5. 
koX^w, v. 4. 
KoXias, vi. 129. 
*6XXa, i. 23. 
/coXXa/3£j"w, vi. 5. 
koXXi£, ii. 1. 
koXXottuw, i. 23. 
k6XXo\{/, i. 23 ; ii. 1 ; vi. 

5 I ii. 51. 
KJXXvfSoi', ii. 1. 
A-oXXupa, ii. 1 . 
KoXXvpiov, i. 23. 
KoXXvpiuf, ix. 7. 
KoXopos, iv. 10. 
/coXotos, ix. 7. 
KoXoiria, ii. 2. 
koX6kcu>os, iii. 6. 
KoXoKaaia, ii. 1+vi. 67. 
KoXoKv/j.a, ii. 1+vi. 67. 
koXokvvOos, ii. 1+vi. 66. 
koXov, ii, 1 ; vi. 6. 
koXos, iv. 10. 
KoXocrcoj, vi. 2. 
KoXocrvpros, ix. 7 + ix. 24. 
AToXcwaj, iv. 10. 
KoXocpwv, ii. 1 ; vi. 2. 
kSXttos, ii. 1. 
KoXv^oaiva, ii. 2. 
KoXvfSpLov, x. 13. 
k6Xvli[3os, v. 4 + v. 22. 
/:uXy.os, ii. 2. 
KoXioKwvas, ii. 2. 
KoXtvvos, vi. 2. 
KoXipds, ix. 7. 
Ko/xapos, ii. 7. 
k6ll[3os, ii. 8. 
koli.£u), vi. 132. 
ko/u?;, vi. 70. 
Ko/xlfa, vi. 132. 
Kopp.6$, vi. 132. 
ko/xttos, ix. 9. 
Kop:\p6s, vi. 132. 
Kuvafios, ix. 8. 
kSjvovXos, vi. tiii. 

KlWw, V. 1. 

Kun/cXos, vii. 5. 
KouiXrj, viii. IS. 
A-oi'ts, vii, G. 
/coci's, vii. 5. 
Koi'vew, viii. I. 

A '.'iTus', vi:. 6. 



300 



INDEX. 



kovtos, vi. 112. 

KOl'TOS, IV. 7. 

Kovv^a, viii. 18. 

KOTndrrjs, vii. 7. 

kott'ls, vi. 5. 

kottos, iii. 22. 

Koirpos, viii. 7. 

k6tttw, vi. 5. 

KopdWiov, vi. 129 + vii. 

38. 
Kopat;, ii. 3 ; ix. 6. 

KOpda!;, v. 5. 
Kopbivdopai, viii. 7. 
KopSuXy, ii. 4 + ii. 18; v. 
5; vi. 1+vi. 10. 

K'0p5(y\0S, v. 5. 
Kopevvvp.i, iii. /. 
K-op?7, vi. 1. 
i;6p8vs, vi. 1. 
Kop'iavvov, x. 18. 
xopiov, i. 23. 
ko/hs, i. 23 ; vii. 3. 
KopKopos, ii. 4. 
KOpKopvyr;, ix. 6. 
Kopp.6s, vi. 1. 
Kopvo\p, ix. 6 + ix. 2. 
/c6/3os, vi. 1 ; vii. 1. 
Kopw 6s, vi. 1. 
nopaetis, iv. 9. 

KO/HTT), vi. 1. 

Kopaiov, vi. 1. 
Kopufias, v. 5. 
Kopvoos, vi. 1. 
Kopv^a, viii. 7. 
KopvXos, ii. 4. 
Kopvpfios, vi. 1+vi. 78. 

KOpVVT], Vi. 1. 
KOpUTTTLO, Vi. 1. 
KOpVTTTlXoS, VI. 1. 

Kopvs, vi. 1. 
Kopvaaw, vi. 1. 

KOpVTTlhOS, Vi. 1. 

Kopvcpr], vi. 1 + vi. 62. 
Kopdivr], ii. 3; ix. (5. 
Kopu3i>6$, ii. 3. 
Koaxivov, iv. 8. 
KO(JKv\p.a.ra, iv. 8. 
Koap-os, vi. 134. 
/coo - cros, vi. 5. 
Koacxvfpos, ix. 3. 

/;. vii. !•. 



Kocrros, x. 4. 
Koevpfios, vii. 9. 
Korepos, i. 5 + vi. 9. 
kStlvos, vi. 70. 
kotos, viii. 4. 
Korra, vi. 70. 
k6tto.[3os, vi. 5. 
k6tto.vov, vi. 70. 
kottv4>os, ix. 3. 
kotvXtj, ii. 6. 

/C(WKOl''AlOl', i ; . 5. 

KovKovpiov, vi. 114. 
Koi>KOV(pa., ix. 12. 
Kovpa, iv. 9. 

KOVptJ, Vi. 1. 

Kovpidios, vi. 4. 
/cwpos, vi. 1. 

KOVfpOS, V. 1. 

KbcpLvos, ii. 8. 
k<j,yA<*m vii. 2. 
/cox^os, ii. 2. 

K'OXt'W, v. 1. 

Kox&vq, ii. 9. 
Kotfixos, ix. 3. 
Kpafiaros, ii. 3 + vi. 40. 
Kpab~a.ii), v. 5. 
KpaSij, v. 5 ; vii. 1. 
Kpdfa, ix. 6. 
Kpaivui, vi. 6. 
KpanraXr;, v. 5. 
Kpanrvbs, v. 5. 
Kpaipa, vi. 1. 
Kpap:(3r], vi. 1 + vi. "S. 
Kpdp.(3os, vii. 1. 
Kpavabs, vii. 1. 
Kpavlov, ii. 4. 
Kpdvov, vii. 1. 
Kpdvos, ii. 4. 
A'pds, vi, 1. 

Kpaawedof, ii. 4 + ii. 3:1. 
KpdcrTLS, vi. 1. 
Kpdraiyos, vii. 3. 
Kparrjp, i. 23. 
KpaToj, vi. 6. 
Kparvs, vi. 6. 
Kpavyrj, ix. 6. 
Kpavpos, vii. 1. 
Kpeas, v. (5. 
Kptiaaijiv, vi. 6. 
Kphwu, vi. (J. 
KptKU), ii. 3 ; ix. '!. 



Kpepdvpvpi, vi. 4. 

Kpep.j3a\ov, ix. 6. 

/cpe'f, ix. 6. 

Kpiwv, vi. 6. 

Kpriyvos, vi. 6 + vi. 107. 

Kpr)0p.os, viii. 19 + viii. 1G. 

Kprjpvbs, vi. 4; 
KpTjVTJ, VI. 1. 

Kp-rpn-'is, ii. 4 + ii. 33. 

Kprjaepa, ii. 3. 

KpLfiavos, vi. 129. 

Kpidow, ix. 6. 

Kpi^w, ix. 6. 

Kpidrj, vii. 3. 

Kp'iKe, ix. 6. 

kolkos, ii. 3. 

Kpip.vov, vii. 1. 

Kp'ivov, iii. 7. 

Kpivu, iv. 9. 

Kpibs, vii. 3. 

Kpiaabs, vi. 1. 

/cp6(C77, ii. 3 ; vii. 1. 

KpoKbdeiXos, v. 5 + ii. 10. 

KpoKos, vi. 129. 

Kp6p.vov, viii. 19 + viii. 20. 

Kpbaaai, vii. 1 . 

Kpbcraoi, vii. 1. 

Kpba<pos, vii. 3. 

Kpbratpos, vi. 1 + i. 33. 

Kpbros, vi. 4. 

Kportif, vii. 1. 

Kporuvfj, vii. 1. 

Kpovvbs, vi. 1. 

Kpovco, vi. 4. 

Kpvp.bs, vii. 1. 

Kpvos, vii. 1. 

KpilTTTlO, ii. 4. 

Kpuaraivw, vii. 1. 
K-pi7(rraXXos,vii.l + vii. 38. 
Kpwfiiov, ii. 4. 
KpufiuXos, vi. 1. 
Kpibfa, ix. 6. 
Kpup-al;, vii. 1 + vi. 31. 
Kptbinov, ii. 4. 

Kpu>TTOS, ii. 3. 

Kpwaabs, ii. 3. 
KTaop.ai, i. 22. 
Kreavov, i. 22. 
Kreap, i. 22. 
KTelvu, vii. 11. 
/CTti's, vii. 1 1. 



[NDEX. 



301 



/ci-t'pas, 1. 22. 
KTepta, i. 22. 

KTTjVOS, i. 22. 

KrLdeos, vii. 11. 
Krifa. iii. 9. 
ktLXos, iii. 9. 
Krlvvvfu, vii. 11. 

/vTU7TOS, ix. 1 8. 

KvaOos, ii. 5. 

Kva/J.os, ii. 5. 

Kvavos, ii. 5. 

Kt5a/), ii. 5. 

nvfiepvau, v. 1. 

Kt'/3?7, vi. 77. 

kuj3t}Xis, vi. 5. 

ki''(3ltoi>, ii. 7. 

tcufios, ii. 7. 

KOSapos, ii. 6. 

kv5oi/x6s, vii. 1 1 + v. 23. 

/c^Sos, viii. ] 1. 

/cOSos, vi. 107. 

Kvdtbvios, vi. 70. 

Kvew, vi. 67. 

Ki>/cdw, i. 23. 

KVK\dp.LPos, ii. 1 + viii. 20. 

k6k\os, ii. 1. 

KVK\oreprjs, ii. 1 + ii. 20. 

kijkvos, ix. 10. 

Kvka, ii. 1. 

kvXt], ii. 1. 

kvXipBw, ii. 1 f ii. 32. 

kvXiS;, ii. 1. 

KvXlh), ii. 1. 

kvXXos, ii. 1. 

A-fijua, vi. 67. 

Ku/.i[3a\op, ii. 7. 

ku/j.(3os, ii. 7. 

k>j(xlv8ls, ix. 9. 

Kvvdpa, vii. 5. 

KwSaAos, vi. 112. 

Kvviri, ii. 6. 

Kvvtu), ii. 5. 

/ci/7rdpi<r(ros, viii. 13 + viii. 

19. 
Kinrapos, ii. 7. 
Kinrds, ii. 8. 

Ki'nretpos, viii. 13 + viii. 19. 
Ki57re\\(w, ii. 7. 
Kijirepos, viii. 13 + viii. 19. 

KVTT7), ii. 7. 
Kvirplvos, vi. 77. 



Ki'irpis, vi. * / . 
Kuirpos, viii. 13 + viii. 19. 
kvtttw, ii. 7. 
Ki'/pfias, v. 5. 
Kvpj3a<jis, vi. 1. 
Kup(3ei$, vi. 1. 
Kvpeu, vi. 4. 
Kvpr)[3&iu}, vi. 4. 
Kvpripiov, ii. 4. 
KvpLXXiov, ix. 6. 
Kvpios, vi. 4. 
Kvplaaoj, vi. 4. 
KupKavaio, i. 23. 
/cDpo?, vi. 4. 
Kvpadvios, vi. 1. 
Kvpros, ii. 3. 
Kvpros, ii. 3. 
Kvados vi. 67. 
/cucros, vi. 67. 

KVffTTj, ii. 6. 

Kimpos, ii. 6. 
/cutis, ii. 6. 
KVTiaos, ii. 6. 
kutos, ii. 6. 

KUTTCLpOS, ii. 6. 

kij(j>t), vi. 77. 
KV(p6s, ii. 7. 
KvtpeKij, ii. 7. 
KuxpeXos, ix. 3. 
ki$w, vi. 67. 

Kl'MP, ix. 8. 

kw, i. 5. 
Kuias, vi. 70. 
Ku/3t6s, vi. 77. 
Kwdeia, vi. 70. 
Kudiov, vi. 70. 
KWOUV, vi. 70. 
Kwdwv, vi. 70. 
kiokvu), ix. 10. 
kwXtj, ii. 1. 
Kw\rji>, ii. 1. 
KioXri^, ii. 1. 
/cujXop, ii. 1. 
/iwAuw, vi. 5. 
KwXibr-qs, vii. 4 + v. 23. 
Kwfia, iii. 8. 
Kw/j.7], ii. 8. 

KU1/J.OS, v. 1. 

Kwpi.vs, ii. 8. 
Kwveiov, vii. 5. 
kuwo?, vii. 5. 



Kd>i>w\p, vii. .". 

KU1TT7], ii. 8. 

KwpvKos, ii. 3. 
k-cDs, i. 5 ; ii. 5. 
/ccoTtXos, ix. 1 1. 
Ku<pus, iii. 22. 
Kcoxe^w, vi. 63. 
Xa-, vi. 96. 
Xaas, vii. 38. 
Xd/3pa, ii. 51. 
Xa/3pos, vii. 38 ; x. 15. 
Xappdivios, x. 15. 
Xa.j3upi.v8os, ii. 51 + ii. 1 2 + 

ii. 32. 
XdYapor, vii. 31. 
Xayapos, iii. 19. 
Xa77fxs"w, iii. 19. 
Xdyr/vos, ii. 47. 
Xa7Pos, vi. 92. 
Xa7W'oj, ii. 47. 

Xa^xdew, iv. 17. 

Xa7coi', iii. 19. 

Xa7ais, v. 16. 

Xdoas, vi. 87. 

Xdso/xai, ii. 47. 

Xdja), vi. 5. 

Xadvpis, ii. 55. 

XdOvpos, ii. 55. 

Xat-, vi. 96. 

XaToos, ii. 54. 

XaiSpos, ix. 20. 

XcuKafw, vi. 92. 

XaiXaxp, vii. 38. 

Xa.ip.6s, x. 15. 

Xcuos, v. 15. 

Xd't'os, ix. 20. 

Xcur/-, vi. 96. 

Xaicrea, vii. 13. 

XcurjTji.'oJ', vii. 13. 

XaiTfia, x. 16. 

Xatcpos, vii. 38. 

Xaiiprjpos, v. 15. 

XdKa<p0ov, viii. 16 + viii. 
13 + viii. 16. 

XaKis, vii. 31. 

XaKKOS, ii. 47. 

XdKos, vii. 31 ; ix. 20. 

XaKTlfa, vi. 5. 

XaXe'w, ix. 20. 

XaXXrj, vii. 38. 

Xapfidvu), ii. 51. 



302 



INDEX. 



Xap.ia, x. 15. 

Xd/xos, x. 15. 

Xa.fj.Tn}, i. 24. 

\afj.Tn)vr}, ii. 50 + ii. 30. 

\dfX7ra), vi. 136. 

XavOdvw, ii. 55. 

Ad£, vi. 5. 

Aaos, vi. 87. 

Xa7ra(?oi', iii. 32. 

Xarrapos, iii. 32. 

Xam], i. 24. 

Xa7rifw, vii. 38 ; ix. 3. 

Xd.7rra>, x. 15. 

Xdpt£, i. 24. 

Xapiuds, i. 24. 

XdpKos, ii. 57. 

Xdpvai;, ii. 57. 

Xapos, x. 17. 

Xdpos, x. 16. 

Adpiry£, x. 16 + x. 11. 

Xapwoo, ix. 20. 

Xatrajw, vii. 31. 

Xdadr], vii. 31. 

Xdcrios, vii. 13. 

Xdcr/cw, ix. 20. 

Xaarayeu, ix. 20. 

Xarrrdpvrj, vii. 33. 

Xdaravpos, vi. 97 + vi. 72. 

Adra£, vi. 19. 

Xdrpts, vi. 96. 

Xdrpov, vi. 9G. 

XartVcrw, vi. 19. 

XavKavirj, x. 11. 

Xavpa. ii. 51 . 

Xd<pvpov, ii. 51 + ii. 13. 

XcKpvacrw, x. 15 + x. 11. 

Aa^cuVw, vii. 31. 

Xdx"7i, iii. 19. 

Xaxpavi], iii. 32. 

Adu>, vi. 97 ; vi. 136. 

Ae/8?7pis, ii. 51 + ii. 13 ; 

v. 15. 
A^tjs, ii. 50. 
Xefiias, v. 15. 
Xc,Slv0os, ii. 51 + vi. 58. 
Xiyvov, ii. 47. 
Xiyofiai, iii. 19. 
A^yw, ii. 47. 
Aeta, vi. 96. 
Aet/3w, iii. 32. 
Xei/xa^, iii. 20. 



Xeifiuiv, iii. 20. 
Aetoj, vii. 35. 
Xdvw, iv. 17. 
Xeipiov, iii. 34. 
Aeip6s, iii. 34. 
Aax'?'', i. 25. 
Aa'xw, x. 17. 
XeKavrj, ii. 47. 
XeKidos, ii. 47. 
X^kos, ii. 47. 
A^/cpoi, ii. 46. 
XtpLpos, v. 15. 
Xep.ua, iii. 20. 
Xefupos, i. 24. 
Xirradvov, ii. 50. 
AeVas, vii. 38. 
Ae7rdj, vii. 33. 
Ae7ri's, ii. 51. 
Xerropis, v. 15. 
Xerrpbs, ii. 51. 
Aetttos, iii. 32. 
Xerrvpov, ii. 51+ii. 13. 
XeTTio, ii. 51. 

XeaxVi i s - -0. 
Aet/-yaAe'o5, ix. 20. 
XeiwSs, vi. 123. 
Xevpos, vii. 35. 
AeiVcrw, vi. 123. 
Ae'xos, iii. 19. 
Ae'xpios, ii. 46. 
Ae'xw, iii. 19. 
A^uw, vii. 33. 
Ar^-yw, iii. 19. 
AtJoos, ii. 54. 
A?;'/'??, vi. 96. 
A^i'ov, vi 96. 
A77K<fa>, ix. 20. 
XrjKvdos, ii. 47 ; x. 11. 
Xtjku, vi. 92. 
Xij/ja, vi. 97. 
Xrjfj.r], i. 24. 
XrjfAfia, ii. 51. 
Xrfu.vifTKOs, ii. 50. 
Xyi>6s, ii. 54. 
AtJi'os, iii. 20. 
Xf/pos, iii. 34. 
At-, vi. 96. 
Aidfo/itai, ii. 46. 
A tap, vi. 96. 
Atapjs, iii. 6. 
Xiafffia, iii. 6. 



Xiyyu, ix. 20. 

Xtyoos, iii. 19 ; vii. 31. 

A17WS, vii. 31. 

A17US, ix. 20. 

Ai's" w , vii. 31. 

At'flo?, vii. 33. 

XiKfJOS, v. 16. 

XIkvov, v. 16. 
XiKpupis, ii. 46 + i. 8. 
XiKpoL, ii. 46. 
XiXaiofjai, vi. 97. 
At'p/3os, x. 15. 
At/x^y, iii. 20. 
Xlfj-vrj, iii. 20. 

XlfLOS, x. 15. 

Xivov, ii. 54. 
At-jrapijs, vi. 95. 
Xiiros, i. 24. 
XiTTTOfj-ai, vi. 95. 
Atpos, v. 1 2. 
A?s, vii. 33. 
A/s, vii. 35. 
A1V70S, vii. 31. 
Xictttos, vii. 35. 
Xiatrofiai, vi. 97. 
Aicrtros, vii. 35. 
XiffTpov, vii. 31. 
At'cr<por, vii. 35. 
Xtaxpoi, vii. 31. 
At'crxpos, i. 25. 
Atr-, ii. 54. 

Airapyjs, v. 14-1- v. 16. 
Atr?7, ii. 55. 
Atr?}, vi. 97. 
Atroj, vii. 35. 
Xirpa, vi. 91. 
Atxavos, vi. 93. 
Atx«, vi. 93 ; vii. 31. 
Xixvos, x. 17. 
Xl\p, vi. 95. 
Ao/3os, ii. 51. 
AoydSes, vi. 123. 
Ao77dj"w, iii. 19. 
Ac>77ei5to, i. 25. 
Xoyywv, ii. 46. 
X67X'?, vii. 31. 
Aot7<!>j, vii. 31. 
Aot'Sopos, ix. 20. 
Aotp,6s, iii. 19. 
XoiaOos, iii. 33. 
Xokkt), ii. 47. 



INDEX. 



303 



Xo£ias, ii. 4G. 
Xo$6s, ii. 46. 

XoTTOS, ii. 51. 

Xop86s, ii. 56. 

Xovaaov, ii. 55. 

Xovco, vii. 35. 

Xo<pvi's, ii. 51. 

X6<pos, vii. 38. 

X6x"*?, ii'. 19. 

Xoxos, ii. 47 ; Hi. 19. 

XtiySos, vi. 123. 

Xiry?7, ii. 47. 

Xvyxovpiov, vi. 123 + vi. 

117. 
Xiry£, vi. 123. 
Xu-yos, ii. 4G. 
Xu7/36s, ix. 20. 
Xi'fw, ix. 20. 
Xvdpov, i. 24. 
\vK&(3as, vi. 123 + vi. 40. 
XwcavYiJs, vi. 123 + vi. 

120. 
Xvkos, ii. 47. 

Xvi<6<ptos, vi. 123 + vi. 115. 
Xv/j.a, i. 24. 
Xi/,u77, i. 24 ; vii. 38. 
Xvirtj, vii. 3S. 
Xvpa, ix. 15. 
Xvaaa, v. 14. 
Xi'^x^oy, vi. 123. 
Xj;w, iii. 19. 
Xc6/3t?, vii. 38. 
Xaryds, vi. 92. 
Xwyaaos, vi. 92. 
Xw'ttov, vi. 9G. 
XtD/^a, vii. 38. 
Xai7ros, ii. 51. 
Xcot6s, vi. 87. 
Xuxpdw, iii. 32. 
fid, i. 5. 
fxayddis, ix. 21. 
fiayds, ix. 21. 
fidyyavov, ii. 38 ; vi. 121. 
fidyeipos, i. 20. 
^10.705, vi. 52. 
piayvdapis, vi. 31+ iii. 13. 
paodco, iii. 5. 
/xdopva, vi. 31+vi. 9. 
/uas'a, i. 20. 
(uafts, x. 9. 
jj.a0a.Xis, iii. 5. 



,ucua, vi. 31 . 
Maiavopos, v. 22. 
fiaLfiuKuXov, vi. 31. 
fjaipdaato, viii. 2. 
ixaiixdw, viii. 2. 
paivq, v. 22. 
fj.alvopi.at, viii. 1. 
p.aioixai, viii. 2. 
fialpa, vi. 121. 
fiaipidui, vi. 121. 
fxaKap, vi. 52. 
fxaKeXXa, iv. 7 + vii. 4. 
fxaneXov, ii. 35. 
piaKKoda), viii. 6. 
fj-aKpbs, vi. 31. 
fidXa, vi. 29. 
/xaXaKos, iii. 3. 
p.aXdaau), iii. 3. 

fxaXdxv, ii'- 3. 
fiiXeTv, vi. 29. 
fiaXepls, iii. 3. 
fxdXevpov, vii. 45 f vii. 2S. 
fidXr], ii. 40. 
/*dX0a, i. 20. 
pLaX6ai<6s, iii. 3. 
fj.dXK7], iii. 3. 
fiaXX6s, iii. 3. 
p.aX6s, vi. 121. 
fxdp.fj.ri, x. 9. 
fiavdaKr/, ii. 38. 
fxdvoaXos, ii. 39. 
/idvopa, ii. 39. 
fiav5pay6pas, iii. 5. 
fxavSvas, ii. 39. 
fxavddvw, viii. 2. 
fxavlaKov, ii. 38. 
fidvos, ii. 38. 
p.avbs, iii. 5. 
fxavm, viii. 1. 
pidpaydos, vi. 121. 
fidpadpov, viii. 20. 
ixapalvui, iii. 4. 
fjdpyapov, vi. 121. 
fidpy os, v. 8. 
fj-dpr/, ii. 43. 
fiapievs, vi. 121. 
fxapidds, vi. 121. 
paplX-q, vi. 121. 
/xdpis, i. 11. 
^a/D^, iii- 4. 
fiapluj, vi. 121. 



fi.apnaipw, vi. 121. 
/xdp/xapos, vi. 121. 
papnapvyi), vi. 121. 
/xapvapai, vii. 45. 
p.dpov, viii. 20. 
fidpiTTO}, ii. 43. 
fxdppov, vii. 45. 
fidpanros, ii. 43 + ii. 25. 
fxapTvp, viii. 3. 
fj.aadop.ai, x. 5 ; x. 25. 
p.da0Xn], ii. 38. 
fiaados, x. 9. 
/uri<r(, vi. 35. 
pi.daop.ai, i. 20. 
fida-Terov, i. 20 + iv. 15. 
fidaaw, i. 20. 
pLaardfa, x. 5. 
p.dara^, x. 5. 
fxaarevw, viii. 2. 
jud<m£, ii. 38 + ii. 32. 
/xaaTixVt i- 20. 
fxaarbs, x. 9. 

pLaarpoiros, viii. 2 + iii. 13. 
/Lta<rrp(5Xioj',viii. 2 + iii. 13. 
fj.aaxdXrf, ii. 38. 
pLardo}, v. 21. 
fj.dTat.os, v. 21. 
^tard^a, ii. 38. 
fiarevco, viii. 2. 
paTrjv, v. 21. 
fxdnov, i. 11. 
p-dris, vi. 35. 
fj.dros, viii. 2. 
fj.dTraj3os, v. 21. 
fxaTTva, vii. 44. 
fiavXis, ii. 41 ; vii. 45. 
p-avpos, ii. 43. 
fj.dxo.Lpa, vii. 4G. 
pi.dxofJ.ai, vi. 33. 
^dxXos, vi. 31. 
(Uct'/', v. 22. 
/tia'w, viii. 2. 
/xeyaipu, ii. 35. 
p-iyapov, ii. 35. 
fiiyas, vi. 31. 
p.4oip.vos, i. 11. 
fj.45op.ai, viii. 2. 
f.U£ea, vi. 35. 
A«?0?7, x. 20. 
fxeOuw, x. 20. 
(UaSdco, iv. 12. 



304 



INDEX. 



/AeiXiaoio, iii. •'!. 

/xe?pa£, vi. 28. 

fieipofiai, iv. 1 6. 

fjeiiav, iii. 5. 

fiiXadpov, ii. 8. 

fieXas, i. 20. 

fieXoLo, iii. 3. 

/iifXe, iii. 3. 

fieXeos, iii. 3 ; vii. 45. 

/xeXi, x. 20. 

fjeXia, ii. 41. 

fieXLvrf, ii. 41. 

/xeXifrcra, x. 20. 

fj.eXXa£, vi. 29. 

yueXXw, vi. 23. 

yueXos, ii. 40 ; ix. 2. 

/xe'Xjrw, ix. 2. 

fjiXu), vii. 45. 

fiep.a.KvXoi', vi. 31. 

jue/x/3XwKct, vi. 19. 

/xefipp&i;, ix. 15. 

/xifivcov, i. 16. 

jj.ifj.ova, viii. 1. 

fjifupofjai, viii. 6. 

/xeV, i. 5. 

fj.evea.ivw, viii. 1. 

ixevdrjpai, viii. 1. 

fitvoiva.03, viii. 1. 

fxevos, viii. 1. 

fxevTUjp, viii. 1. 

fxivLO, i. 16. 

fiipyw, vii. 45. 

fxepdu, iv. 16. 

fj-epepv*, ii. 42 + ii. 20. 

fj.ipip.va, viii. 3. 

fiepfiepos, vii. 45. 

fj.epfX7fpifa, viii. 3. 

fj.epp.Ls, ii. 42 + ii. 3^. 

fj-epo^p, iv. 16 + ix. 2. 

fiearfyv, ii. 39 + i. 7. 

fj-eaos, ii. 39. 

fieatriXov, x. 20 4- x. 21. 

fjecTTOS, vi. 36. 

fj.ea<f>a, vi. 36 4 i. 8. 

fxicrcpi, vi. 36 + i. 8. 

/uerd, ii. 39. 

fj.eTaXXa.oj, ix. 2. 

fxeTafi&vios, ii. 39 + iii. 5. 

^era^i5, ii. 39 + i. 7. 

Heriapos, ii. 39 + vi. 84. 

fJ.iT/IOV, i. 11. 



fXeTWTTlOV, i. '_' H \ 


. 9. 


fjLvvpou.aL, ix. 16 l-ix. If 


fj.ixp'.s, vi. 31. 




/j-Lvvpos, ix. 16 + ix. 15. 


jm}, iv. 4. 




fXLvvwpos, iii. 5 + vi. 8. 


fjrjoea, vi. 35. 




fxlayLc, i. 20. 


fjrjdofxat, viii. 2. 




fiLadapviw, i. 11 + ii. 57. 


firjKa.Ofj.aL, ix. 21. 




fjiod Js ; i. 11. 


fJTJKOS, vi. 31. 




fliffKOL, i. 20. 


fXTfKLOV, vi. 31. 




,u?(xos. viii. 6. 


fjr)\rj, vii. 45. 




fJLCTTvXXo}, vii. 44. 


fiT]\o\6vdri,v\. 29 + 


vii. 33. 


/cu'crii, vi. 32. 


firfKov, iii. 3 ; vi. : 


29. 


ui'ffxoy, vi. 32. 


ur)\wdpov, ii. 40. 




/jltos, ii. 38. 


fj.7]\wT7j, iii. 3 + ii. 


33. 


fiLTpa, ii. 38. 


/U^«', i. 11. 




fj.LTv\os, vii. 44. 


MiK i. 5. 




fj-lrvs, i. 20. 


/.i^??, i. 11. 




fjvaofjai, viii. 1. 


firjvLy^, ii. 39 + ii. 


!2. 


fjvdpov, iii. 5. 


/j-rjvLS, viii. 1. 




fivaaiov, i. 11. 


firfvvio, viii. 1. 




fivLov, iii. 5. 


jU.^oi', i. 20. 




/jlvl6s, iii. 5. 


MW'Ts) ii. 42 + ii. 


32. 


fivoia, ii. 39. 


p.y)pLvdos, ii. 42 + ii 


. 32. 


/.LvoTov, iii. 5. 


fj-Vpos, vi. 28. 




fivoos, iii. 5. 


fj.rjpvKa.Lc, x. 5 + x. 


11. 


/xi'OLij'es, iii. 5. 


fj'qpv^, x. 5 + x. 1" 




/jvLota, ii. 39. 


/xrfpvw, ii. 42. 




fibyyos, ix. 21. 


fxrjTrjp, vi. 31. 




fioyos, vi. 33. 


jtt^Ttj, viii. 2. 




;u65ios, i. 11. 


fjrjTpvLa,, vi. 31 + i 


8. 


fxoOos, v. 21. 


f.L7)X av V, v 'ii- -• 




fjodwi', v. 21. 


WX°5. viii - 2 - 




juoi^i'da?, x. '_•">. 


/.ua. iv. 7. 




/.toi,ui'XXw, x. 6. 


fXLalvLc, i. 20. 




/xojos, ii. 25. 


fiLaxpos, i. 20. 




fjolpa, iv. 1 6. 


fiiyvvfiL, i. 20. 




fJOLTOS, i. 11. 


P.lkk6s, vii. 18. 




/joLxos, iii. 25. 


fiLKpbs, vii. IS. 




p.oXy6s, ii. 41. 


/j.lXX6s, iii. 3. 




fjoXiui, vi. 19. 


/tuXos, ii. 40. 




/j.6\ls, vi. 30. 


fjiXros, vi. 121. 




fj.o\o[3p6s, x. 6. 


fiiXcpai, iii. 3. 




fj6Xvj3dos, i. 20. 


pLLuaWuv, v. 8. 




fxoXvvw, i. 20. 


flLfXLXP-OS, ix. 21. 




fjovdvXei'Lo, vi. 35. 


fj.ifjLvr)o~KU}, viii. 1. 




fiovvos, ii. 38. 


fufjos, i. 11. 




fibvos, iv. 7. 


/up. i. 5. 




,/j.opyLov, ii. 42 ; iv. 16. 


fxivOa, viii. 20. 




fjopyos, ii. 42. 


filvOos, viii. 2f>. 




fj.opfj.oXvTTLc, vii. 45. 


fiLviidw, iii. 5 + iii. 


11. 


fj.6pfj.opos, vii. 45. 


plvvvda, iii. 5 + iii 


. 11. 


fiopfios, vii. 45. 


fjivvos, iii. 5. 




fLOpflVpOS, v. S. 



IXDEX. 



305 



fiop/xvpu, v. 8. 

flop/nil}, vii. 45. 

fxopdeis, vi. 121. 

fxbpov, ii. 43. 

fi-bpos, iv. 16. 

fxop'na, vi. 121. 

fioppivrj, vi. 121. 

fj.6pjift.os, iv. 16. 

fiopros, iii. 4. 

fLopvaau, i. 20. 

fJ.oprf>r), ii. 43. 

fxbptpvos, ii. 43. 

fj-ocavvu, x. 5. 

fj-oax^y vi. 32 ; viii. 20. 

fj-orov, iii. 5. 

fiovaa, viii. 1. 

1x0x60%, vi. 33. 

M°X^os, vi. 33. 

M^, xi. 7. 

fj.va.Kav6 os, vi. 31 + vi. 58. 

fMvdu, x. 25. 

fj.vodiofj.ai, i. 20. 

fLvSaoj, i. 20. 

/w5os, i. 20. 

fj.v8pia<ris, ii. 39. 

fxvSpos, vi. 35. 

fivSdov, vi. 35. 

fiveXos, i. 20. 

yuuew, i. 28. 

/Ui/jw, ix. 21 ; x. 9. 

fjvdos, ix. 2. 

^wa, v. 31. 

fj.vKdofj.ai. ix. 21. 

Atifa??, i. 28. 

fivK-qpos, vi. 31. 

fj.vKT}s, vi. 31. 

fj.vK.Xos, i. 20 ; vi. 31. 

fxvKos, i. 20. 

fivKos, i. 28. 

fivKT-ffp, i. 20. 

-fivKTifa, i. 20. 

fivKuv, vi. 31. 

fjvXaKpis, vii. 45 -I- vii. 1. 

/ui/X?;, vii. 45. 

livWov, x. 6. 

/xl'Wos, x. 6. 

fivXXos, ii. 40 ; ii. 4 I. 

fxvXXui, ii. 41 ; ix. 21. 

fivfjos, viii. 6. 

^iV??, ii. 39. 

M^a, i. 20 ; vi. 31. 



M^fwr, i. 20. 

fivoTrdpuv. ii. 39 + vi, 20. 

fivpatva, ii. 42. 

/J.vpa$, ii. 42. 

fivpiK-q, v. 8. 

fivplos. vi. 28. 

fj-vpKos. ix. 21. 

fj.vpfj.Tj 5 w v, vii. 45 + vii. 44. 

fHjpfirjZ, vii. 45 + vii. 46. 

fxvpov, viii. 20. 

A^pos, ii. 42. 

fj-vppa, viii. 20. 

fivp'plur), viii. 20. 

fivpo-ivrj, viii. 20. 

fjvpaos, ii. 42. 

fjvpros, viii. 20. 

yctfyw, v. 8. 

/uOs, i. 20 ; ii. 39. 

fj.vo-dTTOfj.ai, viii. 6. 

/xvaidoj, viii. 6. 

fivo-os, viii. 6. 

-wiVcrw, i. 20. 

fivo-TiXr), x. 5. 

fxvaTpov, x. 5. 

fivTTjs, i. 28. 

/itfriXoy, i. 20. 

Mi' 7 "'*, i. 20. 

fJVTTaKes, vi. 35. 

fj.vTT6s, i. 20 ; i. 28. 

fj.vTTUTos, vii. 44. 

fivxdiiu. ix. 21. 

/xt>xXos, vi. 31. 

fj-vxos, i. 28. 

£u''X u,, > vi. 31. 

AU'w, i. 23. 

fj.vu£6s, i. 28 + vi. 124. 

fj-CjKos, viii. 6. 

fiZXos, vii. 45. 

MiSXi', vi. 29. 

fubXvfa. vi. 29. 

/UujXvj, iii. 3. 

fxwXojxfj, vii. lS + vi. 96. 

fj.&fj,os, viiL 6. 

Mwe, i. 5. 

fj-ojpos, iii. 4. 

-fxuipos, viii. 3. 

vat, i. 5. 

valpov, viii. IS. 

vaLx<., i. 5. 

pcu'cu, i. 10. 

vcikt;, vii. 21. 



tokos, vii. 21. 
vaKTos, vi. 98. 

vavvdpiov, iii. 5. 

pachas, i. In. 

viwos, iii. 5. 

too'j, i. 10. 

TO7ros, vi. 78. 

t'dpoos. viii. 1 s . 

vdp6^, ii. 58. 

vipKa(p6ov, viii. 18 + viii. 
13 + viii. 16. 

vdpKT], iii. 31. 

vdpKUT<ros, iii. 31. 

TOpjj, v. 8. 

TOpraXo?, ii. 5S + ii. 18. 

TOcrcrw, vi. 98. 

va''Kpapos, v. 28 + iv. 9. 

toDs, v. 28. 

vat/to, ii. 6. 

tow, v. 28. 

I'eaXr/y, i. 10. 

vedy, i. 10. 

^cdnas, i. 10. 

J<eaf. i. 10. 

vefipbs, i. 10. 

r^S/sag, i. 1 0. 

verjXaros, i. 10. 

pet, i. 5. 

veiaipa, vi. 99. 

veiKos, vi. 98. 

f€Lpbs, vi. 99. 

veKpbs, iii. 31. 

veKTap, iii. 31+ii. 21. 

ye/cu5aXos, v. 2S + v. 17. 
Pexi/s, iii. 31 . 
vefieais, iv. 3. 
yep-os, iv. 3. 
^epcw, iv. 3. 
vevirjXos, iii 5. 
vivvos, i. 10. 
peeis, iii. 5. 
peoytXos, i. 10 + vi. 3. 
vioXala, i. 10 + vi. 87. 
veofjai, v. 28. 
»^os, i. 10. 
veoaabs, i. 10. 
j'eoxm^s, i. 10. 
yeVocJej, i. 10. 
M?p0e, vi. 99 + i. 1. 
vevpd. ii. 58. 
ceOpoi", ii. 58. 
U 



306 



INDEX. 



vevo), ii. 6. 

ve<pos, ii. 26. 

verpp6s, iii. 23. 

«w, ii. 58 ; v. 2S ; vi. 99. 

veiaacu}, i. 10. 

vrj-, iv. 4. 

vrj, i. 5. 

v?/Yd/reos, i. 10 + vi. 66. 

vrjdi/jLos, iii. 30. 

vrjOvs, ii. 58. 

i^e'w, vi. 99. 

vqdixi, ii. 58. 

fijXlTrovs, iv. 4-f ii. 51. 

vriveu}, vi. 99. 

vr\via, ix. 22. 

i>T]iredai>6$, iii. 23. 

1*7771-101x0?, iii. 23. 

v7;7rios, iii. 23. 

V1ipiT7]S, v. 8. 

>a;pn-os, iv. 4 + i. 27. 
vrjpiov, viii. 18. 
v?}<tos, v. 29. 
vTjffcra, v. 29. 
v?,<ttis, iv. 4 + x. 3. 
vTjTTa., v. 29. 
vr]<p(i), iv. 4 + x. 9. 
i'tjXI'tos, v. 28. 

j'vjXW) v> 28. 
W-yXapos, ix. 8. 
wj'aj, v. 28. 
w'kt?, vi. 98. 
viv, i. 5. 

I'LTTTO}, v. 28. 

virpov, v. 28, 
w0a, v. 2S. 
yd#os, viii. 8. 
vo/j.6s, iv. 3. 
yd/xos, iv. 3. 
ifoeu, viii. 4. 
— vbaos, vii. 20. 
vjcrros. ii. 58 ; iii. 30. 
vbacpi, iv. 4 + i. 8. 
vot'ls, iii. 5. 
i'otos, iii. 5. 
voOcros, vii. 20. 
vi, i. 10.i 
vvdbs, iii. 30. 
vvKTup, ii. 26 + vi. 8. 
vvptp-q, i. 10. 
vw, i. 10. 
vvv, i. 10. 



pwt, i. 10. 

vvt,, ii. 26. 

wos, i. 10. 

vvpu, vii. 20. 

vvffca, ii 58. 

wirw, vii. 20. 

vvara^w, ii. 6. 

j'i'Xa, ii. 26. 

vJoyaka, x. 3. 

vwOtjs, iii. 30. 

m3i, viii. 1. 

vu>Kap, iii. 31. 

cuXe/i^s, iv. 4 + iii. 1. 

Wjudui, iv. 3. 

i>G>po\p, vii. 20 + vi. 118. 

vuitos, ii. 58. 

j'wx 6 ^ 7 ? 5 ) iii- 31. 

i^abu), vii. 9. 

founds, vi. 134. 

£eVos, iii. 9. 

£epds, vii. 9. 

Jew, vii. 9. 

£77p6s, vii. 9. 

£i<pcu, vii. 9. 

|i0os, vii. 9. 

£dajw, vii. 9 ; ix. 11. 

$ov86s, vi. 134 ; ix. 11. 

iJi/Xcw, vi. 81. 

£w», i. 31. 

£fPos, i. 31. 

i;vpov, vii. 9. 

£i/w, vii. 9. 

6, rj, i. 3. 

6a, v. 25. 

oap, ii. 22. 

d/3eX6s, vii. 27. 

d/3oXds, vii. 27. 

6'/3pia, vi. 16. 

£/3p:,uos, vi. 21. 

6/3pv<;oi>, vi. 14. 

o7Kdo/uai, ix. 22. 

075o^Kov7ct, iv. 7. 

6yKos, ii. 9 ; vi. 31. 

oynos, vii. 3. 

^7X'' 7 ?! y i- 31. 
o5d^, x. 3. 
65d^ofj.at, vii. 24. 
S5e, i. 3 + i. 5. 
dcip.7;, viii. 16. 
656s, vi. 71. 
odous, x. 3. 



ooi'ifT], vii. 43. 
oSi'po^ai, ix. 4. 
obvaaopat., viL 43. 
dfei'a, vi. 103. 
6fa, vi. 73. 
dfw, viii. 16. 
o^^eros, iv. 6. 
600/xai, vi. 127. 
C66vt), ii. 33. 
oZ, viii. 5. 
oi', xi. 1. 
oi'af, v. 23. 
oLyw, iv. 5. 
oi'Sdaj, vi. 34. 
blbfov, vi. 34. 
6lf6s, xi. 1. 
oi'77, iii. 27. 
olrjiov, v. 23. 
ol/cos, i. 17. 
oTktos, xi. 1. 
6lp.a, v. 23. 
oi'/xTj, ix. 21. 
ol/xos, v. 24. 
ol/ALofa, xi. 1. 
oiV77, vi. 102. 
oTvos, iv. 5 ; vi. 102. 
oi'ojueu, vi. 52. 
otos, iv. 5. 
chs, 6'i's, iii. 27. 
olcros, ii. 32. 
dicrTds, vii. 25. 
cnVxpos, vii. 25. 
oiavTTij, iii. 27 + i. 15. 
oi'crw, vi. 108. 
euros, vi. 108. 
oi'0u>, vi. 107. 
oi'xo^at, iv. 5. 
di'a;, vi. 52. 
oiwvbs, v. 23 + v. 18. 
d/vAAw, vi. 5. 
6Kip./3afa, ii. 7. 
6/cKa/3os, ii. 9 + ii. 7. 
oKXdfcv, ii. 1. 
okvos, iii. 8. 
d'/cos, vi. 124. 
bKpts, vii. 1 . 
dtcpvoeis, vii. 1. 
o'/cxaXXos, vi. 124. 
d/crci, iv. 7. 
d«x^> v 'i- 63. 
ok^x^i, vi. 63. 



INDEX. 



307 



oXpos, vi. 96. 

6\r), vii. 34. 

bXiyos, v. 16. 

oW|3os, vii. 35. 

6'Xi<t#os, vii. 35. 

8\Xt£, ii. 1. 

6XXv/u, iv. 10. 

o\/j.os, ii. 1. 

6\o\i''fw, ix. 20. 

oXoi'rpoxoj, ii. 1 + ii. '20. 

bXbwrw, vii. 38. 

6\6s, i. 24. 

6'Xos, ii. 11. 

6Xocrx € PV^! i'- H+i- 30. 

6\o<rxos, vi. 87. 

6\o(puydd>v, vi. 86 + vi. 48. 

6\o(pvpofxai, ix. 19 + i.w 
15. 

6\o(pdil'os, iv. 10 + vi. 38. 

oXttt], ii. 51. 

6\vi>8os, vii. 33. 

oXvpa, vii. 34. 

o,uaoos, J. 32. 

ondfa, ix. 21. 

6/j.aX6s, i. 32. 

6fj.apT7J, i. 32 + i. 26. 

o>/3pos, v. 22. 

8/j.ripos, i. 32 f i. 26. 

op-iAo?, i. 32 + ii. 11. 

6/u.ixXy, i. 20. 

d/Lux^u, iii. 25. 

8/xvv/jli, ix. 2 1 . 

o/xotos, i. 32. 

dfiotcXri, i. 32 + ix. 7. 

6/j.jpyvv/jLi, vii. 45. 

o/xos, i. 32. 

OfJLTTVT], \'i. 4 7. 

6/x(f>aX6s, vi. 78. 
6fi(pa^, vii. 45 + x. 1. 
6/j.cpri, ix. 21. 
6Vap, iii. 31. 
fiVeiap, vi. 101. 
oVeiSos, viii. 8. 
oV0os, viii. 8. 
oPoVAet'to, vi. 34. 
6jn5t<x, viii. 8. 
dfivTjfiL, vi. 101. 
oViWos, vii. 20. 
ovlris, viii. 18. 
6V671750S, vii. 20 + vii. 3. 
6vofj.a, viii. 4. 



dVo/xcu, viii. 8. 

oVoy, iv. 5 ; vii. 20. 

oVooTia, viii. 18 + viii. 16. 

6vv%, vii. '20. 

dfuvis, viii. IS. 

o^lvrj, vii. 9. 

6'^os, vii. 9. 

otV'ct, vii. 9. 

d^'rs, vii. 9. 

oTrdfa, i. 30. 

o7rdXXios, vi. 118 + vii. 38. 

birdwv, i. 30. 

07rf'ay, iv. 6. 

0V77, iv. 6. 

oVlOJ', x. 9. 
OTriTTrji, vi. 118. 
owiffde, ii. 16. 
diriaau, ii. 16. 
67r£<7repos, ii. 16. 
bir\-q, ii. 8. 
oirXov, i. 30. 
birXbrepos, vi. 16. 
oVos, x. 9. 
d7rTiXos, vi. 118. 
oTTTouat, vi. IIS. 
<57rrjs, iii. 26. 
oVwoj, i. 30 + i. S. 
oTTibpa, x. 21 + vi. 8. 
opa/xeos, vi. 88. 

bpdw, ii. 13. 

6p7ai"w, vi. 25. 

bpyavov, vi. 25. 

6p7ctw, vi. 97. 

6p7??, vi. 97. 

opyia, vi. 97. 

dp7i>id, vi. 94. 

tipoeiXov, ii. 56. 

6porjfj.a, ii. 56. 

opeaces, vi. 23. 

bpeyu, vi. 94. 

bp(Lxa*XKOS, vi. 131 + vi. 
129. 

dpiaKoios, vi. 23 + iii. 8. 

opecxcts, iii. 2. 

opei'S, v. 9. 

dpa'w, ii. 13. 

opex^e'w, vi. 94. 

opdayw, iii. 2. 

opdayopiaKos, vi. S3 + i\.i>. 

6pdaTTTov, vii. 13 + vii. 42. 

6p#js, vi. 24. 



o'pflpo?, vi. 83. 

dplyavov, viii. 19. 

6p ktittjs, vi. 23 + iii. 9. 

o'pivSa, vi. 23 + vi. 101. 

bpivw, vi. 83. 

bpiris, vi. 131. 

opKos, vi. 97. 

op/cwos, vii. 30+ vii. 20. 

op/xevos, vi. S3. 

6pp. 77, vi. 83. 

bp/xid, ii. 22. 

op/ncvov, iii. 2 + viii. 20. 

6'pp.os, ii. 22. 

Vs. v. 13 + v. 29. 

6pwfiL, vi. 83. 

bpofios, ii. 53. 

bpbba/xvos, vi. 88. 

dpoOvvu), vi. 83. 

bpo/j.a.1, ii. 13. 

6'pos, ii. 13. 

opos, vi. 23. 

dpos, v. 6. 

opoi/w, vi. 83. 

oppos, ii. 16. 

bppbs, v. 6. 

bppwbiw, vii. 1. 

dpcoAoTros, vi. S3 + vii. 38. 

opuos, vi. 24. 

opraXis, vi. 83. 

6'pTi»|, ix. 13 + ix. 3. 

dptfa, ii. 12. 

bpvyubs, ix. 15. 

opi'fa, vi. 23. 

opii/UcrySds, ix. 15 + ix. 21. 

opvi;, vii. 30. 

bpvaau, vii. 30. 

bpcpavb'S, iv. 17. 

bpcpvbs, ii. 53. 

bpcpbs, ii. 53. 

6'pxap.oy, vi. 89. 

opxaTos, ii. 13 ; vi. 94. 

opxeofiaL, v. 1 6. 

bpxlXos, v. 16. 

opxu, iii. 2. 

opxos, vi. 94. 

6s, i. 5 ; viii. 5. 

oaios, vi. 116. 

dcTKaTTTU, vii. 7. 

oa-pLrj, viii. 16. 
6'cros, i. 5 + vi. 36. 
6j7rpiop, vi. 68. 



308 



INDEX. 



6<Taa, ix. 10. 
6<r<re, vi. 124. 
Haffo/nat, vi. 124. 
6<r<T7]Trjp, vi. 103. 
6<t<tos, i. 5 + vi. 36. 
tfo-ra/cos, i. 29. 
derails, vi. 71. 
6<tt£ov, i. 29. 
ficre, i. 5 + i. 3. 
6<rrAt7£, ii. 22 + ii. 32. 
6<TTpa.Kov, i. 29. 
ouTpeov, i. 29. 
6ffTptfxov, iii. 27 -i- ii. 21. 
6<Trpvs, i. 29. 
oci'pis, vii. 13. 
dcrtppaivo/JLai, viii. 16 + 

viii. 19. 
6<r<pvs, ii. 27. 
6<txiov, ii. 29. 
ocr^os, ii. 29 ; vi. 73. 
ore, i. 5 + vi. 57. 

0TL7], i. 5. 
otXoj, vi. 12. 
6to[3os, ix. 17. 
drpaXeos, v. 11. 
oTprjpos, v. 11. 

OTpVVW, v. 11. 
OTTOTOl, Xi. 7. 

oi>, iv. 5. 
ou, viii. 5. 
otfa, v. 25. 
oi)d, xi. 4. 
otW, xi. 4. 
o'dap.6s, iv. 5 + i. 5. 
oi'Sas, vi. 71. 
ovBos, vi. 71. 
ovddiv, ii. 36. 
ovdap, vi. 34. 
ot'/c, iv. 5. 
ovXai, vii. 34. 
ouXa/xds, ii. 11. 
ovXr/, ii. 11. 
otfXio?, iv. 1 0. 
ovXis, x. 7. 
oiiXov, x. 7. 
oCXos, ii. 11 ; iii. 1. 
ov\ic, ii. 11. 
odv, vi. 34. 
oi)pd, ii. 1 6. 
ovpavbs, ii- 13. 
ovpeus, v. 9. 



cvpia, v. 9. 

ovpiaxos, ii. 10 + i. 1. 

oftpov, v. 9. 

oupos, ii. 13 ; vi. 23 ; viii. 

12. 
ovp6s, vii. 27. 
oCs, ix. 27. 
oiVi'a, iii. 17. 
oi'rdw, vii. 25. 
oCtos, i. 3. 
ot)x', iv. 5. 
6(pei\w, vi. IS. 
<30eXXw, vi. 18. 
6<p<rXos, vi. 18. 
ocpda.Xp.bs. vi. 118 + v. 7. 
60is, v. 23. 
60Xw, vi. IS. 
o<ppa, i. 5 + vi. 20. 

6(ppvs, ii. 17. 

6x«, vi. 50. 

oxdi'^, vi. 63. 

dxtTos, vi. 63. 

oxei^s, vi. 63. 

6xet''w, vi. 63. 

OXV, vi. 63. 

oxQeu; vi. 50. 

6x^oi/3oj, vi. 50+ ii- 37. 

ox^os, vi. 50. 

dxXefo,. vi. 63. 

oxXos, v. 30. 

6xM a > vi. 63. 

6x"os, vi. 63. 

6xos, vi.. 63.. 

oxi'pj?, v i. 63. 

6'i/vvi. 1HS; ix. 2. 

tye, iii.. 26. 

S^oj/, x. 21. 

irayls, ii. 35. 

7T!X70S, i. 19. 

7ra7X") ''• 33 + vi. 67. 
-rraidv, iii. 22. 
irairjcov, iii. 22. 
7rcu7raXdw, v. 10. 
7rcu7raX?;, i. 1 5. 
wanraXXio, v. 10. 
7rai7raX6eis, vii. 28. 
7rcus, vi. 38. 
irai(pa<T<T(jj, v. 20. 
iralu, vi. 49 ; x. 1. 
traXddr), i. 12. 
7rdXai, ii. 14 + v. 24. 



Tra\ai(paTos, ii. 14 + v. 24 

+ vi. 39. 
Tra\dp.T], i. 12. 
7raXap:i>cuos, i. 12. 
7raXdcr<Tcd, i. 15; v. 10. 
TraKdiTTri, i. 12. 
TraXevui, ii. 15. 
7rdX?7, i. 15 ; v. 10. 
TraXla, ii. 14. 
7rdXiy, ii. 1 4. 
7rdXXa, ii. 14. 
7rdXXa^, vi. 15. 
7rdXXu7, v. 10. 
iraXparias, i. 12. 
wdXpur], .ii. 15. 
jrdX.uus, ii. I5 + ii. 39. 
TraXi'fw, i. 15. 
irapi<pa.Xdu>; ii..33 + vi. 1 17. 
7rai<ooDpa, ix. 23 + ix. 15. 
irdi>ep.os, viii. 5. 
wdv8rjp, vii. 41. 
Trcma, x. 1. 
Trai'ds, x. I. 
Trai'ToSaTris, ii. 33 + vi. 60. 

irdvv, ii. 33 + vi. 67. 
Trdvvaoa. ii. 30 + ii. 32. 

Trd^, i. 19. 

irdopai, ii. 35. 

travai, xi. 6. 

7ra7r7raj. vi. 38. 

7rd7T7ros, vi. 38. 

Tra7T7atVa), ii. 33 + vi. 1?8. 

irdirvpos (Egyptian), ii.l 7. 

Tra-pd, i. 1 3. 

TrapdaKos, iii. 2. 

TrdpoaXis, vii. 41. 

irapeid, i. 13 + X. 24. 

TrapifCov, i. 13 + x. 24. 

Trapr]opos, i. 13 + n. 2 . 

wapdevos, vi. 14. 

nappy, ii. 17. 

irdpvof, ix. 15 + ix. 2. 

irdpoidev, vi. 20 + i. 1. 

Trapoirepos, vi. 20. 

7rdpos, vi. 20. 

irapuv, vi. 20. 

7rdpajos, vi. 117. 

7ras, ii. 33. 

Trafffxa, i. 15. 

7racr7rdX?;, i. 15. 

7rdcrcraXo$, vi. 40. 



INDEX. 



309 



Trairati), i. 15. 
7ra<rrds, ii. 36. 
TraareiXrj, iii. 26 + vi. 131. 

TrdlTTT], i. IS. 

iraaxu, iii. 26. 
Trardvr], i. 12. 
Trardcrcw, vi. 40. 
Tra.Teofj.at, x. 1. 
Trarew, vi. 40. 
TvaT-qp, vi. 3S + vi. 9. 
7raT^T7, x. 1. 
7raTos, ii. 33 : vi. 40. 
TraTpmos, vi. 38 + \ i. 9 + 

i. 8. 
irdrpus, vi. 38 + vi. 9 + i. S. 
7raO/30y, iii. 29. 
iravu, iii. 22. 
iraxvs, vi. 49. 
7re5a, ii. 33. 
Tredr], ii. 33. 
wediXov, vi. 40 + ii. 11. 
ireoiov, vi. 40. 
TTtoov, vi. 40. 
7r«'ja, vi. 40. 
7rej"iy, vi. 40. 
TTtidti), vi. 46. 
7rerva, vii. 26. 
rrelpa, vi. 20. 
TreLpdfa, vi. 20. 
Treipaivw, vi. 20. 
Trdpap, vi. 20. 
Treipas, vi. 20. 
Trapa.T7)<i, vi. 20. 
Treipdw, vi. 20. 
irupivs, ii. 16 + ii. 32. 
Treipw, vi. 20. 
7rd<r/J.a, ii. 33. 
tt£ki0, ii. 34. 
7T6/\a, vii. 28. 
7re\a70s, v. 10. 
iriXavos, iii. 1. 
Tre'Xas, i. 13. 
neXedos, viii. 10. 
ireXeia, ix. 13. 
TreXeKixj', vii. 27. 
7re\e\'da), vii. 27. 
ire'XeKvs, vii. 27. 
TreXefMLfa, v. 10. 
TreXixvr), ii. 14. 
7re\i|, ii. 14. 
7reXios, i. 15. 



7re\(S, ii. 14. 

vrAXa, ii. 14, 15 ; vii. 28. 

veXX6s, i. 15. 

7rAjUa, vi. 18. 

TreXofxai, vi. 16. 

7re\6s, i. 15. 

tt£Xtt), ii. 15 ; vi. 15. 

7re\i>i;, ii. 14. 

weXwp, vi. 15. 

TretiTrd^w, iv. 6, 

Tre/j.Tre, iv. 6. 

TrejULTTto), V. 23. 

TTf/J-CptS, vi. 44. 

Trefj.rppn5iby, ix. 23 + ix. 13 

+ ix. 5. 
irevT]?, vii. 26. 
rrevdepjs, ii. 33. 
Trevofxai, vii. 26, 
Trevre, iv. 6. 
Wos, vi. 40. 

TT€TT€pl, X. 2. 

TreTrXis, ii. 15, 

irt'TrXos, ii. 15. 

iriwpuTai, vi. 20. 

iriirTO], iii. 26- 

TriTrwv, iii. 2*i. 

xep, vi. 20. 

7repa, vi. 20. 

Trepaivw, vi. 20. 

wepaLo(ji, vi. 20. 

wepav, vi. 20. 

vepas, vi. 20. 

jrepdu, vi. 20. 

7re'p5i£, ix. 13 + ix. 3. 

Trdpdu, viii. 10. 

wepdw, iv. 14. 

7re/K, ii. 16 ; vi. 20. 

wepiypa, ii. 16 + vii. 3. 

TrepLrjfieKT^u}, vi. 20 + vii. 

45. 
7j-fpcf, ii. 16 + i. i. 
irepLppiKlaes, ii. 16 + ii. 

48. 
irepippr]dris, ii. 16 + ii. 56. 
7repi<rre/)d, ix. 13 fix. 4. 
TrepicpXvu), ii. 16 + vi. 117. 
wepKava, ii. 16. 
TlpKT], i. 15. 
wepKvus, i. 15. 
7rep/c6s, i. 1 5. 
irepva, vi. 17. 



Trepvdu, vi. 20. 
Tripvrji, ii. 17. 
ircpovr), vi. 20. 
TrepTrepos, v. 9. 
irepwyi, vi. 20 + vi. 34. 
TrecrKos, ii. 36. 
Treo-<ros, vi. 40. 
ire crovpes, i. 4. 
7reWw, iii. 26. 
ireraKvov, iv. 15+ ii. 6. 
TTiTaXov, iv. 15. 
TrerafiaL, Treroiiai, v. 19. 
werdvi/vftL, iv. 15. 
ireraaos, iv. 15. 
Treraawv, iv. 15. 
Treravpov, vi. 40 + vi. S4. 
weropes, i. 4. 
neTpa, vii. 41. 
TreudoLiai, ix. 27. 
wevKaXeos, vii. 19. 
7ret'/cdXt/xos, vi. 49. 
TeweSafos, vii. 19. 
TrevKT], vii. 19. 
TrevKTjeis, vii. 19. 
Tre<pvo}, vii. 26. 
7T77, i. 5. 

irrj'yavov, vii. 19. 
Tr~qyri, vi. 48. 

TTTj-yUVfJ.1, i. 19. 

7r?;5dw, vi. 40. 
TnjBdXwv, vi. 40. 
TTtoov, vi. 40. 
TTT]XaiJ.irs, iii. 1 + v. 22. 
TrrjXrjz, ii. 15. 
tttiXIkos, i. 5 + vi. 92. 
tttjXos, iii. 1. 
TrrjXut, iv. 13. 
71-77X1^, iv. 13. 
tttj/jlos, i. 5 + vi. 37. 
irr]ve\o\p, Yl-qveXbir-q, ii. 30 

+ vii. 38. 
iTTjvri, ii. 30. 
TrrjviKa, i. 5 + vi. 37 + vi. 

8. 
TrrjviKTj, V. 18. 
tttji'os, ii. 30. 

7T7JOS, i. 8. 
7r/;pa, ii. 17. 
Tnjpiv, ii. 17. 
Trripbs, iii. 2. 
Taxi's, ii- 34. 



310 



INDEX. 



ivlap, vi. 38. 
7napis, vi. 38. 
wioai;, vi. 3.9. 

TTlOVO}, vi. 39. 

7rie'jw, vi. 40. 
irieipa, vi. 38. 
-rrldt]^, v. 19. 
tvWos, ii. 33. 

TTLKCplOV, i. 18. 

TriKpds, vii. 19. 
7rt,Vdw, i. 13. 
7r?Xos, vi. 18. 
7rt/xe'\?7, vi. 38 + i. 20. 
iripirXripLi., vi. IS. 
Trip.Trprjp.1, vi. 1 17. 
Tri^cti;, i. 12. 
Trivva, ii. 30. 
ttIvov, x. 9. 
7riVo$, iii. 28. 
TTtwros, viii. 5. 
•n-uw/cw, viii. 5. 
irivw, x. 9. 

TILTTOS, ix. 3. 

Twnrifa, ix. 3. 
TwrpduKw, vi. 20. 
T'nnoi, iii. 26. 

TTtTTib, ix. 3. 

Tricros, ii. 35. 
7rt<roj, ii. 36. 
iriffcra, i. 18. 

TTiaTCLKT), i. 18. 
ttkttos, vi. 46. 
7U(Tii770S, ii. 33 + vii. 7. 
7rtVi'pes, i. 4. 
•n-n-am, iv. 1 5. 
wiTdptoi>, ii. 21. 
iriTvqp.1, iv. 15. 
Tra-Ta/aoi', i. 12. 
Trirra^is, i. 18. 

7TlTll\0S, vi. 40. 

iriTvpov, vii. 41 + vii. 28. 
Trims, i. 18. 
TritpaucrKW, vi. 115. 

7TIWI', VI. 38. 

7r\d77os, i. 15. 
7r\ay7ii>i', i. 14. 
7r\a7ios, ii. 1 I. 
Tr\a-)os, ii. 11. 
irXaoapus, iii. 1. 
-7rXd5cos, ii. 14. 
ttX&Sos, iii. 1. 



TrXdi'to, v. 10. 
7rXd0at'OJ', i. 12. 
Tr\ai<r6s, ii. 14. 
TrXdvr), v. 10. 
■jrXdt, i. 12. 
-7r\a£, ii. 14. 
-7rXd<nos, ii. 14. 
irXdaaw, i. 1 4. 
irXdcrTiyZ, i. 12. 
TrXardpwv, i. 12. 
TrXaTavos, i. 12. 
TrXardccrw, vi. 19. 
ttXcltus, iv. 1 3. 
■wXidpov, vi. 18. 
7rXeids, vi. 15. 
wXeios, vi. 18. 
irXelaros, vi. 15. 
wXewv, vi. 15. 
irXeidiv, vi. 18 + vi. 37. 
irXeKW, ii. 14. 
wXevvepos, i. 15. 
7rXf'oj. vi. 18. 
rrXevpw, viii. 1-1. 
7rXei'pd, viii. 14. 
7rXe'w, v. 10. 
7rX7)7«^77S, i. 13 + vi. 66. 
irXrjdw, vi. 18. 
TrXiinneXrjs, i. 13 + ix. 2. 
TrXrjpLp.ii, vi. IS. 
TrXrip.p,vpl$, vi. 18 +v. 8. 
irXr)v, i. 13. 
TrXrjapn], vi. IS. 
7rXr)craij}, vi. 19. 
7rXiV#os, i. 12. 
7rXicrffop.ai, ii. 14. 
irXopos, iii. 1. 
-7rXoos, ii. 14. 
ttXoCtos, vi. 15 + vi. 34. 
ttXiVoj, vii. 28. 
TrpeOjUa, viii. 5. 
Trvevpuv, viii. 5. 
iTvio}, viii. 5. 
TTfiycc, viii. 5. 
TrpoT?, viii. 5. 
7rooa7r6j, i. 5 + vi. 60. 
■Kudtv, i. 5 + i. 1. 
tt60i, i. 5 + i. 1. 
7ru0os, iii. 26. 
7TO?, i. 5. 
rroia, ii. 35. 
7toi^'j), vi. :! N . 



tto'.i}, ii. 35. 
ttoikLXos, i. 18. 
TroLp.r)v, ii. 35. 

TTOLpLUrj, ii. 35. 
TTOIJ'TJ, vii. 41. 

7ro2os, i. 5. 
tcoittvvw, vii. 26. 
TTOL<f>vcaw, viii. 12. 
7r6\-a, i. 5 + vi. 8. 

TToXf/UOS, v. 10. 

irdXtpuvLov, viii. 10 + vi 

35. 
ttoXelo, ii. 14. 
7toXcjs, i. 15. 
TrJXis, ii. 15. 
7r6Xos, ii. 14. 
ttoXtos, iii. 1. 
TToXurjpos, vi. 15 + vi. 83. 
7roXus, vi. 15. 
TroX(p6s, iii. 1. 
Trop<p6Xv^, vi. 44 + vi. 15. 
Top.<pos, vi. 44. 
Trovrjpos, vii. 26. 
ttoj'os, vii. 26. 
7ruvTos, vi. 40. 
7iwa£, xi. 6. 
7ro7rtj"a;, ix. 1. 
TToTroi, xi. 6. 
7ro7T7n/fii;, ix. 1. 
rropdaXiS, vii. 41. 
7ropdp.6s, vi. 20. 
■rropifa, vi. 20. 
rrlipK7)s, ii. 16. 
iropKos, ii. 16 ; vii. 27. 
tt6)vos, iii. 2. 
ivopos, vi. 20. 

TrLpTTT), vi. 20. 

Troppu, vi. 20. 
Tropavi'oi, vi. 20. 
TTjpra^, vi. 1 4. 
irdpTis, vi. 14. 
Tropcpvpa, i. 15. 

7T0p(pVp(i>, i. 15. 

lIo<rei5dir, v. 20 + v. 24 + 

v. IS. 
irboOr), vi. 40. 
TToadia, vi. 43. 
7rjcTts, vi. 41. 
7ru(70j, i. 5 + \ i. 36. 
7rora^6s, vi. 39. 
TroT<xp.6s, v. 19. 



INDEX. 



311 



7roTa7rus, i. 5 + vi. 60. 
7Tdre, i. 5 + vi. 57. 
7rorepos, i. 5 + vi. 9. 

TTOTTj, v. 19. 

7ruTMoj, iii. 26. 

Trjrvia, vi. 41. 

■jtoO. i. 5. 

7ro(''s, vi. 40. 

irpa.iJ.vT), vii. 27. 

7rpde, vi. 20 + vi. 37. 

Trpavr)s, vi. 20 + ii. 32. 

irpaovws, iii. 2. 

Trpdos, iii. 2. 

Trpcnrides, vi. 20 + vi. 102. 

irpaoiov, viii. 19. 

Trpdaov, viii. 19. 

Trpdacru}, vi. 20. 

7r/3ai)?, iii. 2. 

TrpeLyvs, vi. 20 + vi. 67. 

irpipivov, vi. 1 7. 

Trp^TTu, vi. 117. 

irpifffivs, vi. 20 + vi. 38. 

irpedjv, vi. 20 + vi. 34. 

TrpridLbv, vi. 117. 

TTprjdu), vi. 117. 

irpv,p.a.ivw, vi. 117. 

irpy]vr)s, vi. 20 + ii. 32. 

■n-prjTrjv, vi. 20 + vi. 34. 

■npia.ij.ai, vi. 20. 

TrpiaTTos, vi. 22 + vi. 96. 

Trpifa, vii. 28. 

7rpiV, vi. 20 + vi. 37. 

Trplvos, vii. 27. 

7rpt'w, vii. 28. 

ir/>6, vi. 20. 

TrpbfiaTov, vi. 20 + vi. 40. 

7rpo£, vi. 108. 

7rpocrcrop:ai, vi. 108. 

■n-pbica, vi. 20+ vi. 8. 

JlpOKVT], v. 9 + v. 1. 

TrpbKpis, vii. 28. 
TTpiKwva, vii. 28. 
TrpofivrjaTivoL, vi. 20 + i. 2. 
Trp6/j.os, vi. 20. 
7rpo£, v. 9 -(-v. 1. 
7rp6s, vi. 20. 

Tvpoarjvqs, vi. 20 + ii. 32. 
■n-pdade, vi. 20 + i. 1. 
Trpbcnraios, vi. 20 + v. 23. 
irpbtju, vi. 20. 
irpjcrcpaTos, vi. 20 + vi. 39. 



irpori, vi. 20 + i. 1. 
TrpovyeXiui, v. 9 + v. 4. 
vpovfxvov, iii. 2. 
TrpovcreXew, v. 9 + v. 7. 
Trp6(ppa<Tcra, vi. 1 9 + vi. 22. 
irp'jx vv > vi- 20 + ii. 6. 
TrpvXis, v. 9. 
irpvfivbs, vi. 17. 
7rpt/7-aeis, vi. 20. 
TrpLOTjv, vi. 20 + vi. 37. 
Trpw'/', vi. 20. 
wpwKTos, ii. 16 + ii. 9. 
TTpdli;, iii. 2. 
Trpwirepvai, vi. 20. 
irpwpa., vi. 20. 
Trratw, vi. 40. 
■7rraKi(T/j.6s, v. 19. 
TTTappv/xL, viii. 9. 
TrrAas, v. 19. 
TTreXia, ii. 33. 
irrepls, v. 19. 
irripva, vi. 40. 
Trrepvis, ii. 17. 
Trrepvi!;, vi. 40. 
Tvrepbv, v. 19. 
tttlKov, v. 19. 
tttiXos, vii. 41. 
7TT[V<rw, vii. 41. 
7rr6a, v. 19. 
TTToia, v. 19. 

-rrrSpdos, vi. 39. 
VTvy^, ix. 3. 

7TTl''OJ', V. 19. 
TTTl'ipU), V. 19. 
TTTl/ClTW, ii. 32. 

7TTt/w, viii. 9. 
7rru>£, v. 19. 
TTTwcrcru), v. 19. 

7TTWX<fc, V. 19. 

TTi'iavos, ii. 31. 
71-1/777, ii. 34. 
irvy/xf), ii. 34 ; vi. 49. 
TTiiywf, ii. 34. 
Tri'Sapi's'w, vi. 40. 
7n5e\os, ii. 14. 
Trvdfj.rjv, vi. 40. 
7ru0w, iii. 26. 
TrvKa, vi. 49. 
Tri'iXri, ii. 15. 
77-17x0.7-0*, vi. 40. 
7rw5a£, vi. 40. 



irvvfla.vop.ou, ix, 'J7. 
tti^, vi. 49. 

7ri'£oS, vi. 49. 

ttiW, viii. 1'. 

77-i'us, viii. 9. 

7ri5p, vi. 117. 

irvpyos, ii. 17. 

irvprjv, vii. 28. 

wvpdi, vii. 28. 

Tri'ppoy, vi. 117. 

Trvpa6s, vi. 117. 

7Tw<raxos, ii. 36. 

■rniTlfa, viii. 9. 

wvTivr), ii. 33. 

7TW, i. 5. 

irdiyuv, ii. 34. 

TruAe'oyiicu, ii. 14. 

TrcjXe'w, ii. 14. 

7ra;\os, vi. 15. 

7rtup.a, ii. 35. 

Trupos, iii. 2 ; vii. 28. 

ttcDs, i. 5. 

TTwi/', ii. 35. 

■KilivyS,, ix. 1. 

pa, vi. 83. 

pajBatTcrw, ix. 19. 

bdftdos, vi. 90. 

pdoa/j-vos, vi. 88. 

padivos, iii. 34. 

pddi^, vi. 88. 

padios, iii. 34. 

paflayew, ix. 19. 

paflduiy*, iii. 24 + iii. 25. 

padawvyifa, vii. 32 + ii. 

34. 
fi^dvpLos, iii. 34 + viii. 16. 
pai/36s, ii. 52. 
paivu), iii. 24. 
paiw, vii. 34. 
paKos, vii. 30. 
pdp.vos, vii. 37. 
pdp.(pT], ii. 52. 
pdp.(pos, ii. 52. 
pd£, iii. 2. 
paTrdrr), ix. 3. 
pairri'iov, vi. 90. 
parrifa, vi. 5. 
pa-rris, ii. 53 + ii. 33; vi. 

90. 
pdwrw, vii. 37. 
pdirvs, vi. 90. 



312 



INDEX. 



,0. 



25. 



fiduiju}, vii. 30. 
pa<pavos, vi. 90. 
pd<pvs, vi. 90. 
pax'a, ii. 49 ; vii. 30. 
pixts, vii. 30. 
pax&s, ii. 48 ; vii 
peyKio, ix. 15. 
peyos, iii. 19. 
peyxu, i x> 15. 
peo?7, ii. 56. 
pejw, i. 25 ; vi 
peOos, ii. 56. 
pela, iii. 34. 
pe/j.(iiA), ii. 52. 
pifj.(pos, ii. 52. 
uenoj, iii. 32. 
pew, v. 6 ; ix. 14. 
prjyptiv, iv. G. 
priyvvfu, iv. G. 
ptfa, i. 25. 
pTjy, iii. 20. 
pTjcrcrw, vii. 30. 
prjTivT), iii. '24.. 
p7]Tt')i, ix. 14. 
prjTpa, ix. 14. 
pr/os, vii. 30. 
pifa, vi. 23. 
piKvos, vii. 30. 
pLfAipa., v. 15. 
piV, viii. 18. 
(jt^i), vii. 32. 
pwos, ii. 57. 
piov, vi. 83. 
pLir-f), v. 15. 

pivTU), V. 15. 

pianos, ii. 49. 
pt'i/', ii. 52. 
pod, vi. 135. 
poyos, vi. 89. 
poSapwos, vi. 88. 
po5di'T7, ii. 56. 
pooafos, ii. 56. 
pudov, viii. 19. 
p60os, vii. 32 ; ix. 19. 
poids, vi. 135. 
poifioeu, x. 15. 
p6l(B5os, ix. 19. 
polios, ix. 19. 
Poik6s, ii. 48. 
p6uo£, ii. 52. 
p6uos, ii. 52. 



fjopLcpala, ii. 52. 
popKpevs, ii. 52. 
poiraXov, iii. 32. 
jjliirrpov, iii. 32. 
poDs, vi. 135. 
povaios, v. 14. 
povae\ivoi>, vi. 135 + iii. 

18. 
pcxpeto, x. 15. 

pox avov i vi'- 30. 
pox^os, ix. 15. 

pt''7X 0S > i x - 15. 

pt'/jw, ix. 15. 

pvd/j.6s, v. 6. 

pvxavT}, vii. 30. 

pv/n^os, ii. 52. 

pi'/tMJ, v. 6 ; vii. 36. 

pvp.os, vii. 36. 

pvop.ai, ii. 53. 

pVTros, i. 24 ; v. 15. 

pvirrw, i. 24. 

pvocbs, ii. 56. 

pt'T?j, vii. 32. 

pvrts, ii. 56. 

pirrov, vii. 32. 

pv<p6i>, ii. 52. 

pallidas, vi. 90. 

pu-Stos, ix. 119. 

pwdwv, viii. 19. 

piovvvpu, vi. 90. 

puii;, iii. 2. 

p(iio/.tai, v. 6. 

pi2>7ros, i. 24. 

pw^, ii. 52. 

-s, i. 9. 

era, i. 5. 

aafiaKos, iii. 14. 

crafiapixv, ii'- 14. 

Gay&Trrjvov, vii. 4S + i. 1 8. 

aayrj, ii. 29. 

cra.YTji'i?, ii. 29. 

cr dYos, ii. 29. 

o-dtf??, vi. 72. 

cradpos, iii. 17. 

cratyw, v. 27. 

crcupw, iv. 18 ; vii. 13. 

cd/cKos, ii. 29 ; vii. 8. 

o-aKos, ii. 29. 

caKras, ii. 2'.' ; vi. 63. 

<ra.\afxdi>Spa, ii. 22 4- ii. 38. 

cdXos, v. 7. 



crdX7r?7, ii. 22. 
o-d\7rt7£, ii. 22 + ii. 32; 
ix. 3 + ix. 8. 

aapua.pi.xVi iii- 14. 
aafx^akov, iv. 8. 

eaptfipixv, i'i- 14. 
cdjui/'t'xo!', viii. 20 + viii. 

12. 
cdvSaXoi', iv. 8. 
cavoap&KT), vi. 132 + vi. 

137 + vi. 124. 
crdvoi/^, vi. 132. 
cam, iv. 8. 
crdwas, v. 27. 
aawiof, v. 27. 
aavraXov, iv. 8. 
caow, vi. 104. 
caTre'pOTjs, x. 19. 
cra7rep5i's, x. 19. 
aairpbs, iii. 14. 

CaTTO)!', i. 15. 

cdpa 7ns, vi. 131. 
aapy&vr), ii. 22. 
cap76s, ii. 22. 
capodfa;, iv. 18. 
cdpica, vii. 14. 
cap!;, vi. 81. 
capos, vii. 13. 
oapuv, iv. 18. 
cdcai, iii. 17. 
aarivr], iii. 17. 
cdrra), vi. 71. 
cdrupos, vii. 13. 
cai>K6s, vii. 8. 
caCXos, v. 3. 
aavvLop, vi. 80. 
<xavpa, vi. 72 ; viii. 21. 
(ravpioiov, viii. 21. 
cravpos, v. 3. 
cravpojTrjp, vi. 72. 
aavaapds, vii. S. 
cauxp-6s, vii. 8. 
ca$>7js, vi. 130. 
cox^os, vii. 8. 
cdw, vii. 48. 
afiivvvpu, iii. 14. 
-ce, i. 1. 
cre($4i>iov, ii. 25. 
c((/3w, vi. 107. 
cei'p, vi. 131. 
aeipa, ii. 22. 



INDEX. 



313 



adpios, vi. 131. 

aetp js, vi. 131. 

cm'w, v. 3. 

aeXayea, vi. 131. 

aeXas, vi. 131. 

creXaxos, vi. 131. 

aeX-qvrj, vi. 131. 

itAuw, iii. 18. 

aeXls, i. 12. 

aeXXu, v. 7. 

aeX/j.a., i. 12. 

ce/tuoaXis, vii. IS + vii. 40. 

ae/nvos, vi. ] 07. 
crepa7rtds, vi. 131. 
cr^pis, vii. 14. 
aepKpos, vii. 14. 
a4p<pos, vii. 14. 
ceaeXi, vii. 14. 
atavcpos, viii. 5. 
creOrXcw, vi. 72. 
crei/w, v. 3. 
ar)dio, vii. 48. 
0-77*65, ii. 29 ; vi. 63. 
arfXia, i. 12. 
arj/xa, vi. 125. 
ar/pepov, i. 3+vi. 331 + 

iv. 16. 
(T7j7ria, x. 19. 
ay/Trio, iii. 14. 
(T17p, v. 11. 
<rr)pay£, iv. 18. 
en}*, vii. 14. 
cr^res, i. 3+ vi. 3d. 
aBtvw, vi. 71. 
acayuv, x. 24. 
crtaAoi', i. 24. 
ctaXos, i. 24. 
ail38i), ii. 25. 
aiftvvT), vii. 17 + vii. 20. 
<xfYaX6eis, vi. 125. 
cnyf), iii. 14. 
aiypuz, ix. 24. 
ctoij, ii. 25. 

(rtSijpos, vi. 128 + vi. 137. 
ertfaj, ix. 24. 
oimvvis, v. 2. 
<n'icus, x. 12. 
<tikx6s, iii. 10. 
atXlyviov, vii. 14. 
en'AXos, viii. 7. 
(tlXXoui, ii. 22. 



<tiXAi>/3os, vii. 13. 
alXovpos, vii. 13 -(-ii. 16. 
aiXrpr], viii. 21. 
<ilX<piou, viii. 21. 
aifxfiXo'5, ii. 25. 
aiplKiov, ix. 25 + ix. 21. 
tnp.6s, viii. 20. 
aivopai, vii. 9. 
atvlor, vii. 48. 
crioJ', vii. 7. 
cri7raX6s, iii. 14. 
ffLirapos, ii. '25. 
cri7rL-7;, ii. 25. 
aipaiov, x. 22. 
tripos, ii. 23. 
aiaapov, vii. 7. 
ataov, vii. 13. 
aiau(3os, vii. 13. 
aiavp[3pov, viii. 20. 
aiavpa,, vii. 13. 

<rto'iipi7x' '', v iii- 21+ viii. 

18. 
ffrros, vi. 104. 
cxltoj3oXwv, vi. 104 + ii. 15. 
ffiTta, ix. 3. 

aiTTCLKOS, ix. 3. 
ffLTTT], ix. 3. 

crtrros, ix. 3. 
alTTvfiov, vii. 13. 
aicpapos, ii. 25. 
aicpXos, iii. 14. 
oicpvos, iii. 14. 
aicpuiv, iii. 1 4. 
<riaj7T?;, iii. 1 4. 
(j/cdfaj, ii. 28. 

(XKCUOS, v. 2. 

GKalpu), v. 2. 
aKaiwpla, v. 2 + ii. 12. 
ffKaXaOvpoj, vii. 7 + vii. 39. 
ffKaXrji'os, ii. 28. 
CKaXt's, vii. 7. 
(tkcLXXcx), vii. 7. 
aKa.Xp.rj, vii. 7. 
<T/>aX/x6s, vii. 7. 
GKaXoxp, vii. 7. 
<jko,ij.(36s, ii. 28. 
GKapiovia., ii. 2S + ii. 38. 
a'K'di'SaXoi', ii. 28. 
CK-d^S^, vii. 7. 
(T7ra^0apis'aj, vi. 112. 
ffKaizepoa., vi. 63 + vi. 91. 



(7)ca7ros, vi. 63. 

o"/cd7rrw, vii. 7. 

<TKa.pdap.VG aw, v. 2 + i. 28. 

crKaptj, v. 2. 

aK&pupos, vii. 7. 

cicdpos, v. 2. 

<7Ka0pos, ii. 28. 

aKacpos, vii. 7. 

GKa<t>wpr), vii. 7. 

aKeod.vvvp.1, iv. 8. 
aKedpjs, vi. 63. 
<T/ce\tj, ii. 29. 
aKeXtcppos, iii. 10. 
GKeXXos, ii. 28. 
ffK^XXo:, vii. 8. 
ff/ceXos, ii. 8. 

aKtirapvov, vii. 7 + vi. 20. 
aKeirrj, ii. 29. 
aKi-KTop-at, vi. 120. 
GKepa<pos, viii. 7. 
aKepfidXos, viii. 7. 
aKevrj, vii. 8. 
crKeDos, vii. 8. 
aKevrj, ii. 29. 
aKrjiTT6s, v. 2. 
aKTjTTTU), v. 2 ; vi. 63. 
aKr)irwi>, vi. 63. 
aKTjpliTTu, vi. 63+ iii. 32. 
aKrjpos, vi. 8. 
cr/ad, ii. 29. 

(TK^-yOS, v. 2. 

OKidvapat, iv. 8. 
ffKiXXa, iv. 8. 
aKip.a,Xl£to, vi. 112. 
aKip.j3dfa, ii. 28. 
aKip.(B6s, ii. 2d. 
aKipirovs, ii. 28. 
aKipiTTU), ii. 28. 
ffKtva^, v. 2. 
aKivap, v. 2. 
ff/aj^dpios, v. 2. 
cr/aVoapos, vi. 112. 
aKivoa<pos, v. 2. 
aKivdapifa, vi. 112. 
cr/ai'flos, vi. 112. 
aKLiriav, vi. 63. 
aKiparpos, v. 2. 
iTKipov, vii. 8. 
GKtpos, vii. 8. 
aKiprao), v. 2. 
ff/araXoi, vi. 112. 



314 



INDEX. 



unlxf, vii. 7. 
GicXf)p.i, vii. 8. 
CK\rjp6s, vii. 8. 
aK\7]<pp6s, iii. 10. 
ffKvlirTij], vii. 7. 
<jkvi<P6s, vii. 7. 
<TKi>i<pos, ii. 29. 
GKviip, vii. 7. 
(TKoct, ii. 29. 
ckoios, ii. 29. 
(TKoAtos, ii. 28. 
gkoXXvs, iv. 8. 
OKoXoKpos, iv. 8 + vi. 4. 
GKoXoira^, vii. 7. 
OKoXbirevdpa, ii. 28 + ii. 30. 
GnbXo\p, vii. 7. 
(7Ko\v6p6s, iv. 8. 
<tk6\v/j.os, vii. 7. 
gkoXijtttw, ii. 29 ; iv. 8. 

GKOp.(3pOS, v. 2. 
(TKj7reAos, vi. 69. 
GKopaKiiw, viii. 7. 
GKopcnv6.op.ai, viii. 7. 
CKopdov, vi. 69. 
<TKop5i;Aos, v. 2. 
aKopodov, vi. 69. 
GKoprrifa, iv. 8. 
CKopirios, vii. 7. 
gkotos, ii. 29. 
GKvfiaXov, viii. 7. 
GKVjieXirrjs, iii. 19. 
(7/ciJfa!, vi. 108, 
GKui,~op.ai, ii. 29. 
GKvdpbs, ii. 29. 
<na;Xa£, vi. 69. 
gkvXXw, ii. 29. 
o-kOW, ii. 29. 
cr/ci^Xos, ii. 29. 
ukuXow, ii. 29. 
gku/jlvos, vi. 69. 
tnci/i'ioi', ii. 29. 
GKvpOa^, vi. 69. 
ffKupov, vii. 7. 
o-KVTaXrj, ii. 28 + ii. 18. 
o~KVT&\r], vi. 69. 
o~kvtt), vi. 69. 
crKi/roi', vi. 69. 
ctkDtos, ii. 29. 
aKV(pos, ii. 28. 
gkwXtj^, ii. 28 + ii. 46. 
gkwXov, v. 2. 



(tkcDXos, vii. 7. 
cKwXvirToixai., ii. 28 + ii. 

50. 
gkwtttw, viii. 7. 
<tku>/3, viii. 7. 
tr/cwi/', ii. 29 + vi. 118. 
o-p.apa.yoos, vi. 121. 
Gpapayew, ix. 25. 
Gpapdyva, ix. 25. 
Gp.apiXrj, vi. 121. 
apapis, v. 3. 
ayxdw, vii. 18. 
o~p,epba\4os, vii. 45. 

0~p.7JVOS. v. 3. 

op.r)piy^, ii. 42 + ii. 32. 
o-p.r]piv6os, ix. 3. 

Gp.y\x w i v 'i- 18. 
ap-LKpos, vii. 18. 
apuXa^, ii. 40. 
GpiXrj, vii. 17. 
crpuXos, ii. 40. 
ap.ivdos, vii. 17. 
(TyUtei's, vii. ] 7. 
(T/xoios, ii. 25. 
crp-vyepos, vi. 33. 
o~p.vpa.iva, ii. 42. 
apLvpis, vii. 18. 
Gp.vpva, viii. 20. 
cruOpos, ii. 42. 
o-p.vXw, vii. 18. 
o>itD(5i£, vii. 18 + vii. 24. 
ffp.(bvq, viii. 16. 
cr/xws, viii. 16. 
o-p.thxu, vii. 18. 
cro/3e'w, v. 3. 
0-0/37/, vii. 15. 
067x05, vii. 7. 
aoXoiKos, v. 7. 
ff6Xos, v. 7. 
Gop<pbs, iii. 14. 
cropos, ii. 23. 
coO/uat, v. 3. 
Go<pbs, viii. 5. 
o"7rd5t£, i. 12. 
0"7rd5aji', iv. ] 2. 
oirabdiv, iv. 12. 
o-rrddr), i. 12. 
GTraipu), v. 3. 
cr7rdXa£, vii. 17. 
ffiraXiwv, ii. 27. 
(T7raj'os, 'ii. 1 4. 



Girapdaaw, vii. 17. 
oirapyavov, ii. 27. 
07rap-ydw, vi. 68. 
airapvbs, iii. 14. 
cnrapos, v. 3. 
c7rdpTOi', ii. 27. 
ffTrapTos, ii. 27. 
0"7raTd777?s, vii. 17. 
CTvardXri, ii. 25 ; v. 
ff7raT£J"a), x. 9. 
(TTraTiXi], v. 3 + v. 7 



3. 



cr7raTos, ll 



25. 



o-iraw, vi. 79. 
airtipa, ii. 27. 
aireipov, ii. 25. 
ffirdpu, iv. 12. 
cnreXebos, viii. 10. 

0"7TO'5w, v. 3. 

Girios, iv. 12. 
cnrepxopai, v. 3. 
o"7rei}5«, vi. 106. 
ctttt/Xcuos, iv. 12. 
o~Trr)Xuy£, iv. 12. 
0-77-1770?, ix. 3. 
0"7ri577S, vi. 79. 
0"7ri5i'6s, vi. 40. 
o-rrifa, ix. 3. 
o-rrifa, vi. 79 ; ix. 3. 
GTn.6ap.7j, vi. 79. 
o-77-rXas, i. 15 ; vii. 18. 
GiriXos, i. 15 ; vii. 18. 
GTnvdrip, v. 3. 
gttivos, iii. 1 4. 
gttLvos, ix. 3. 
o-7TXd7X' / a, vi. 22. 
GirXcKbw, vi. 22. 
airXri&bs, vii. 15. 
GirX-qv, vi. 22. 
gttXtjvioi', i. 15. 
0-77-6770$, iii. 14. 
cr7ro56j, vii. 15. 
o"7roXds, ii. 25. 
o-7roXei'/y, i. 30 4 vii. 34. 
0-7t6j'5i>Xos ) ii. 27 + ii. IS. 
CTTopds, iv. 12. 
GTrvpaOos, ii. 27. 
0-77-i'pds, ii. 27. 
Girvpdifa, v. 3. 
aiTvpis, ii. 27. 
GTrvpbi, vii. 1 4. 
o-rd5ior, i. 29. 



INDEX. 



31.") 



(TTadios, i. 29. 
ordfa, iii. 1 7. 
o~Tadepos, i. 29. 
aradevoj, vi. 128. 
<7raO/j.js, i. 29. 
area's, i. 24. 
oraXdw, iii. 1 7. 
ardXi^, vi. 71. 
<rra\i''j"ct;, iii. 7. 
(TTafj.lv, i. 29. 
crrd/xi'os, i. 29. 
crrdcrts, i. 29. 
o-TCLTtvw, vi. 128. 

OTCLTT)p, i. 24*. 

orai'pos, i. 29. 
crracpis, vi. 71. 
ara^vXr], vi. 71. 
crrdxi'S, vi. 72. 
crreap, i. 24. 
areyu), ii. 29. 
ardfiw, vi. 71. 
(rreii'os, vi. 71. 
crTelpa, i. 29. 
ureipos, i. 29. 

0-reix w ! v "i- ?1- 
trreXyis, vii. 47. 

crreXeji', vi. 71. 
areXexos, vi. 71. 
creXt's, vi. 71. 
o-re'XXw, i. 29. 
crre'/u^w, v. 33. 
crrep-cpvXov, vi. 71. 
crrevos, vi. 71. 
"ZrivTup, ix. 17. 
<tt£vu>, ix. 17. 
crrepyafos, viii. 9. 
ffrepyw, iii. 13. 
tTTtpe/j.i'ios, i. 29. 
arepeos, i. 29. 
crept u, iv. 19. 
arepupos, i. 29. 
erepvov, vi. 9. 
arepopLai. iv. 19. 
arepoirrj, vi. 128. 
arepcpivos, i. 29. 
crepcpos, ii. 21. 
<rrei>7-o, vi. 106. 
<rre'0u>, ii. 22. 
ar^os, vi. 9. 
cti']\7), vi. 71. 
ffTTjp.wv, i. 29 + ii. 3S. 



(TTjJiua, ix. 17. 

OT7)vioV, Vi. 9. 

crTijpi'fw, i. 29. 
ffrrjTrj, vi. 58. 
o-7-ia, i. 29. 
<TTi(3ds, vi. 71. 
(rr/^77, i. .29. 
ariio), vi. 72. 
o-WX,3w, vi. 12S. 
ariXr}, iii. 17. 
<TTi<pos, vi. 71. 
ari'xfs, vi. 71. 
crXe7-yt's, vii. 47. 
crrod, i. 29. 
crro^os, ix. 1 7. 
aToixos, vi. 71. 
(TToix e ^<" / ) vi. 71 . 
otvjXos, i. 29 ; vi. 71. 
oTOjCta, ix. 17. 
OTOyuaxos, ix. 17 + ix. 10. 
<rT6fj.j3os, ix. 17. 
trrdpLcpos, ix. 17. 
croci^, vii. 22 + vii. 20. 
ffropdvy!;, vii. 22 + vii. 24. 
(XTopw/jLi, vii. 47. 
CTopvvTl, vii. 22 + vii. 20. 
CTopxafw, ii. 21. 
ctoxos, vi. 72. 
arpa^os, ii. 22. 
crrpdyyu, vi. 71. 
arpdiTTij}, \ i. 128. 
crrparos, vii. 47. 
arpefiXos, ii. 22. 
OTpevyofxai, iii. 13. 
arpecpu, ii. 22. 
<jTpr\vi)s, ix. 4. 
(TTpr/Pos, vi. 71. 
aTpifios, ix. 4. 
arpiy£, ix. 4. 
(TTpiiW, ix. 4. 
(TTpupvos, i. 29. 
<TTpo(3{w, ii. 22. 
(TrpoyyvXos, ii. 22 + ii. 1 . 
orpou/ios, ii. 22. 
ffrpovdos, ix. 4. 
ffTpvcpvos, i. 29. 
aTpvx"os, iii. 13. 
crrpwwi/p-i, vii. 47. 
GTvyiw, vii. 16. 
otOXos, vi. 71. 
oti''£, vii. 16. 



crTuiri), ii. 22. 
art/ros, vi. 71. 
(TTUpat;, vi. 7-. 

crTvrpeoai'os, iii. 15. 
arixpui, i. 29. 
cttvw, i. 29. 
(ttco/xvXos, ix. 17. 
crt/, i. 4. 
auavia, iii. 14. 
<rv(3dXXas, iii. 14. 
avoids, iii. 14. 
ovpu>T7)s, ix. 24 + vi. 39. 
di'Kdpui'os, x. 12. 

OTK'5, X. 12. 

crvKOfMopos, x. 12 + ii. 43. 

(7VK0V, X. 12. 

tri'Xdw, iv. 18. 
(rw, i. 31. 

auvriopos, i. 31 + ii. 22. 
crvvupis, i. 31+ii. 22. 
crvojSawos, ix. 24 + iii. 27. 
avpa, vii. 13. 
crvp(3r), v. 6 ; vii. 13. 
<Tupiy£, ix. 24 + ix. 8. 
cvpiaKos, ii. 22 + ii. 28. 
o-i/ptxos, ii. 22 + ii. 32. 
(Tvpiaau, ix. 24. 
<rvp4>os, vii. 13, 14. 
ou'pw, vii. 13. 
cOs, ix. 24. 

ffLHpai;, X. 19 + x. 1. 
cicpap, ii. 25. 
crux^cis, vi. 71. 
<r<pa7»'os ) iii. 14. 
C(pa5dj"u>, v. 3. 
enpdj'w, vii. 17. 
<r<paipa, ii. 27. 
acpdhceXos, iii. 14 ; v. 3. 
cnpd/cos, iii. 14. 
acpaXdacrw, vii. 17. 
iKpaXXos, ii. 27. 
cipdXXw, v. 3. 
ocpdpayos, ix. 25. 
(ripe, viii. 5. 
<r0eoa^o5, vi. 106. 
cnptTj, viii. 5. 
<r0e'Xas, ii. 27 ; vi. 18. 
<T(p(.Xp.a, vi. 68. 
<T(piv5ap.vos, vii. 17 + i. 34. 
acpevdovT), v. 3. 
crcpr/v, vii. 17. 



316 



INDEX. 



c-cprj^, vii. 17. 
(Kpiyyia, vi. 40. 
<r<piyyw, vi. 40. 
<7<piSr), ii. 27. 
ff(j>6yyos, iii. 14. 
<j(po5p6s, vi. 106. 
afiovdvXos, ii. 27 + ii. 13. 
cr06s, viii. 5. 
ffcppayis, i. 15. 
a<ppiydcj, vi. 68. 

(T(pufa, v. 3. 

a<pupa, ii. 27. 
cr<pvpds, ii. 27. 
acpvpov, ii. 27. 
<T0Ci>, i. 4. 
<T0i2'i', i. 4. 
<j<pu>Li>, i. 4. 
crxaSwi/, ii. 29. 
trxaj"^, iii- 10 ; iv. 8. 
ff^aX/s, iv. S. 

aX affr VP> i'- 29. 
(TxeSTj, iv. 8. 
trxeciia, iv. 8. 
(7X<?5ios, i. 30 + i. 2. 
<Txe56^, i. 30 + i. 2. 
exedpos, vi. 63. 
ax e 9p6s, vi. 63. 
o-x<^w, vi. 63. 
ffXeXis, ii. 29. 
uxeXwdfto, viii. 7. 
crxfVcH/Aa, ii. 29. 
ffxepa<pos, viii. 7. 
(TXeVis, vi. 63. 
(TxeVXtos, vi. 63. 
crxwu, vi. 63. 

o-xtfw, iv - 8. 
ax'^SaX/xdj, iv. 8. 
o-X'^os, i. 18 ; iv. 8. 
axo'ii'os, ii. 28. 
ctxoXtj, iii. 10. 
crx^'pos, vii. 7. 
cuko?, vi. 63. 
uwX-qv, ii. 22. 
(icD/xa, vi. 80. 
(Tupaids, vii. 1 3. 
awpaKos, ii. 23. 
trwpjs, vi. 81. 
cruij, vi. 104. 
cCnpov, ii. 22. 
<ru>xw, vii. 8. 
Td/3Xa, i. 33. 



rayyus, viii. 18. 
rdyqvov, iii. 16. 
Ta7i'pi, vii. 24. 
rcuWa, vi. 57. 
raXa^7rwpos, vi. 12 + vi. 

20. 
rdXa^TOf, vi. 12. 
rdXa/ios, ii. 1 8. 
raXdcnoj, ii. 18. 
raXavpivos, vi. 12 + vii. 27. 
rdXaj, vi. 12. 
raXi?, iiL 12. 
Tap.[as, iv,. 2. 
T&f.ucros, i. 34. 
to>, i. 4. 
raea-, vi. 57. 
ravabs, vi. 57. 
Tarai;-, vi. 57. 
Tai'eFa, vi. 57. 
ravrfKeyrjS, vi. 57 + vii. 31. 
ravdaXvfa, v. 26 + v. 7- 
Tavdapvfa, v. 26 + v. 11. 
rai'L'-, vi. 57. 
tcwo;, vi. 57. 
rd^os, ii. 28. 
ra.Treivos, vi. 60. 
rd7T7;s, vi. 60. 
rapavdos, v.. 11. 
rapdcnrw, v.. 1 1. 
rdpjSos, v. 11. 
Tapyaivw, v. 11. 
rapy&vrj, ii. 22. 

Tdpix os i vii- i3. 

rapp.ufap.ai, v. 11 + i. 28. 

Tapiravri, ii. 20, 

Tapaos, i. 12 ; ii. 20. 

raprapifa, v. 11. 

rdprapos, v. 1 1 . 

Taprpvs, vi. 11. 

-nipx 7 ?, v. 11. 

rdpx°s> ii- 21. 

rams, vi. 57. 

rdcrcrw, i. 33. 

rdra, vi. 58. 

TariKbs, iii. 1 1. 

rarvpas, ix. 4. 

raupos. i. 29. 

raus, vi. 53. 

raCs. vi. 53. 

tcuVios, v. 17. 

Td<pos, iii. 15 ; vi. 60. 



rd0pos, vi. 60. 
Taxi'S, v. 24. 
re, i. 5. 
reyyco, iii. 16. 
reyos, ii. 29. 
redrjira, iii. 15. 
Ti6p.6s, i. 1. 
Teivco, vi. 57. 
reipos, vi. 123. 
reipco, vii. 39. 

Te?x os > vi- 53. 
reiws, i. 3 + vi. 36. 
reKfiap, vi. 126 + iv. 16. 

T€KVOV, vi. 53. 

tektui/, vi. 53. 
reXap.wv, ii. 18 + ii. 38. 
TeXjSoo, v. 7. 
reXeOu, vi. 13. 
reXerrj, vi. 13. 
reXew, vi. 1 3. 
reXXj], ii. 19. 
TeXXa>, vi. 13. 
TeXfxa, iii. 12. 
reXos, vi. 13. 
reXuov, vi. 13. 
rep.axos, iv. 2. 
repevos, iv. 2. 
ripvw, iv. 2. 
reecryos, iii. 16. 
Tevdw, x. 3. 

revdpri<j(.bv, ix. 4 -fix. 5. 
revdw, x. 3. 
reo, i. 4. 
reolo, i. 4. 
reoOs, i. 4. 
reoO, i. 4. 
repdpwv, iii. 13. 
repcts, vi. 128. 
Tepifiwdos, iii. 13 + i. 18. 
ripepvos, i. 29. 
Tsperii'w, ix. 4. 
rep^w, vii. 39. 
Teprjduii', vii. 39. 
T(prjv, iii. 13. 
repdpevs, v. 11. 
Ttpdpov, vi. 9. 
rtppa, vi. 9. 
T^pTTco, iii. 13. 
rcpcrop.ai, vii. 13. 
repvcTKU), vii. 39. 
rtp(pos, ii. 21. 



INDEX. 



317 



ripxvos, vi. 9. 
riaaapes, i. 4. 
Terayuiv, i. 21. 
Tercels, vi. 57. 
TtTiTifiai, vii. 43. 
rertTju}?, vii. 43. 
Tirp.ii}, i. 34. 
Terpaivw, vii. 39. 
rerpa^, ix. 4. 
rerpdui', ix. 4. 
TtTpep.alvui, v. 11. 
Terpii;, ix. 4. 
rirra, vi. 58. 
rirrapts, i. 4. 

T€TTL^ r ix. 3. 

rtTTopes, i. 4. 
rervKelv, vi. 53'. 
revdaXls, vi. 5'3 + vi. 10. 
revdis, x. 8. 
revdpiov, vi. 53 + ii. 20. 
revKpiov, vi. 53 + ii. 3. 
revrXov, vi. 72. 
Teux'Tr/s, vi. 53 + vii. 11. 
rc&xos, vi. 53. 
reixw, vi. 53. 
T£(ppa, vi. 138. 
7-ex"'7, vi. 53. 
t<*us, i. 3 + vi. 36.. 
t?},. i. 21. 
TT)(ifvva, ii. 24. 
T^cwoi', iii. 16-. 
Tt]da\\a5ovs, vi. 58 + vi 

87. 
t?7#77, vi. 58. 
T7j6ij3ios, vi. 58 + i. 8.. 
Tr)6is, vi. 58. 
Trjdos, x. 8. 
rrjKii), iii. 16. 
T7]\eda.Tr6s, iv. 18 + vi. GO. 
Tr/Xeddw, vi. 10. 
T7]\erpLov, ii. 19 + vi. 38. 
T7]\ia, i. 12. 
TrjXiKos, i. 3 + vi, 92. 
ttJXcs, ii. 19. 
T7]\ov, iv. 18. 
T^XiryeTos, iii. 12. 
TTjpeXiw, i. 21 + vii. 15. 
rrifxevos, ii. 24. 
T7jp.epov, i. 3 + vi. 31+iv. 

16. 
TTJp.os, i. 3 + vi. 37. 



Tv;feXXa, ix. 5. 

T-qvlKa, i. 3 + vi. 37 4- vi. 8. 

ttjvoj, i. 3. 

-XT?/?, vi. 9. 

TT}pi03, ii. 21. 
TT/TCIW, iv. 1. 

t^7-£s, i. 3 + vi. 34. 
T^iVtos, v. 17. 
TLJir)v, ii. 24. 
Tiyydj3a.pi, vi. 12'i -f vi. 

117. 
Tiypis, vii. 24. 
to}, i.. 5. 

TidaijiiLe-cTO}, x. 8 f vi. 40. 
rt#as, x. 8. 
ridaaos, x. 8. 

Tl&Tjp.L, i. 1. 

Tio-qvos, x. 8. 

Tiff&p.a\os, x. 8 + vi. 29. 

tiktu), vi. 53. 

riXdw, v. 7. 

tlXXw, vi. 12. 

t(,u?7, vi. 13. 

Tip.wp6s, vi. 13 + ii. 13. 

We, i. 4. 

Tivdaaw, v. 26. 

Ttp06s, vi. 126. 

Tivup.i, vi. 13. 

7^W, vi. 13, 

ri'os, i. -1. 

rtoCs, i. 4 , 

tc's, i. 5. 

rtj, i. 5. 

titciIvo}!, vi. 57. 

tItclvos, vi. 126, 

rtVaf, vi. 58. 

TiT-qvrj, vi. 58. 

titO'Js, x. 8. 

tltI<;u, ix. 3. 

tlt'hii, vi. 13, 

TLTpdoi, vii. 39, 

TLTpdiffKco, vii 39. 

TlTTUpifa, i.X. 3.. 

riTvpos, vii. 13. 
TiTiiGKU), vi. 53. 

Ti'077, vi. 60. 
Ticpos, iii. 1 5. 
riepvov, viii. 16. 
Ti(pvs, vi. 60. 
Ti'w, vi. ] 3. 
rX/Ji'cu, vi. 12. 



Tp.qyu, iv. 2. 

Tix-qais, iv. 2. 

t-6, i. 3. 

r60ei/, i. 3 + i. 1. 

t60i, i. 3 + i. 1 . 

To:, i. 3. 

rot, i. 3. 

to?xos, vi. 53. 

x6\'a, i. 3 + vi. 8. 

TOKevs, vi. 53. 

ToXp-dw, vi. 12. 

toXvttt}, ii. 18. 

TJp.apos, iv. 2 + ii. 13. 

ro,u.7?, iv. 2. 

76/j.ovpos, iv. 2+ii. 13. 

TovQoXvyew, ix. 5 + ix. 4. 

Tovdopvfb), ix. 5 + ix. 4. 

Tovdpvs, ix. 5 + ix. 4. 

roj'os, vi. 57. 

ToifiKoV, i. 21. 

to^ov, ii. 28. 

Tu7raios, vi. 138. 

TOTTtloV, ii. 2S. 
TOTTTjlOV, 1. 33. 
T07TOS, i. 33. 

Topyos, ix. 4. 
rbpbvXov, ii. 20 + vi. 10. 
Topevw, ii. 20. 
roppLos, ii. 20. 
Topvos, ii. 20. 
ropos, vii. 39. 
rop 6 j, vii. 39. 
Topvvq, v. 11. 
-tos, i. 1. 

roffoy, i. 3 + vi. 36. 
To<ro-as, i. 3 + vi. 36. 
Toaffos, i. 3 + vi. 36. 
rore, i. 3 + vi. 57. 
ror^, i. 3 + vi. 57. 
row, i. 4. 
Tcxpubv, iii. 15. 
ro<ppa, i. 3 + vi. 20. 
rpaydo), vii. 13. 
Tpayr}p.aTCL, x. 3. 
rpdyos, vii. 13 ; x. 3. 
rpayuidos, vi. 126 + ix. 2. 
TpanTos, vi. 126. 
rpdpis, vi. 9 + v. 22. 
rpapuris, vi. 11. 
rpaTrei'a, vi. 11. 
Tpairiw, vi. 11. 



318 



INDEX. 



Tpdwr]^, vi. 11. 
Tpaaid, ii. 20. 
rpav\6s, ix. 4. 
rpavfia, vii. 39. 
rpdx^Xos, "• 20 + ii. 1. 
rpax^s, vii. 13. 
rpeis, i. 3. 
t peltd, v. 11. 
Tpe/xco, v. 11. 
Tpt-rru, ii. 20. 
rpeepu, vi. 11. 

Tpex 1 ' 05 ' y i- !,> 
rpexu, ii. 20. 
t/^w, v. 11. 
rp-qpwv, ix. 4. 
Tprjxvs, vii. 13. 
TpiaKovra, i. 3 + iv. 7. 
Tpipu). vii. 39. 
rpiyXa, i.-3 + vi. 3. 
Tptr/klfa, ix. 4+ix. 7. 
Tpifw, ix. 4. 
Tpn)prjs, i. 3 + i. 26. 
TpiVa£, i. 3 + vii. 20. 
rpi^ds, i. 3 + iv. 6. 
rpts, i. 3. 
Tp/x a » i- 3 + iv. 11. 

rpixds, i x - 4. 

TpLxopavt's, vi. 9 + ii. 38. 

TpoiraWis, ii. 20 + ii. 10. 

-rpoi', vi. 9. 

r pain's, vi. 11. 

Tpo<pa\ls, vi. 11 +ii. 10. 

rptxpis, vi. 11 . 

Tpoxfc, ii. 20. 

rpvpXLov, ii. 20 + ii. 14. 

Tpvy4u, vii. 13. 

rpvyyas, ix. 4. 

rpvyr}, vii. 39. 

rpvyovdu), vii. 39. 

rpvyuv, vii. 39 ; ix. 1. 

T/jrifu, ix. 4. 

Tpvr)\a, ii. 20. 

TpuXifai, ix. 4. 

rpvfia, vii. 39. 

Tptfi;, iii. 13. 

Tpvirdu), vii. 39. 

TpVCTKW, vii. 13. 

rpvaads, vii. 39. 
rpvTavq, vi. 11. 
Tpv(pd\eia, ii. 20 + ii. 1 I. 
Tpv<fios, vii. 39. 



rptixvos, iii. 13. 
rpvx<»>, vii. 39. 
rpvw, vii. 39. 
Tpibyht), vii. 39. 
Toibyo}, x. 3. 
rtf, i. 4. 

Ti^dw, vi. 53. 
tu£, i. 5. 
tvk&vt], vii. 24. 
7i''/cos, vi. 53. 
Ti'Xds, ix. 4. 
Ti'/X?;, vi. 10. 
Tt'/Xos, vi. 10. 
rvpfios, vi. 75. 
twt;, i. 4 + viii. 1 . 
tl'wos, iii. 11. 
twtXos, iii. 15. 
T(57rai'0i', vi. 74. 
Ti57rraj, vi. 74. 
Tvpavvos, vi. 1 1 . 
Tvpfiri, v. 11. 
rvpos, vi. 1 1 . 
rvpffis, ii. 21. 
Ti'rdi'')?, vii. 24. 
tvtOos, iii. 11. 
Tti0eoaiw, iii. IE. 
TlKpT], vi. 60. 

rv<p\6s, ii. 24. 

Tvcpos, iii. 15. 

Tvcpu, viii. 1 6. 

Tv<pib5r}$, viii. 16 + vi. 119. 

rv<pwv, ii. 24. 

t[/x 7 7> v i- 53. 

ti''xos, vi. 53. 

ruddfa, iii. 1 1. 

-ra;p, vi. 9. 

riis, i. 3 + i. 9. 

udiavdos, vi. 120 + vi. 58. 

flaXos, vi. 117. 

i>/36s, vi. 77. 

uppis, ix. 1. 

fySpts, v. 3. 

vyirjS, vi. 51. 

vypbs, iii. 28. 

iWw, ix. 2. 

vdve'w, vi. 34. 

-vovT], vi. 34. 

i/Scov, vi. 34. 

iioos, iii. 27. 

i)3pa, iii. 2 7. 

i'3wp, iii. 27. 



v$\os, ix. 2. 

vlos, vi. 80. 

uiuwos, vi. 80. 

iiXdoj, ix. 20. 

i"X?/, vi. 81. 

u\ia, vi. 18. 

t'Xt'fw, vii. 4. 

up.e5<nr6s, vi. 60. 

ifieis, i. 4 + i. 32. 

iV 7 ?", i. 6 ; ii. 25 + ii. 39.. 

vp.vos, ix. 21. 

vvvis, vii. 20. 

voaKuapLOS, v. 17+ii. 5. 

I'Tra/, vi. 62. 

vTap, ii. 25. 

viraros, vi. 62. 

iVep, vi. 62. 

vvlpa, vi. 62. 

inrepiKTaivopac, vi. 62 + 

v. 2. 
vwepov, vi. 62. 
inrepoTrXos, vi. 62 + vi. 16. 
vTep<pev, vi. 62 + vi. 38. 
v7rep<pLa\os, vi. 62 + vi. 

38. 
inrepdjioy. vi. 62 + iii. 27. 
vTrrji>r), vii. 26. 
vTrrip^rris, vi. 62 + v. 13. 
i7rt(rx»'fo / u,at, vi. 62 + vi. 

63. 
i)7r^o?, iii. 14. 
iV6, vi. 62. 

iwodpa, vi. 62 + vi. 12'i. 
inroKpivofiai, vi. 62 + iv. 9. 
vTroXa'is, vi. 62 + ix. 20. 

VTTTLOS, \i. 62. 

i'pd£, ii. 12. 

i"pa£, vii. 14. 

vpiffos, ii. 12. 

iipoj'. ii. 12. 

vppls, ii. 12. 

vprdvri, ii. 13. 

vpTrjp, iii. 2. 

iJpX'?, ii- 49 ; iv. 14. 

5s, ix. 24. 

iVoos, vi. 73. 

vctkXos, ii. 29. 

vcrKvda, viii. 7 + ix. 24. 

VCTfllvr), i. 6. 

ii(T7rX?77£, ii. 32 + ii. 14. 
vair\r)$, ii. 32 + ii. 14. 



INDEX. 



319 



OiT(Toko>, \i. 80 + ii. 29. 
ircraos, vii. 25. 
iiaTtpa, vi. 80 + vi. 9. 
verepos, ii. 16. 
iJffTpi$, vii. 25 + vi. 9. 
utrxXos, ii. 29. 
vfpaivo], ii. 37. 
v<peap, ii. 25. 
i>0os, ii. 7. 
u0os, vi. 62. 
i'w. iii. 27. 
(ptxyeiv, x. 1. 
(pa.edu, vi. 1 1 5. 
<pj.eLv6s, vi. 1 15. 
(paevvos, vi. 115. 
(paioL/nos, vi. 115. 
(paidpds, vi. 115. 
(paixos, vi. 115. 
(paivu, vi. 1 1 5. 
(pat6s, vi. 115. 
(pdneXos, ii. 35. 
(pctKos, ii. 35. 
(pdXay^, vi. 15 ; vii. 27. 
(pdXaiva, vi. 15. 
(paXaxpds, vii. 28. 
<pdXai>6os, vii. 28. 
(paXapis, vi. 15 ; vi. 117. 
(paXapos, vi. 117. 
(pdXi), vi. 15. 
<pd\KT]s, ii. 14. 
(pdXXrj, vii. 27. 
(paXX6s, vi. 15. 
0dXos, vi. ] 5. 
<pa\6s, vi. 117. 
cpavos, vi. 115. 
(pdos, vi. 115. 
(pdpayi;, x. 10. 
(pdperpa, ii. ] 7. 
(papiKOf, i. 15. 
(papnis, ii. 16. 
cpdpp.aKov, i. 15 +i. 20. 
<pa.pp.do v a>, i. 15 + i. 20. 
(papa's, ii. 17. 
(pdpaos, iv. 14. 
<pipvy$, x. 10 + x. 11. 
(papvp.os, vi. 17. 
(papto, iv. 1 4. 
(pdayavov, vii. 19. 
(pdarjXos, ii. 36. 
(paffKas, ix. 1. 
^dcr/coe, iii. 26. 



(pdaKw\o<i, ii. 36. 
(pdaaa. ix. 1. 
(pdrvt), x. 1 . 
cpavXlos, vi. 15. 
(pavXo's, iii. 1. 
qjavpos, iii. 2. 
(pavcny!;, vi. 43. 
(pavffi,s, vi. 1 15. 
^di//, ix. 1. 
0dw, vi. 115. 
(pedofxai, vii. 29. 
(peyyu, vi. 120. 
<pildop.ai, iv. 6. 
0Aa, vii. 28. 
(peWdfSpiov, vii. 28 + iii. 

13. 
0eXX6s, ii. 15 ; vii. 28. 
(pevdKtj, v. 18. 
(peva£, v. 18. 
c^w, vii. 26. 
(peppu, x. 2. 
(peprepos, vi. 21. 
0^ow, vi. 17. 
0eO, xi. 6. 
(pevyui, v. 32. 
(pe^paXos, vii. 41. 
0£us, vii. 26. 
<£(), i. 5. 
(pr/yds, vi. 48. 
<pyp\yii, vi. 15. 
(p7]\6s, v. 10. 
0?7/xt, ix. 1. 
07)v?7, vii. 26. 
0??p, v. 10. 
(prjpea, vi. 14. 
(jiddvw, vi. 39. 
(pdeyyop-ai, ix. 2. 
00ei>, i. 18. 
(pdeipu, iii. 26. 
(pdivai, iii. -6. 
00ot;, iii. 26. 
0flots, x. 1 ; x. 9. 
(pdbvos, viii. 9. 
(pOvfa, viii. 9. 
-0i, i. 8. 
<pid\ri, ii. 14. 
cpidWw, ii. 14. 
(piapos, vi. 38. 
cpLXos, vi. 22. 
(piXi'ipa, ii. 15 4- ii. 13. 
(pip.os, vi. 40. 



-0tc, i. 8. 
(pivTLs, vi. 22. 
-0ts, i. 8. 
(pirpos, vi. 39. 
(piTTa, ix. 3. 
(piTuw, vi. 38. 
(pXavpos, iii. 1. 
(pXdu>, vii. 28. 
(pX(yp.a, i. 15. 
(pXeytd, vi. 117. 
(pXeawf, vi. ] 5. 
<pXi(pvpa, ii. 14+ii. 16. 
(pXe\p, vi. 15. 
(pXew, vi. 15. 
(pXeuis, ii. 14. 
(pXijvos, vi. 15. 
0Xtd, vi. 18. 
0Xi/3cj, vii. 28. 
(pXiddw, iii. 1. 
cpXipieXia, vi. 15. 
cpXoioow, vi. 15; vi. 117, 
(pXoios, ii. 15. 
(pXo?a(ios, ix. 13. 
(pXoiu), vi. 1 5. 
<pX6/xos, iii. 1. 
(pXovis, ii. 15. 
(pXoi'os, iii. 1. 
(pXoos ii. 15 ; vi. 15. 
(pXvai;, vi. 15. 
(pXvapos, vi. 15. 
<pXv5du), iii. 1. 
(pXvfa, vi. 15. 
(pXvKris, vi. 15. 
(pXvcns, vi. 15. 
(pXvw, vi. 15. 
(pXu>fj.os, iii. 1. 
0o/3r7, vii. 26. 
06/3os, vii. 29. 
(polios, vi. 115. 
(polvq, x. 9. 
<potVi£, vii. 26. 
(poivos, vii. 26. 
(poirdoi, v. 19. 
0oXts, i. 15 ; ii. 15. 
0oXk6s, ii. 14. 
06X\'ts, ii. 14. 
0oXXi£, ii. 15. 
(poXXis, ii. 15. 
(poXvves, i. 15. 
(poXiifco, i. 15. 
cpovos, vii. 26. 



320 



INDEX. 



0o|js, vii. 19. 
(popeid, i. 15. 
(popip-rj, i. 1 5. 
(poplvij, ii. 17. 
(popKos, vi. 117. 
(pop/j.i.y£, ix. 15+ix. 21. 
(popfxas, ii. 16. 
(popvvu), i. 15. 
0oC, viii. 9. 
(ppdfa, vi. 117. 
(pp&vauj, ii. 17. 
(ppaT-fjp, vi. 17 + vi. 9. 
(ppeap, vi. 14. 
(ii<)(pp{u, vi. 14. 
0p^, vi. 22. 
<ppifj.dao-op.ai, v. 9. 
(pp'.aaw, vii. 29. 
(ppovts, vi. 22. 
(ppovris, vi 22. 
(ppovSos, vi. 20 + vi. 71. 
cppovpos, vi. 20 + ii. 13. 
cppv6.iyaop.ai, v. 9. 
(ppv-yw, vii. 29. 
(ppiivT), ix. 15. 
(pvyedXov, vi. 48. 
0i/fa, v. 32. 
(puKos, i. 18. 
(pu\aao~io, ii. 15. 
<pu\-t], vi. 1(3. 
<pu\ia, vi. 16. 
(pvWou, vi. 15. 
<pv\oTTis, vi. 16+ix. 2. 
cpvpa, vi. 38. 
(pvvcav, i. IS. 
cpvpaiji, i. 15. 
(pvpKos, ii. 17. 
<pvpw, i. 15. 
(pvcra, viii. 12. 
0ucrda>, vi. 4-!. 
(pi'alKiWos, vi. 4 3. 
<pvo-Ktj, vi. 43. 
(pvarrj, vi. 43. 
(pvTof, vi. 33. 
0i'w, vi. 3S. 
<pwyw, vii. 29. 
0wi's, vi. 38. 
(f>wK(xiva, viii. 12. 
<pd>K7), viii. 12. 
(pwKis, vi. 48. 
<pw\eos, ii. 15. 
<f>w\is, ii. 15. 



<puvq, ix. 2. 

0cip, ii. 17. 

(puipdui, ii. 17. 

<pwpiap:6s, ii. 17. 

<£<Xs, vi. 38. 

0<2s, vi. 115. 

cpiLaauv, ii. 3G. 

cpCoTL-yii, ix. 1 + ix. S. 

-Xa, iv. 11. 

Xa/SJs, ii. 7. 

Xdfo/xcu, iv. 11. 

Xaipw, iv. 11. 

Xai'os, vi. 107. 

Xaios, ii. 5. 

Xaipw, \i. 6. 

Xa'V?/. vii. 1 1 . 

XaXaj'a, vii. 2. 

X<x\dw, iii. 6. 

Xa\e7ros, vii. 2. 

XaXipos, ii. 1. 

XaXt£, vii. 2. 

XaXis, iii. 6. 

\d\Kt], i. 23. 

XaX/a'j, ix. 7. 

XaX/coj, vi. 129. 

Xap-ai, vi. 111. 

Xa/x6s, ii. 7 ; ii. 8. 

Xaj'Sdi'w, ii. 6. 

Xdfeos, iv. 11. 

Xai'os, iv. 11. 

X<xos, iv. 11. 

Xapdopa, vii. 3. 

Xapai;, vii. 3. 

Xapdcrcrw, vii. 3. 

Xdpis, vi. 6. 

XapfJ-V, vi. 0. 

Xa/507ros, vi. 129 + vi. IIS. 

XapvjBoLS, x. 13. 

Xicris, iv. 11. 

XdcKW, iv. 11. 

xd(r,ua, iv. 11. 

Xarei/w, iv. 8. 

Xare'w, iv. 8. 

Xai/XioSwi', iv. 11 +x. 3. 

X«CXo5, iv. 11. 

XaiVo?, iii. 21. 

Xt5po7ra, ii. G + ii. 53. 

X<tfw, viii. 7. 

Xf'd, iv. 11. 

XttXos, ii. 2. 

Xei/xa, vii. 12. 



Xeifiapos, v. 1 + v. 8. 

Xeip.(hv, vii. 12. 

Xeip, ii. 4. 

X«pds, iv. 9 ; vii. 1. 

Xfipcof, iii. 7. 

Xeipux'ai:, ii. 4 + vi. 42. 

XeXtSa.'^, ii. 1. 

XeXiSwv, v. 4 + v. 24 + v. 

IS. 
XeXi'J'dj'u;. viii. 7. 
X^vvrj, ii. 2. 
XeXus, ii. 2. 
XeXdf, ii. 2. 
XeXti^Tj, ii. 2. 
Xfpa-Sos, vii. 1. 
Xepds, vii. 1. 
Xepei'w, iii. 7. 
Xe'p??s, iii. 7. 

Xepp-ds, vii. 1 + vi. 35. ■ 
Xfpvris, iv. 9. 
Xeppos, vii. 1. 
Xepcos, vii. 1. 
X«», v. 1. 
X>?X77, ii. 2. 
XV^os, ii. 2. 

XW. iv - !!• 
X^, ix. 8. 

Xyvv^t i v - 11. 
X?fc, vii. 3. 
Xripap.6s, iv. 9. 
X^pa0is, iv. 9 + iv. 6. 
X%>os, iv. 9. 
X^ros, iv. 11. 
X0afxa\6s, vi. 111. 
X<?es, iii. 9. 
X#ifos, iii. 9. 
X^oa, vi. 111. 
X 9uv, vi. 111. 
Xi'Spop, iv. 8. 
XiXtoi, i. 30. 
XtAfo, vi. 2. 
Xi'ptapos, v. 1. 
X'/tterXoi', vii. 12. 
X<pds, iv. 9. 
XiTibv, ii. 6. 
Xta>J\ vii. 12. 
xXaTca, ii. 2. 
xXo/xi''S, ii. 2. 
xXan's, ii. 2. 
xXapus, vi. 6. 
XX«'?7, viii. 7. 



INDEX. 



S 



321 



xXvJSos, i. 23. 
X'WiVw, iii. 6. 
xXiS?), iii. 6. 
XXi'w, iii. 6. 
X^ba, vi. 2. 
X\oi'/j'7;s, vi i. 2. 
xXoms, vii. 2. 
XXom/d?, vi. 129. 
xXwpos, vi. 2. 
Xva-vu, vii. 5. 
X^o^, vii. 6. 
X^oos, iii. 21. 

-X°> -Xov, -X ', X 7 ?, '• 1. 

Xooos, viii. 7. 

X077, v. i. 

XoiV<£, ii. 6. 

Xoipds, vii. 1. 

Xoipos, vii. 3. 

Xo\<:8pa, vii. 2. 

Xo\tpa, vii. 2. 

X0X77, vii. 2. 

XoXtf, ii. 1. 

XoXos, vii. 2. 

XovdplWri, i. 23. 

Xovdpos, i. 23 ; vii. 6. 

Xop8a\po$, ii. 3 + i. 8. 

Xop5?7, ii. 3. 

X^pt-ov, ii. 4. 

Xop6s, ii. 4. 

Xopros, vi. 6. 

Xpaipw, i. 23. 

Xpalap.7), vi. 4. 

Xpcvcj, vii. 1. 

^paw, vi. 4 ; vii. 1. 

Xpeia, vi. 4. 

Xptp-V*, viii. 7. 

Xpep-lfa, ix. 6. 

Xpep.TTTop.ai, viii. 7. 

Xptp-vs, viii. 7. 

Xp^os, vi. 4. 

Xpew, vi. 4. 

XP^> vi. 4. 

XPWa, vi. 4. 

Xp'i-P-tttw, i. 23. 

Xpi'w, i. 23. 

Xp6a, i. 23. 

Xpbp.a5os, ix. G. 

Xpbms, viii. 7. 

Xpo^os, vi. 8. 

Xpvo-aWis, vi. 129 + ii. 1 0. 

Xpvo-6s, vi. 129. 



Xp^vuvp.i, i. 23. 

Xpws, i. 23. 

Xi/X6s, v. 1. 

X l >a, v. 1. 

Xvpbs, v. 1. 

XiJrXoj', v. 1. 

X^X6s, v. 1. 

X&vos, v. 1. 

X^vvvpt, vi. 66. 

X&op.ai, v. 1. 

Xu>pe'w, ii. 4. 

X<2p(, -pis, iv. 9. 

X&pos, ii. 4. 

i/'aoapos, vii. 41. 

i/'doios, vi. 40. 

\J/acop6s, vii. 41. 

\{/aii>vi~w, viii. 12. 

ipaivvdos, v. 20 + v. 17. 

\paip03, v. 20 ; vii. 41. 

yj/alu, vii. 41. 

xpaKaKov, vii. 41. 

ipaKas, vii. 41. 

l/'aXdctrw, vii. 41. 

xj/dXiov, ii. 16. 

i/'aXij, ii. 16 ; v. 20 ; vii. 

41. 
i/'dXXw, vii. 41. 
\fdpados, vii. 41. 
xj/dppos, vii. 41. 
^dp, ix. 3. 
i/'apos, i. 15. 
\pavKpos, v. 20 + v. 32. 
ipauw, vii. -11. 
\j/a<papbs, vii. 41. 
t/'dw, vii. 41. 
tf/eyw, vii. 41. 
i/'eSi'os, vii. 41. 
\pei<ds, vii. 41. 
ij/e\i6w, ii. 16. 
l/'eXXioe, ii. 16. 
i/'eXXos, ix. 13. 
\pevb~u, v. 20 + v. 1 7. 
\f/i<po^, ii. 25. 
l/'e'a;. vii. 41. 
■^y}Ki8ibv, vii. 41. 
\pT]\arpdw, vii. 41 -)-i. 8. 
i/'T?!', vii. 41. 
x^f/craa, i. 12. 
\pf/TTa, i. 12. 
\pi)<pos, vii. 41. 
i/'TJxw, vii. 41. 



i/ad, v. 20 ; vii. II. 
ipiaOos, ii. 27. 
i/'idj, vii. 41. 
tj/iyubs, vii. 41. 
ypiovbs. vii. 41. 
\ptdvpbs, ix. 2. 
i/'tXos, vii. 41. 
iplp-vdos, i. 15 + i. 20. 
xj/iuopai, vii. 41. 
i/'trra, ix. 3. 
\pLTTa.KO<s, ix. 3. 
^/w, vii. 41. 
^6, xi. (!. 
i/'ja, ii. 27. 
iplidos, vii. 41 ; ix. 2. 
\Ma, ii. 27. 
i/'oXos, vii. 41. 
ipo<pos, ix. 2. 
^wz, ii. 27. 
ipvdpos, v. 20 + v. 1 7. 
\pv0Los, vii. 41. 
\W0os, v. 20 + v. 17. 
\MX\a, vii. 41. 
\pUTTU), viii. 9. 
V^'X^, viii. 12. 
ipvxw, viii. 12. 
i/'a-a, viii. 9. 
yooKbs, vii. 41. 
ipwpos, x. 2. 
ipupos, vii. 41. 
fit'Xw, vii. 41. 

w, i. 9. 

uVyefos, v. 1, 
• 0)7771', v. 1. 
cD3e, i. 3. 
u;5iV, vii. 4:3. 
woo?, ix. 2. 
d35ucrts, vii. 43. 
d>6eu, vi. 40. 
aWaeoj, v. 1. 
wKipov, viii. IS. 
aViiy, v. 1. 
wXa£, vii. 27. 
<h\tKpai'ov, ii. 1 h vi. 4. 
ibXevr;, ii. 1. 
(I)Xi7|, vii. 'J 7. 
coX£, vii. 27. 
&p.i\\a, ii. 8. 
Hipos, ii. 7. 
w/xos, vii. 40. 
-wv, vi. 34. 

X 



322 



INDEX. 



wfos, vi. 42. 
ibiv, v. 25. 
uiov, iii. 27. 
uipo, ii. 13. 
wpa, vi. 8. 



<bpa.Kia.il), iii. 2. 
t&pos, iii. 2 ; i&pos, vi. 
wpvyr), ix. 15. 
uipvu, ix. 15. 
ojs, i. 3. 



-ws, i. 9. 
i (iretX^, vii. 25. 
j wjx\tu, vi. 18. 

u>x/»s, vi. 124 + vi. l'J9. 

&$, vi. 118. 



LATIN. 



a- v. 25. 

;ib, abs, iv. 6. 
abacus, i. 12. 
abamita, iv. 6 + i. 7. 
abavus, iv. 6 + i. 8. 
abdo, iv. 6 + i. 1. 
abdomen, vi. 40 + vi. 60. 
abies, i. 18. 
abiga, i. 18. 
aboleo, iv. 6 + vi. 86. 
abulia, ii. 15. 
absque, iv. 6 + iv. 8. 
absteniius, iv. 6 + v. 33. 

ac, i. 1 + i. 5. 
accendo, i. 1 + vi. 134. 
accipiter, ii. 9+ii. 17. 
aceo, vii. 3. 

acer, vii. 3. 
acer, vii. 3. 
acerbus, vii. 3. 
acerra, viii. 19: 
acervus, vi. 1. 
acidus, vii. 3. 
acies, vii. 3. 
acinus, vii. 10. 
acipenser, ii. 9 + v. 18. 
aclassis, ii. 6 + ii. 2. 
aclis, vii. 4. 
acnua, acna, iv. 7. 
aconitum, vii. 5. 
acredula, ix. 6 + ix. i. 
acrocorium, vi. 1. 
actus, iv. 7. 

actutum, vi. 63 + vi. 57. 
aculeus, vii. 4. 
acus, ii. 4. 
acus, vii. 3. 

ad, i. 1. 

adagium, i. 1 + ix. 10. 
adarca, iii. 13. 



adeps, vi. 60. 

adipiscor, i. 1 + vi. 45. 

adminiculum, i. 1 + vi. 35. 

adolesco, i. 1 + vi. 86. 

ador, vi. 58. 

adrumo, i. 1+ix. 15. 

adulor, i. 1 +ii. 10. 

adulter, i. 1 + i. 5 + vi. 9. 

aides, vi. 133. 

ajger, xi. 2. 

semidum, vi. 70. 

temulus, i. 9. 

sequus, i. 9. 

tera, vi. 83. 

ano, ii. 12. 

ajrumna, vii. 37. 

scs, vi. 137. 

ajsculus, vii. 7. 

ajstas, vi. 133. 

aastimo, viii. 5 + vi. 13. 

sestus, vi. 133. 

tetas, v. 24. 

reternus, v. 24+vi. 9. 

sevum, v. 24. 

affatim, i. 1 — f- iii. 26. 

agaso, v. 1+vi. 108. 

ager, vi. 63. 

agina, vi. 63. 

agna, vii. 3. 

agnus, iii. 21. 

ago, vi. 63. 

agrifolia, vii. 3 + vi. 15. 

aio, ix. 10. 

ala, ii. 40. 

alacer, v. 16. 

alapa, vi. 5. 

alaternus, vii. 33. 

alausa, ii. 50. 

albucus, ii. 50 + ii. 34. 

albueliSj ii. 50 4-ii. 10. 



alijunmm, vi. 136 + ii. 13. 

albus, vi. 136. 

alcedo, v. 16 + v. 24 + v. 

IS. 
alces, v. 16. 
alcibium, ii. 46 + ii. 37. 
alea, v. 12. 
alec, x. 17. 
alga, ii. 46. 
algeo, vii. 31. 
alica, vii. 31. 
alicula, ii. 47. 
aliquis, i. 5. 
alius, i. 5. 
aliuta, i. 5 + i. 9. 
allium, x. 17. 
alums, vi. 86. 
alnus, ii. 54. 
alo, vi. 86. 
Alpes, vi. 96. 
alter, i. 5 + vi. 9. 
altercum, vii. 33. 
altus, vi. 87. 
alucinor, v. 12. 
alucita, vii. 31. 
alumen, vii. 31. 
aluta, ii. 55. 
alveus, ii. 50. 
alvus, ii. 5 it. 
amnrus, vii. 45. 
ambi, ii. 44. 
aiiibu, i. 8. 

ambiices, ii. 44 + iii. 2. 
auobubeja, v. 22 + vi. 48. 
ambnlo, v. 22. 
amellus, vi. 121. 
amentum, vi. 82 + ii. 38. 
aines, vi. 82 + ii. 38. 
amicio, ii. 6 + ii. 35. 
amicus, viii. 2. 



INDEX. 



323 



ainita, i. 7. 
amnacum, iii. 5. 
amnis, v. 22. 
amo, viii. 2. 
amoenus, viii. 2. 
ampins, vi. 78. 
ampulla, vi. 78. 
amtruo, ii. 44 + v. 11. 
amussis, J. 11. 
an, i. 5. 
an-, ii. 6. 
anas, v. 29. 
ancile, ii. 6 + ii. 2. 
ancilla, vi. 98. 
anclo, vi. 98. 
ancumilente, v. 27. 
andabata, iv. 4 + vi. 127 

+ vi. 40. 
andruo, vi. 110 + v. 11. 
anethum, viii. 18 + viii. 

16. 
angiportus. i. 10 + vi. 20. 
ango, vii. 21 ; \iii. 1. 
anguis, ii. 5. 
angulus, ii. 9. 
angustus, i. 10. 
anhelo, viii. 1 + viii. 15. 
anima, viii. 1. 
animus, viii. 1. 
annona, vi. 101 + vi. 34. 
annotinus, vi. 37 + vi. 67. 
annulus, ii. 6. 
annuo, i. 1 +-ii. 6. 
annus, vi. 57. 
ansa, vi. 82. 
anser, ix. 8. 
antse, vi. 110. 
antarius, vi. 110. 
ante, vi. 1 10. 
anted, vi. 110 + i. 1. 
antenna, vi. 82 + vi. 57. 

antes, vi. 110. 

antire, vi. 110. 

anticus, vi. 110 +i. 1. 

antiquus, vi. 110 + vi. 8. 

antroare, vi. 110 + ix. 15. 

anus, iii. 17. 

anus, vi. 37. 

ape, vi. 40. 

aper, vii. 27. 

aperio, iv. 6 + ii. 17. 



apex, vii. 19. 
apexabo, vii. 19 + vi. 40. 
apis, vii. 41. 
apiscor, vi. 45. 
apium, x. 21. 
apluda, ii. 15. 
aplustre, ii. 15. 
appareo, i. 13; vi. 117. 
appello, i. 1 +ix. 13. 
apricus, vi. 117. 
aprilis, vi. 117. 
apronia, ii. 16. 
aproxis, ii. 16. 
apruco, ii. 16. 
aptus, i. 8. 
apud, i. 8 + i. 1. 
aqua, v. 25 + v. 1. 
aquifolius, vii. 3 + vi. 15. 
aquila, v. 25 + v. 23 + v. 

13. 
aquilo, vii. 2. 
aquilus, i. 23. 
ara, iii. 17. 
aranea, iii. 19. 
arbilla, vi. 90. 
art liter, vi. 117. 
arbor, vi. 90. 
arbutus, vi. 90 + ii. 32. 
area, ii. 49. 
arceo, ii. 49; vi. 109. 
arcesso, vi. 9 4. 
arctus, vi. 109. 
arcus, ii. 4S. 
ardea, ix. 19. 
ardeo, vi. 137. 
arduus, vi. 83. 
area, iv. 14. 
arena, vii. 34. 
are", vii. 34. 
argentum, vi. 122. 
argilla, i. 2:J. 
arguo. vi. 122. 

aries, iii. 2. 

arista, vii. 1. 

arma, i. 26. 

armentum, i. 26. 

armus, i. 20. 

aro, vii. 37. 

arrugia, i. 1 + vii. 30. 

ars, i. 26. 

artus, i. 26. 



arum, ii. 56. 
arundo, ii. 56 + ii. 32. 
arvina, vi. 90. 
arvum, vii. 37. 
arx, ii. 49. 
as, iv. 7. 
ascia, vii. 7. 
asilus, vii. 14. 
asio, vi. 82. 
asper, vii. 18. 
asser, vL 82. 
assir, v. 25 + v. 6. 
asso, vii. 2 + 
astur, ix. 4. 
,-istus, viii. 5. 
astutus, viii. 5. 
ast, at, vi. 59. 
atanuvium, ii. 24. 
atavus, vi. 59 + i. 8. 
ater, ii. 21. 
atque, i. 1 + i. 5. 

atriplex, ii. 20 + ii. 14. 

atrium, ii. 21. 

atrox, vii. 39. 

-atrus, vi. 9. 

atrusca, iii. 13. 

atta, vi. 58. 

attegrare, i. 1 +iii. 16. 

attilus, v. 7. 

attiuse, i. 1 + vi. 57. 

auceo, vi. 120. 

auctio, vi. 50. 

auctor, vi. 50. 

auctumnus, vi. 50 + vi. 57. 

audeo, xi. 3. 

audio, ix. 27. 

augeo, vi. 50. 

augur, v. 23 + vi. 4. 

augustus, vi. 108. 

aumatium, ii. 44. 

aura, viii. 12. 

aurea. ii. 12. 

auriga, ii. 12 + vi. 63. 

auris, ix. 27. 

aurora, vi. 116. 

aurum, vi. 117. 

ausculto, ix. 27. 

auster, vi. 116. 

aut, i. 5. 

autem, i. 5. 

autumo, ix. 2. 



324 



INDEX. 



auxi'inm, vi. 50. 
auxilla, ii. 35. 
avarus, xi. 3. 
avena, ii. 33. 
aveo, xi. 3. 
A vermis, ii. 16. 
averrunco, iv. 6 + ii. 12. 
avis, v. 25 + v. 23. 
avunculus, i. 8. 
avus, i. 8. 
axainenta, ix. 10. 
axare, ix. 10. 
axilla, ii. 9. 

axis, ii. 9 ; v. 1 ; vil 9. 
bacar, ii. 34. 
bacca, x. 1. 
bacillnm, vi. 40. 
bacrio, ii. 34. 
bacnlnm, vi. 40. 
badius, vi. 118. 
bajulus, vi. 40. 
balasna, vi. 15. 
balatro, ix. 13. 
balbus, ix. 13. 
baliolus, i. 15. 
l.nllo, v. 10. 
balneum, vii, 28. 
balo, ix. 13. 

halteus, ii. 15-. 
barba, vii. 28. 

barca, ii. 17. 

baro, iii. 2. 

barosus, iii. 2. 

bamis, vi. 21. 

ba&ium, ix. 3. 

basterna, vi. 40. 

batillum, i. 12. 

batiola, x. 9. 

batuu, vi. 40. 

baubor, ix. 1. 

basea, ii. 35. 

bebrinus, x. 2. 

bellum, vii. 43. 

bellus, iii. 1 . 

belua, v. 10. 

bene, vi. Id2. 

I mo, vi. 102. 

berbex, iii. 2 + ix. 1. 

berula, v. 9. 

bestia, \ i. 39. 

beta, iii. 26. 



betizare, iii. 26. 
beto, v. 19. 
betula, vi. 39. 
betulus, vi. 11 S. 
-bi, i. 8. 
bibo, x. 9. 
bifarius, i. 6 + ii. 16. 
bigerrica, iii. 2S. 
bilbo, ix. 13. 
bilie, vii. 2^. 
bimus, i. 6 + \ i. 37. 
bini, i. 6. 
bis, i. 6. 
bito, v. 19. 
bitumen, i 18. 
blactero, ix. 13. 
blresus, ix. 13. 
blandns, iii. 1. 
blatea, i. 15. 
blatero, ix. 13. 
blatta, i. 15 ; x. 2. 
blitum, iii. 1. 
boa, ii. 37 ; vi. 4S. 
bojre, vi. 40. 
boletus, vi. 15. 
bonus, vi. 102. 
borsycites, vi. 1 4 + vi. 1 33. 
bos, ix. 1. 
botulus, vi. 40. 
bovo, ix. 1. 
bracre, ii. 17. 
brachiuni, ii. 16. 
bractea, vi. 117. 
brassica, vi. 14. 
bratus, vi. 17. 
brevis, iii. 2. 
bria, x. 10. 

brigantes, ii. 17 + vii. 5. 
brisa, vii. 45. 
brochon, iii. 2. 
brochus, vi. 14. 
bruscum, vi. 14. 
brutus, vi. 17. 
bubinare, vi. 48. 
bubo, ix. 1. 
bubulcus, ix. 1 i- ii. 15. 
bucca, viii. 12. 
buecina, viii. 12. 
bucetum, ix. 1 -f- iii. 9. 
bufo, vi. 48. 
bugillo, i. IS, 



bulbus, vi. 15. 
bulla, vi. 15. 
bullo, bullio,, vi. 15. 
burdo, v. 9. 
buris, vii. 27. 
burrje, iii. 2. 
burricus, v. !'. 
burrus, vi. 117. 
busticetum, vi. 40 + iii. 9. 
bustum, vi. 40. 
buteo, ix. 1. 
butio, ix. 1. 
butubatta, ix. 1. 
buxus, vi. 49. 
-c, -ce, i. 5. 
caballus, v. 1. 
cachinnus, ix. 10. 
caco, viii. 11. 
cacula, vi. 114. 
cacunien, vi. 70. 
cadaver, iii. 9 + iii. 2. 
cadmia, vi. 134. 
cadmitis, vi. 134. 
eado, iii. 9. 
cadus, ii. 6. 
Cfecilia, v. 4 ; vi. 2. 
cseculto, ii. 29 + vi. 124. 
ciecus, ii. 29. 
crecutio, ii. 29. 
csedo, vii. 11. 
cjelebs, iv. 10. 
cselo, vii. 4. 
caelum, vii. 4. 
ciepa, viii. 13. 
cserimonia, vi. 7. 
CKruleus, vi. 124. 
csesaries, vi. 67. 
crcsius, vi. 124. 
crespes, vi. 67 + vi. 39. 
ca?stus, ii. 9. 
cffisullas, vi. 124. 
calamister, ii. 1. 
calamitas, iv. 10. 
calamus, vi. 2. 
calautica, ii. 2. 
calces, ii. 2. 
calceus, ii. 2. 
calco, vi. 5. 
calculus, vii. 2. 
calendar, vi. 8 + vi. 58. 
caleo, vi. 129. 



INDEX. 



325 



caliendrum, ii. 2. 

caliga, ii. 2. 

caligo, i. 23. 

calim, ii. 2. 

calix, ii. 1. 

calla, ii. 1. 

callicia, i. 23 + i. 25. 

callis, vi. 5. 

callus, vi. 5. 

calo, ix. 7. 

calo, vi. 114. 

calsa, ii. 1. 

caltha, vi. 129. 

calunmia, v. 4. 

calvor, v. 4. 

calvus, vii. 2. 

calx, vi. 5 ; vii. 2. 

cama, ii. 7. 

cambio, ii. 7. 

camella, ii. 7. 

camera, ii. 7. 

camillum, ii. 7 ; vi. 111. 

camillus, vi. 1 11. 

caminus, ii. 7. 

cainpagus, ii. 8. 

campus, i. 32. 

camurus, ii. 7. 

canalis, ii. 6. 

cancelli, ii. 6. 

cancer, ii. 6 + ii. 3. 

cancer, ii. 6 + ii. 4. 

candacus, iii. 21. 

candeo, vi. 134. 

candetum, iv. 7 + iii. 9. 

cania, vii. 5. 

canica:, ii. 6. 

canifera, ii. 6+vi. 17. 

canipa, ii. 6. 

canis, ix. 8. 

canistra, ii. 6. 

cannabis, ii. 6. 

cano, ix. 8. 

cantabrum, ii. 6 ; vi. 134. 

canterius, ii. 6. 

canus, vi. 134. 

capedo, ii. 8. 

caper, v. 1. 

caper o. ii. 7. 

capidulum, ii. 8. 

capillus, ii. 7. 

capio, ii. 8. 



capis, ii. 8. 

capistrum, ii. 8. 

capitiuin, ii. 8. 

cappara, x. 2. 

eapparis, x. 2. 

caprago, ii. 7. 

capreida, x. 2. 

capreolus ii. 7. 

caprificus, x. 2 + vi. 48. 

capronae, ii. 7. 

capsa, ii. 8. 

capula, ii. 8. 

caput, vi. 77. 

carabus, ii. 4. 

carbas, vii. 1. 

car bo, vii. 1. 

career, ii. 4. 

cardo, ii. 3. 

carduelis, ix. 6. 

carduus, vii. 3. 

careo, iv. 9. 

carex, vii. 3. 

caries, vii. 1. 

carina, ii. 4. 

carlno, viii. 7. 

carlno ? ii. 4. 

carmen, ix. 11. 

carnifex, v. 6 + vii. 19. 

caro, vii. 1. 

caro, v. 6. 

carota, vii. 3. 

carpentum, vi. 4 + vi. 40. 

carpinus, vi. 1. 

carpo, ii. 4. 

carpus, ii. 3. 

carrus, vi. 4. 

cartibulum, vi. 4. 

cartilago, i. 23 + vi. 92. 

carus, vi. 7. 

casa, ii. 9. 

cascus, vi. 65. 

caseus, x. 4. 

casmillus, vi. 111. 

casnar, vi. 65+ viii. 3. 

casses, ii. 9. 

cassis, ii. 9. 

cassus, iv. 9. 

castellum, ii. 9. 

casteria, iii. 9. 

castigo, vi. 134. 

castro, vii. 9. 



castrum, ii. 9. 

castula, ii. 9. 

castus, vi. 134. 

catamitus, iii. 9 4- iii. 5. 

catax, ii. 6. 

catena, ii. 6. 

caterva, i. 22. 

eatinus, i. 22. 

catta, x. 4. 

catulus, x. 4. 

catus, viii. 4. 

catus, x. 4. 

cauda, vii. 15. 

caudex, vi. 70. 

caulae, ii. 5. 

eaulifl, vi. 2. 

caupo, iv. 20. 

caupulus, ii. 7. 

caurus, vii. 1 . 

causa, vi. 67. 

cautes, vii. 11. 

caveo, ii. 5. 

caverna, ii. 5 + ii. 57. 

cavilla, v. 1. 

cavus, ii. 5. 

-ce, i. 5. 

cedo, iv. 8. 

celeber, vi. 5. 

celer, v. 4. 

cella, ii. 2. 

-cello, vi. 2. 

celo, ii. 2. 

celox, v. 4 -I- v. 1. 

celsus, vi. 2. 

celtis, ii. 2. 

censeo, viii. 4. 

centimalis, vii. 5 + vi. 29. 

centipellio, iv. 7 + ii. 14. 

centum, iv. 7. 

centuria, iv. 7 + vi. 23. 

cepitis, vi. 130. 

cepolatitis, vi. 130 + vi. 

117. 
ceponides, vi. 130. 
cera, i. 23. 
cerceris, ix. 6. 
cerebrum, vi. 1. 
ceria, i. 23. 
ceruo, iv. 9. 
cernuus, vi. 1 +ii. 6. 
cerritus, v. 5. 



326 



INDEX. 



cerrones, v. 5. 

cerrus, vii. 3. 

certo, iv. 9. 

certus, vi. 4. 

cerus, vi. 6. 

cerussa, i. 23 + vi. 116. 

cervix, vi. 1 f i. 8. 

cervus, vi. 4. 

cessim, ii. 9. 

cesso, iii. 9. 

eestus, ii. 9. 

cetera, i. 5 + vi. 9. 

cetra, ii 6. 

-cetum, iii. 9. 

ceu, i. 5. 

ceveo, v. 1. 

chordus, vi. 8. 

cibus, x. 14. 

cicada, ix. 10. 

cicatrix, vii. 11. 

cicer, ii. 4. 

ciconia, ix. 10. 

cicur, iii. 7- 

cicuta, vii. 3. 

cieo, v. 1. 

cignus, ii. 6. 

cilium, ii. 2. 

cillibse, ii. 1. 

cillo, v. 4. 

cilo, vii. 4. 

cimex, vii. 3 + vii. 46. 

eineinnus, ii. 6. 

cingo, ii. 6 + ii. 9. 

ciiiis, vii. 6. 

chums, i. 23. 

cippus, ii. 8. 

circa, ii. 3. 

circanea, ii. 3 + v. 28. 

circiter, ii. 3. 

circius, vii. 1. 

circum, ii. 3. 

circus, ii. 3. 

cirrus, ii. 3. 

cis, i. 5. 

cisium, ii. 9. 

cista, ii. 9. 

cisterna, ii. 9 + ii. 57. 

citer, i. 5 + vi. 9. 

citerin, ix. 11. 

cito, v. 1 ; ix. 11. 

citra, i. 5 + vi. 9. 



citrus, viii. 13. 
citus, v. 1. 
civis, iii. 9. 

clacendix, ii. 2 + ii. 58. 
clades, vii. 2. 
clam, ii. 2. 
clamo, ix. 7. 
clancuhim, ii. 2. 
clandestinus, ii. 2 + i. 1. + 

i. 2. 
clango, ix. 7. 
clams, vi. 129. 
classis, ii. 2. 
clathri, ii. 1. 
claudo, ii. 2. 
claudus, v. 4. 
clava, vi. 2. 
clavis, ii. 2. 
clavus, ii. 1 ; vi. 5. 
clemens, iii. 6. 
clepo, ii. 2. 
clibanarius, ii. 2. 
cliens, ix. 27. 
clinamen, ii. 1. 
clipens, ii. 2. 
clitelhe, ii. 1. 
clivius, v. 4. 
clivus, ii. 1. 
cloaca, vii. 2. 
clueo, ix. 27. 
cluina, ii. 2. 
cluna, v. 4. 
clunis, vi. 1. 
cluo, vii. 2. 
clupea, ii. 1. 
clura, v. 4. 
cnasonse, vii. 5. 

coalesco, i. 31 + vi. 86. 

cocetum, vii. 10. 

cochlea, ii. 2. 

cocio, iv. 20. 

codes, ii. 29 + vi. 121. 

codex, vi. 70. 

caelum, 

ctelum, 

coena, x. 4. 

coenum, i. 23. 

coepio, vi. 67 + vi. 38. 

cohors, i. 31 + ii. 4. 

cohum, i. 31 ; ii. 5. 

coinquo, i. 31 + i- 1 + vii. 3. 



ii. 1. 



coliphium, ii. 1 + vi 96. 
collicise, i. 31 + iii. 19. 
collis, vi. 2. 
collum, ii. 1. 
colo, vi. 7. 
colo, vii. 4. 
color, i. 23. 
colostra, i. 23. 
coluber, ii. 1 +ii. 16. 
columba, ix. 7 + ix. 21. 
columen, vi. 2. 
coluniis, vi. 6. 
columna, vi. 2. 
colurnus, ii. 2. 
colus, vi. 2. 
coma, vi, 70. 
combretum, ii. 7. 
comis, iii. 21. 
comissor, v. 1. 

commentor, i. 31 + viii. 1 . 

commugento, i. 31 + ix. 
21. 

communis, i. 31 + ii. 39. 

como, vi. 132. 

compello, i. 31 + ix. 1?. 

comperio, i. 31 + ii. 17. 

compes, i. 31 + ii. 33. 

compesco, i. 31+ii. 33. 

compilo, i. 31 + iv. 13. 

concha, ii. 6. 

concilium, i. 31 + ix. 7. 

concinnus, i. 31 + i. 23. 

concio, i. 31 + v. 1. 

condio. i. 31 + i. 21. 

conferva, i. 31+vi. 14. 

confestim, i. 31 + v. 20. 

confiages, i. 31 + viii. 14 
+ i. 1. 

confluges, i. 31 + v. 10 4 
i. 1. 

conforio, i. 31 + i. 15. 

confuto, i. 31 + iii. 26. 

congius, ii. 6. 

congruo, i. 31 + v. 6. 

conila, viii. 18. 

coniptum, vii. 6 + v. 1 . 

conniveo, i. 31+ii. 26. 

conor, vi. 66. 

conquinisco, i. 31 + ii. 6. 

consentes, i. 31 + iii. 17. 

considero, i. 31 + vi. 128. 



INDEX. 



327' 



consilium, i. 31+iii. 18. 


coxendix, iL 9 + ii. 58. 


culeus, ii. 1. 




conspolium, vii. 6 + i. 15. 


coxim, ii. 9. 


culex, vii. 4. 




consterno, i. 31 + v. 11. 


coxo, ii. 9. 


culina, vi. 114. 




consul, i, 31+iii. 18. 


crabro, vii. 3. 


culiola, ii. 2. 




consult), i. 31+iii. 18, 


cracca, ii. 4. 


culis, vii. 4. 




contemplor, i. 31 + iv. 2. 


cracens, iii. 7- 


culmen, vi. 2 




contifices, vi. 112+ vii. 


crapula, v. 5. 


culraus, vi. 2. 




19. 


eras, vi. 130. 


culpa, v. 4. 




continuus, i. 31 + vi. 57. 


crassus, vi. 4. 


culter, vii. 4. 




contio, i. 31 + v. 1. 


crates, ii. 3. 


culullus, ii. 1. 




contra, i. 31 + vi. 9. 


creber, vi. 4. 


cuius, ii. 1. 




contumax, vi. 112. 


credo, vi. 4 + i. 1. 


cum, L. 31. 




contumelia, vi. 112. 


cremo, vii. 1. 


cunriera, iL 8. 




contumia, vi. 112. 


cremor, i. 23. 


cumulus, vi. 70. 




contuoli, i. 31 + vi. 127. 


creo, vi. 6. 


-cun-, i. 5. 




convexus, i. 31 + ii. 34. 


creper, ii. 4. 


cunabula, vi. 65. 




convicium, i. 31 + ix. 2. 


crepiculum, ii. 4. 


cunre, vi. 66. 




copadia, x. 14. 


crepida, ii. 4 + ii. 33. 


cunctor, vi. 65. 




copula, i. 31+ii. 14. 


crepido, ii. 4 + ii. 33. 


cuneus, vii. 5. 




coquo, vi. 114. 


crepo, ix. 6. 


cuniculus, vii. 5. 




cor, vi. 6. 


crepundia, ix. 6. 


cunila, viii. 18. 




coraeesia, i. 23 + i. 18. 


crepusculum, ii. 4. 


cunire, L 23. 




coram, i. 31 +x. 24 + i. 2. 


creseo, vi. 6. 


cunnus, vi. 66. 




corbis, ii. 3. 


creta, i. 23. 


cupa, ii. 7. 




corbita, ii. 3. 


cribrum, iv. 9. 


cupedia, x. 14. 




corcus, ix. 6. 


crimen, iv. 9. 


cupencus, vi. 107 + vi. 98 


cordicitus, vi. 6 + i. 1. 


crinis, ii. 3. 


cupio, vi. 107. 




corium, ii. 4. 


crispus, ii. 3 + ii. 27. 


cupressus, viii. 13 + viii 


comix, ix. 6 + v. 28. 


crisso, v. 5. 


19. 




cornu, vi. 4. 


crista, vii. 1. 


cura, vi. 7. 




cornus, vii. 1. 


crocallis, vii. 1 + vii. 38. 


curculio, x. 13. 




corona, ii. 3. 


crocio, ix. 6. 


curia, ii. 4. 




corpus, vi. 1. 


crocotilus, iii. 7. 


curiosus, vi. 107. 




corruda, i. 31 + vi. 88. 


crudelis, vii. 1. 


cutis, vii. 3. 




corrugus, i. 31 + vii. 30. 


crudus, vii. 1. 


curro, v. 5. 




cortex, ii. 4. 


crumena, ii. 4. 


curruca, ix. 6. 




cortina, ii. 3. 


cruor, v. 6. 


currus, vi. 4. 




corusco, vi. 4. 


crus, ii. 3. 


curtus, iv. 9. 




coruscus, v. 5 + v. 2. 


crusta, vii. 1. 


curulis, vi. 4. 




corvus, ix. 6. 


crux, ii. 3. 


curvus, ii. 3. 




corylus, ii. 4. 


cubitum, ii. 7. 


-cus, i. 1. 




cos, vii. 11. 


cubo, ii. 7. 


cusculium, iv. 8. 




cossus, vii. 9. 


cucullus, ii. 2. 


cuspis, vii. 9 + vii 


. 41. 


costa, ii. 9. 


cuculus, ii. 2 ; ix. 10. 


cussiliris, iii. 9 + 


iii. 34. 


cotinus, vi. 70. 


cucuma, vi. 114. 


cusfcos, ii. 9. 




cotonea, vi. 70. 


cucumis, vi. 70. 


cutis, ii. 6. 




cotonius, vi. 70. 


cucurbita, vi. 1. 


-dam, i. 34. 




coturniuin, x. 14. 


cucurio, ix. 6. 


dama, v. 33. 




coturnix, ix. 11 + ix. 4 + 


cudo, vii. 11. 


ilamium, vi. 58. 




v. 28. 


cudo, ii. 6. 


damnaustra, vi. 


76 + ii. 


coxa, ii. 9. 


culcita vi. 5. 


13. 





328 



INDEX. 



damnum, vi. 76. 
danae, ii. 58. 
dano, iv. 1. 
daps, vii. 42. 
dardanarius, iv. 1. 
daucus, vii. 24. 
dautia, vi. 53. 
de, iv. 1. 
-de, -d, i. 1. 
decern, iv. 7. 
decet, vi. 126. 
decinaatrus, iv. 7 + vi. 9. 
decuria, iv. 7 + vi. 23. 
decus, vi. 126. 
decussis, iv. 7 + iv. 7. 
degunere, iv. 1 + x. IS. 
delecto, iv. 1+iii. 19. 
deleo, iv. 1 + vii. 36. 
delibuo, iv. 1 + i. 24. 
delicatus, iv. 1 + iii. 19. 
deliciffi, iv. 1 -t-iii. 19. 
delicus, vi. 93. 
delnbruin, iv. 1 + ii. 51. 
-dem, i. 34. 
demo, iv. 1 + i. 7. 
demum, vi. 57. 
deni, iv. 7. 
denique, vi. 57 + i. 2. 

delis, X. 3. 
densus, i. 34. 
deorsum, iv. 1 + ii. 12. 
depso, vii. 42. 
desidero, iv. 1 + vi. 128. 
destico, ix. 3. 
desthio, iv. 1 + i. 29. 
deterise, iv. 1 + vii. 39. 
deterior, iv. 1 + vii. 39. 
detrimentum, iv. 1 + vii. 

39. 
delis, vi. 127. 
devexus, iv. 1 +ii. 34. 
dexter, vi. 53 + vi. 9. 
di-, iv. 1. 
dicis, vi. 126. 
dlco, vi. 126. 
dico, vi. 126. 

dies. vi. 127. 

digitus, i. 21. 
diguoro, iv. 1 + viii. 4. 
dignus, vi. 126. 
dimico, iv. 1 + vi. 33. 



diugua, x. 17. 

dinx, v. 24 + v. 1. 

dirigo, iv. 1 + vi. 94. 

diius, iii. 11. 

dis-, iv. 1. 

discipulus, vi. 126 + vi. 

16. 
disco, vi. 126. 
disci imen, iv. 1+iv. 9. 
disertus, iv. 1+ix. 14. 
dispesco, iv. 1+ii. 33. 
dissero, iv. 1+ii. 22. 
dissipo, iv. 1 +v. 1. 
distinguo, iv. 1+vi. 72 
ditio, vi. 54. 
diu, vi. 57, 127. 
diuturnus, vi. 57 + vi. 9. 
dives, vi. 102. 
divido, iv. 1 + iv. 6. 
dividuus, iv. 1 +iv. 6. 
divuuu, vi. 127. 
do, i. 1 ; iv. 1. 
doceo, vi. 126. 
dolabella, vii. 40. 
do'abra, vii. 40. 
doleo, vii. 40. 
dolium, ii. 18. 
dolo, vii. 40. 
dolus, ii. 19. 
dumicilium, i. C4 + ii. 2. 
dominor, vi. 76. 
dominus, vi. 76. 
domo, vi. 76. 
domus, i. 34. 
donee, vi. 57. 
doiiicum, vi. 57. 
donum, iv. i. 
doris, iii. 13. 
dorniio, iii. 13. 
dorsum, vi. 13. 
dos, iv. 1. 
draucus, iii. 13. 
drenso, ix. 4. 
driudio, ix. 4. 
-du, i. 1. 

dubenus, vi. 102. 
dubius, i. 6. 
duco, vi. 55. 
duduin, vi. 57. 
duellum, vii. 43. 
dulcis, x. 17. 



dum, vi. 57. 

dumus, i. 34. 

duntaxat, vi. 57 + i. 33. 

duo, i. 6. 

duonus, vi. 102. 

dureta, iii. 13. 

duro, vi. 11. 

durus, vi. 11. 

ebrius, iv. 5 + x. 10. 

ebuluni, ii. 37. 

ecce, i. 5. 

ecquis, i. 5. 

edo, x. 3. 

efi'utio, iv. 5+ v. 19. 

egeo, iv. 11. 

ego, viii. 4. 

ehem, xi. 3. 

eheu, xi. 1. 

eho, xi. 3. 

eja, xi. 3. 

ejulo, xi. 1. 

electarium, iv. 5 + x. 17. 

electuariuin, iv. 5 + x. 

17. 
elegans, iv. 5 + ii. 47. 
elementa, vi. 86. 
elices, iv. 5 + iii. 19. 
elixus, iv. 5 + iii. 19. 
elucus, iii. 6. 
emarcus, ii. 42. 
emineo, iv. 5 + vi. 35. 
euro, i. 7. 
en, i. 5. 
eniin, i. 5. 
ens, iii. 17. 
ensis, vii. 14. 
eo, v. 24. 

epigri, vi. 40 + vii. 3. 
epileus, vi. 40 + vi. 96. 
epulum, x. 3 + vi. 15. 
equiso, v. 1 + vi. 108. 
equus, v. 1. 
er, vii. 3. 
erga, vi. 94. 
ergo, vi. 94. 
erice, vii. 30. 
ericius, vii. 3 + vii. 30. 
erigo, iv. 5 + vi. 94. 
erinaceus, vii. 3 + vii. 21. 
eristalis, vi. 129 + vii. 38. 
eritudo, v. 13 



INDEX. 



329 



■erna, ii. 57. 
erneum, ii. 57. 
-emus, vi. 8. 
erro, v. 13. 
eruca, x. 11. 
eructo, x. 11. 
erugo, x. 11. 
ervum, ii. 53. 
et, vi. 59. 
etiam, vi. 59. 
-etum, iii. 9. 
evax, xi. 3. 

everriator, iv. 5 + iii. 2. 
evexus, iv. 5 + ii. 34. 
ex, e, iv. 5. 

exagiuni, iv. 5 + vi. 63. 
exaaien, iv. 5 + vi. 63. 
exbuae, iv. 5 + x. 9. 
exbures, iv. 5 + x. 9. 
excetra, ii. 9 + ii. 6. 
exdutae, iv. 5 + vi. 60. 
exemplars, iv. 5 + i. 7. 
exerceo, iv. 5 + vi. 94. 
exfir, iv. 5 + viii. 21. 
exiguus, iv. 5 + iv. 11. 
exilis, iii. 9. 
eximo, iv. 5 + i. 7. 
eximius, iv. 5 + i. 7. 
exolesco, iv. 5 + vi. 86. 
expatare, iv. 5 + iv. 15. 
expedio, iv. 5 + ii. 33. 
expergo, iv. 5 + vi. 22. 
experior, iv. 5 + vi. 20. 
exploro, iv. 5 + vi. 117. 
exsterno, iv. 5 + v. 11. 
exstinguo, iv. 5 + viii 17. 
exsul, iv. 5 + iii. IS. 
exta, i. 18. 

extemplo, iv. 5 + iv. 2. 
exter, iv. 5 + vi. 9. 
extra, iv. 5 + vi. 9. 
extrilidus, iv. 5+ v. 11. 
extro, iv. 5 + vi. 9. 
exuo, iv. 5 + vi. 60. 
exuviae, iv. 5 + vi. 60. 
faba, ii. 35. 
faber, vi. 38. 
facetus, vi. 120. 
faeies, vi. 120. 
facio, vi. 38. 
faex, iii. 28. 



fagus, vi. 48. 
fala, vi. 18. 
falco, ii. 14. 
falere, vi. 18. 
falisca, vi. 18. 
fallo, v. 10. 
falx, ii. 14. 
fames, x. 1 + viii. 2. 
famex, vi. 44. 
fauiilia, vi. 38. 
famulus, vi. 38. 
fanaticus, ix. 1. 
fanuni, ix. 1. 
far, x. 2. 
farcio, vi. 17. 
farfarus, vi. 117. 
farfugium, vL 117. 
farina, vii. 28. 
fario, i. 15. 
farior, ix. 13. 
farnus, ii. 16. 
fas, vi. 115. 
fascia, ii. 36. 
fiiscinum, ii. 36. 
fascis, ii. 36. 
fastidium, viii. 9. 
fastigo, vi. 38 + vi. 71. 
fastus, vi. 115 ; viii. { 
fateor, vi. 115. 
fatigo, iii. 26. 
fatiiu, iii. 26. 
fatisco, iii. 26. 
fatuus, iii. 26. 
faux, viii. 12. 
faustus, vi. 115. 
faveo, iii. 22. 
favilla, vi. 115. 
favissre, ii. 35. 
favouius, viii. 12. 
favus, ii. 35. 
fax, vi. 120. 
febris, vi. 117. 
februo, vi. 115. 
fecundus, vi. 38. 
fel, vii. 28. 
feles, v. 10. 
felio, ix. 13. 
felix, vi 18. 
fello, x. 9. 
femina, vi. 38. 
femur, vi. 44. 



fendicae, vi. 44. 
-fendo, vi. 40. 
fenestra, vi. 1 15. 
fenum, vi. 38. 
fenus, vi. 38. 
feralis, iii. 2. 
ferctum, vii. 29. 
fere, i. 13. 
ferentariua, v. 9. 
feria>, iii. 2. 
ferio, vi. 19. 
ferme, i. 13. 
fero, vi. 17. 
ferox, v. 9. 
ferrum, vi. 117. 
fertum, vii. 29. 
ferula, ii. 16. 
ferus, v. 9. 
ferveo, vi. 117. 
fescemnce, ii. 36. 
fessus, iii. 26. 
festinus, v. 20. 
festivus, vi. 115. 
festuca, vi. 39. 
festus, vi. 115. 
fetiales, ii. 33. 
fetus, vi. 3S. 
fiber, x. 2. 
fibra, vii. 26. 
fibula, i. 8. 
ficus, vi. 48. 
fidelia, ii. 33 + ii. 11. 
fides, vi. 46. 
fiducia, vi. 46. 
tidus, vi. 46. 
fidusta, vi. 46. 
figo, i. 19. 
tigulus, i. IS. 
figura, i. 18. 
filia, vi. 16. 
Alius, vi. 16. 
filix, ii. 14. 
filum, ii. 14. 
fimbria:, vii. 26. 
fimus, i. 15. 
findo, iv. 15. 
fingo, i. 18. 
finis, iv. 15. 
finitimus, iv. 15-+ i. 2. 
fio, vi. 38. 
fircus, vii. 28. 



330 



INDEX. 



firmns, vi. 17. 

fiscus, ii. 36. 

fistuca, vi. 40. 

fistula, ii. 32 + ii. 18. 

fivere, i. 8. 

fixula, i. 19. 

flaccus, iii. 1. 

flagellum, vi. 19. 

flagitiuni, vii. 31. 

flagito, vi. 22. 

flagritriba, vi. 19 + vii. 39. 

flagro, vi. 117. 

flagrum, vi. 19. 

flamen, vi. 22. 

flamma, vi. 117. 

flavus, vi. 117. 

flecto, ii. 14. 

flemina, vi. 15. 

fleo, v. 10. 

flexumines, ii. 14. 

fligo, vi. 19. 

flo, viii. 14. 

floccus, iii. 1. 

floces, iii. 1. 

flos, vi. 15. 

fluo, v. 10. 

flustra, v. 10. 

fluto, v. 10. 

focus, vi. 115. 

fodio, vi. 40. 

foedus, ii. 33. 

foedus, viii. 9. 

foeteo, viii. 9. 

foetutina, viii. 9 + i. 2. 

folium, vi. 15. 

follis, ii. 15. 

fomes, vi. 115 + vi. 35. 

fons, vi. 18. 

for, ix. 1. 

foras, vi. 20. 

forbea, x. 2. 

forceps, ii. 16 + ii. 8. 

forctum, vi. 21. 

fordus, vi. 17. 

forfex, ii. 16 + vii. 19. 

foria, i. 15. 

foris, vi. 20. 

forma, ii. 17. 

formica, vii. 27 + vii. 46. 

formido, vii. 29. 

formucales, vi. 117. 



formus, vi. 117. 

fornax, vi. 117. 

fornix, ii. 16 + ii. 9. 

foro, vi. 20. 

forpex, ii. 16 + ii. 34. 

fors, vi. 20. 

fortis, vi. 21. 

forum, iv. 14. 

forus, vi. 17. 

fovea, ii. 35. 

foveo, iii. 22. 

(in)fra, vi. 17. 

fraces, iii. 2. 

fracesco, iii. 2. 

fraga, iii. 2. 

fragor, ix. 15. 

fragro, viii. 19. 

frango, iv. 6. 

f rater, vi. 17 + vi. 9. 

fratilli, vii: 28. 

fratrare, vi. 14. 

fratruelis, vi. 17 + vi. 9 + 

i. 8 + i. 7. 
fraus, v. 9. 
fraxinus, ii. 16. 
fremo, ix. 15. 
frendo, vii. 28. 
fremim, ii. 16. 
frequens, vi. 17. 
fretum, vi. 20. 
fretus, vi. 17. 
frico, vii. 28. 
frigeo, vii. 29. 
frlgo, vii. 29. 
f rtgo, vi. 22 ; ix. 1 5. 
frigulo, ix. 15. 
frigutio, ix. 15. 
fringilla, ix. 15. 
frio, vii. 28. 
frit, vii. 28. 
fritilla, vii. 28. 
fritillus, vii. 28. 
fritinnio, ix. 15 fix. 5. 
fiivolus, iii. 2 + iii. 1. 
frons, -dis, i. 12. 
frons, vi. 14. 
fructus, vi. 14. 
f rumen, x. 10. 
fruor, vi. 14. 
frustra, v. 9. 
frustum, iv. 14. 



frutex, vi. 14. 

frux, vi. 14. 

fucus, i. 18. 

fucus, iii. 28. 

fudi, v. 19. 

fugio, v. 32. 

fui, vi. 38. 

fulcio, vi. 18. 

fulgeo, vi. 117. 

fulgur, vi. 117. 

fulica, vi. 117. 

fuligo, viii. 21 + i. 25. 

fullo, vi. 18. 

fulmen, vi. 117. 

fulvus, vi. 117. 

fumus, viii. 21. 

funda, v. 18. 

fundo, v. 18. 

fundus, vi. 40. 

fungor, vii. 19. 

fungus, iii. 28. 

funis, ii. 30. 

funus, vi. 40. 

fur, ii. 17. 

furca, iv. 14. 

furfur, ii. 17. 

furnus, vi. 117. 

furo, v. 9. 

furvus, ii. 17. 

fuscina, vii. 19. 

fuscus, ii. 17 + ii. 29. 

fusterna, vi. 39. 

fustis, vi. 39. 

fusus, vi. 39. 

futatim, vi. 38. 

futilis, iii. 26. 

futis, v. 19. 

futo, vi. 38. 

futuo, vi. 38. 

gabatce, ii. 8. 

galbeus, ii. 1. 

galbulus, vi. 2. 

galbus, vii. 2. 

galea, ii. 2. 

galena, vi. 129. 

galerum, ii. 2. 

galla, vi. 2. 

gallidraga, vii. 4 + vii. 13. 

gallulasco, ix. 7. 

gallus, ix. 7. 

gamba, ii. 7. 



INDEX. 



331 



ganeo, x. 24. 
gannator, ix. 8. 

gannio, ix. 8. 
garrio, ix. 6. 

garum, x. 18. 
gaudeo, xi. 3. 

gavia, ix. 10. 

gelu, vii. 2. 

genitalis, i. 7. 

gemma, vi. 70. 

gemu, ix. 9. 

gemoiiise, ix. 9. 

geniursa, vi. 70 + vii. 30. 

gena, ii. 6. 

gener, i. 7. 

genista, ii. 6 + ii. 22. 

genius, vi. 66. 

genu, ii. 6. 

genuinus, vi. 66. 

genuinus, vii. 5. 

germanus, vi. 1. 

germen, vi. 1. 

gero, vi. 108. 

gerres, v. 5. 

gerro, v. 5. 

-ges, i. 1. 

gestio, vi. 108. 

geum, vi. 67. 

gibbus, vi. 77. 

gigeria, x. 18. 

gigno, vi. 66. 

gillu, ii. 1. 

gilvus, vi. 129. 

gingiva, vii. 5. 

gingrire, ix. 8 + ix. 6. 

git, vii. 10. 

glaber, vii. 2. 

glacies, vii. 2. 

gladius, vii. 4. 

glans, vi. 2. 

glarea, vii. 2. 

glastum, vi. 129. 

glaucito, ix. 7. 

glaucus, vi. 129. 

gleba, vi. 2. 

glesuni, vi. 129. 

glis, vii. 2. 

glisco, vi. 2. 

glissumarga, vi.129 + i.20. 

globus, ii. 1. 

glocio, ix. 7. 



gloctoro, ix. 7. 
glomus, ii. 1. 
gloria, vi. 129. 
gloa, i. 7. 
glubo, ii. 2. 
gluma, ii. 2. 
glus, i. 23. 
glutio, x. 13. 
gnario, viii. 4. 
gnarigo, viii. 4. 
gnarus, viii. 4. 
gnavus, vi. 66. 
-gnus, vi. 66. 
gobius, vi. 77. 
gossympinus, vii. 9. 
gracilis, Hi. 7. 
gracillo, ix. 6. 
graculus, ix. 6. 
gradior, iv. 9. 
gradus, iv. 9. 
gram en, vi. 1. 
giamiaj, i. 23. 
grandis, vi. 1. 
grando, vii. 1. 
granum, vii. 1. 
grates, vi. 6. 
gratus, vi. 6. 
gravastellus, vi. 129. 
gravis, vi. 4. 
gremium, ii. 4. 
grex, ii. 4. 
grossus, vii. 3. 
grossus, vi. 4. 
grullus, ii. 3. 
gruma, vii. 3. 
grumus, vi. 1. 
grunda, ii. 4. 
grunnio, ix. 6. 
grus, ix. 6. 
gryllus, ix. 6. 
gubernum, v. 1. 
gula, x. 13. 
gulliocaa, ii. 2. 
gumia, x. 2. 
gurges, x. 13. 
gurgulio, x. 13. 
gurgustium, ii. 3. 
gusto, x. 18. 
gutta, v. 1. 
guttur, x. 14. 
gutturnium, x. 14. 



guttus, x. 14. 

gyrus, ii. 3. 

liabena, ii. 8. 

habeo, ii. 8. 

habilis, ii. 8. 

hsedus, v. 2. 

hareo, i. 23. 

halo, viii. 15. 

halonem, iii. 6. 

hamus, ii. 7. 

hara, ii. 4. 

hariolus, vi. 4. 

haruspex, vi. 4 + vi. 120. 

hasta, vii. 9. 

baud, iv. 8. 

haurio, v. 1. 

haveo, xi. 3. 

hebes, iii. 22. 

hedcra, ii. 6. 

hei, xi. 1. 

helucus, iii. 6. 

heluo, iii. 6. 

helvella, vi. 2. 

helvus, vi. 129. 

hem, xi. 3. 

herba, vi. 1. 

herceus, ii. 4. 

hercisco, ii. 4. 

herctum, ii. 4. 

heredium, ii. 4. 

herein, ii. 4. 

heres, ii. 4. 

heri, iii. 9. 

herns, ii. 4. 

hesperugo, iii. 27 + vi; 27 

+ vi. 120. 
hetta, vii. 10. 
heu, xi. 1. 

hibernus, vii. 12 + vi. 2". 
hibiscum, ii. 37. 
hibrida, viii. 17. 
hie, i. 5. 
hienis, vii. 12. 
hilaris, vi. 6. 
hillse, ii. 3. 
hilum, vii. 2. 
hinc, i. 5 + i. 1. 
hinnio, ix. 8. 
hinnus, ix. 8. 
hio, iv. 11. 
hippacare, viii. 13. 



332 



INDEX. 



hir, ii. 4. 
hira, ii. 3. 
hircus, vii. 1. 
hirnea, ii. 4. 
hirrio, ix. 6. 
hirsutus, vii. 1. 
hirtus, vii. 1. 
hirudo, x. 13. 
hirundo, v. 5 + v. 18. 
hispidus, vii. 9. 
histrio, ix. 11. 
homeltium, ii. 8. 
homo, viii. 4. 
honestus, vi. 108. 
honor, vi. 108. 
hora, vi. 8. 
horconia, vi. 6. 
horctum, vi. 6. 
hordeura, vii. 1. 
hordus, vi. 4. 
horia, ii. 4. 
horior, vi. 6. 
hornns, i. 5 + vi. 8. 
horreo, vii. 1. 
horreum, ii. 4. 
hortor, vi. 6. 
hortus, vi. 6. 
hospes, iii. 9 + vi. 41. 
hostia, vii. 9. 
hostio, vii. 9. 
hostis, vii. 9. 
hostorium, vii. 9. 
humerus, ii. 7. 
humidus, iii. 27. 
huu:or, iii. 27. 
humus, vi. 111. 
ibex, ix. 1. 
ibi, i. 5-i-i. 8. 
ico, vi. 63. 
idem, i. 5 + i. 34. 
identidom, i. 5 + vi. 57 + 

i. 3. 
idoneus, i. 5 + i. 31. 
iduo, iv. 6. 
idus, iv. 6. 
-iens, iv. 5. 
-ies, iv. 5. 
igitur, i. 5 + vi. 9. 
ignis, vi. 124. 
ignore, iv. 4 + viii. 4. 
ilex, ii. 10. 



ilia, ii. 10. 

ille, i. 5. 

illuvies, i. 1 +i. 24 ; i. 1 + 

vii. 35. 
imago, i. 9. 

imbecillus, iv. 4 + vi. 49. 
iiuber, v. 22. 
imbrex, i. 1 -f- iii. 2. 
imbuo, i. 1 + x. 9. 
imburvum, i. 1 + vii. 27. 
imitor, i. 9. 
imuianis, iv. 4 + L 11. 
iiiimo, i. 5 + i. 32. 
immunis, iv. 4 + ii. 39. 
immussulu.s, i. 1 + iii. 

25. 
impedio, i. 1 + ii. 33. 
impetigo, i. 1 + vii. 41. 
impetrio, i. 1 + vi. 38 + vi. 

9. 
impilia, i. 1 + vi. 18. 
improlus, iv. 4 + vi. 20 + 

vi. 86. 
imprupero, i. 1+xi. 5. 
in, i. 1. 
in-, iv. 4. 
inanis, iii. 5. 
inceudo, i. 1+vi. 134. 
inchoo, i. 1 +vi. 67. 
inciens, i. 1 + vi. 67. 
incile, i. 1 + vii. 4. 
incilo, i. 1 4- vii. 4. 
incitega, ii. 5. 
inclino, i. 1 +ii. 1. 
inclitus, i. 1 + ix. 27. 
incolumis, i. 1+vi. 6. 
indago, i. 1 +vi. 126. 
inde, i. 5 + i. 1. 
index, i. 1 + vi. 126. 
indico, i. 1 + vi. 126. 
indigeto, i. 1 + vi. 10S. 
indipiscor, i. 1 + vi. 45. 
indoles, i. 1 + vi. 86. 
indulgeo, i. 1 +iii. 12. 
induo, i. 1 + vi. 60. 
indusiuni, i. 1 + vi. 60. 
industrius, iv. 4 + iii. 11. 
indutiae, i. 1 + iii. 1 1. 
induvise, i. 1 +vi. 60. 
iners, iv. 4 + v. 13. 
inersitudo, iv. 4 + v. 13. 



inferus, i. 1 + vi. 17. 
infestus, i. 1 + vi. 40. 
infit, i. 1+ix. 1. 
infula, i. 1 +ii. 14. 
ingens, iv. 4 + vi. 66. 
ingluvies, i. 1 + x. 13. 
ingiuo, i. 1 1 v. 6. 
inguen, i. 1 + vi. 66. 
-iunus, iii. 5. 
inquilinus, i. 1 + iii. 6. 
inquino, i. 1 +i. 23. 
inquio, i. 1 + ix. 10. 
inseco, i. 1 +ix. 26. 
insexit, i. 1 + ix. 26. 
instar, i. 1 + i. 29. 
instauro, i. 1+i. 2'.». 
instigo, i. 1 +vi. 72. 
instinguo, i. 1 + vi. 72. 
insuasum, i. 1 + i. 24. 
insula, i. 1 +v. 7. 
intelligo, i. 1 + vi. 9 + ii. 

47. 
inter, i. 1 + vi. 9. 
intercalo, i. 1 + vi. 9 + vi. 

8. 
interduatim, i. 1 + vi. 9 

+ vi. 57. 
interim, i. 1 + vi. 9 + vi. 

37. 
interpello, i. 1 + vi. 9 + 

ix. 13. 
interpolo, i. 1 + vi. 9 + vi. 

117. 
interpreter, i. 1 + vi. 9 + 

vi. 117. 
interstinctus, i. 1 + vi. 9 

+ vi. 72. 
intertaleo, i. 1+vi. 9 + 

vii. 40. 
intestinus, i. 1+i. 2. 
intra, i. 1 +vi. 9. 
intro, i. 1 + vi. 9. 
intubus, i. 1 + vii. 42. 
intus, i. 1. 
inula, viii. 18. 
investis, iv. 4 + vi. 52. 
invito, i. 1 + ix. 2. 
invitus, iv. 4 + vi. 52. 
-io, p. 268. 
ipse, i. 5 + ix. 5. 
ira, ix. 19. 



INDEX. 



333 



irnea, ii. 57. 

lrpex, vii. 37. 

irrito, i. 1 +vii. 32. 

irritus, iv. 4 + ix. 14. 

irtiula, ii. 12. 

-is, i. 9. 

is, i. 5. 

iste, i. 5 + i. 3. 

ita, i. 5 + i. 3. 

item, i. 5 + i. 34. 

iterum, i. 5 + vi. 9. 

jaceo, ii i. 8. 

jacio, v. 24. 

jam, i. 5. 

janitrices, i. 7- 

janua, v. 24. 

janus, v. 24. 

jecur, vi. 102. 

jejunus, x. 24. 

jentu, x. 24. 

jocus, vi. 102. 

juba, vii. 15. 

jubar, vi. 127 +vi. 1 17. 

jubeo, ix. 24. 

jubilum, ix 24. 

jucundus, vi. 102. 

judex, ix. 24 + vi. 126. 

judico, ix. 24 + vi. 126. 

jugermn, i. 6. 

jugis, i. 6. 

jugo, ix. 10. 

jugulum, i. 6. 

jugum, i. 6. 

jnmentum, i. 6. 

juncus, ii. 32. 

jungo, i. 6. 

jnniculus, ii. 32. 

juniperus, ii. 32 -f- ii. 16. 

junix, vi. 102. 

Jupiter, vi. 127 + vi. 38. 

jurgo, ix. 10. 

juro, ix. 24. 

jus, ix. 24. 

jus, vi. 114. 

juvencus, vi. 102. 

juvenis, vi. 102. 

juvo, vi. 102. 

juxti, i. 6. 

juxtim, i. 6. 

labes, i. 24. 

labia, x. 1 5. 



labium, x. 15. 
labo, iii. 32. 
labor, iii. 32. 
labor, vii. 38. 
labrum, x. 15. 
labrusca, ii. 50 + ii. 56. 
laburnum, ii. 50 + ii. 12. 
lac, x. 11. 
lacca, vi. 92. 
lacer, vii. 31. 
lacerna, vii. til. 
lacerta, v. 16. 
lacertus, v. 16. 
lacertus, vi. 92. 
lacesso, vi. 93. 
lacinia, vii. 31. 
lacio, vi. 93. 
lacryma, vi. 126 + v. 6. 
lactilago, x. 11 + vi. 9:'. 
lactuca. x. 11. 
lacus, ii. 47. 
kedo, vii. 33. 
lama, ii. 55. 
Ireto, lretus, vi. 9. 
Ia3tus, vi. 87. 
Isevus, v. 15. 
lagena, ii. 47. 
lago, vi. 92. 
lallum, ix. 2 '. 
lambero, vii. 38. 
lambo, x. 15. 
lamentum, ix. 20 + viii. 1. 
lamina, i. 12. 
lamium, iii. 20. 
lampado, vi. 96. 
lampetra, ii. 50. 
lana, iii. 20. 
lancea, vii. 31. 
lancino, vii. 31. 
langneo, iii. 19. 
lanio, vii. 31. 
lannre, i. 12. 
lanx, i. 12. 
lapis, vii. 38. 
lappa, vii. 38. 
laqueus, ii. 46. 
lar, iii. 34. 
largior, iv. 17. 
largus, iv. 17. 
laridum, i. 24. 
larva, iii. 34. 



lascivus, v. 14. 

lassus, iii. 33. 

lateo, ii. 55. 

later, i. 12. 

laterna, vi. 136. 

latex, v. 14. 

latro, ix. 20. 

latro, vi. 9'i. 

latus, iv. 13 ; vi. 12. 

latus, i. 13. 

laudo, ix. 20. 

laurus, ii. 50. 

lautia, vi. 96. 

lantus, vi. 96. 

laver, vii. 35. 

laverniones, vi. 96 -f- ii. 

57. 
lavo, vii. 35. 
lax, v. 16. 
laxus, iii. 19. 
lectus, iii. 19. 
legio, ii. 47. 
lego, iii. 19. 
lego, ii. 47. 
legula, ii. 46. 
legumen, ii. 47. 
leinina, ii. 51. 
lemures, iii. 20. 
lenis, ii. 54 ; vii. 36. 
leno, vi. 93. 
lens, -dis, vii. 33. 
lens, -tis, ii. 55. 
lentiscus, iii. 20 + i. 18. 
lentus, iii. 20. 
leo, vii. 33. 
lepor, vi. 136. 
lepus, v. 15. 
iessus, ix. 20. 
lethusa, iii. 33. 
letum, iii. 19. 
kucrion, ii. 46. 
levenna, v. 16 + iii. 5. 
levir, iii. 15. 
lovis, v. 16. 
levis, vii. 35. 
lSvo, v. 16. 
lex, iii. 19. 
liber, v. 14. 
liber, ii. 51. 
libet, vi. 95. 
libido, vi. 95. 



334 



INDEX. 



libo, iii. 32. 

libra, vi. 96. 

libum, vi. 129. 

licen, iii. 19. 

licet, iii. 19. 

licinus, ii. 46. 

1 cium, ii. 46. 

lien, vi. 22. 

lignum, vi. 92. 

ligo, vii. 31. 

ligo, vb., ii. 46. 

ligurio, x. 17. 

ligurius, x. 17. 

ligustruin, ii. 46. 

lilium, iii. 34. 

lima, vii. 36. 

limbus, ii. 50. 

limen, ii. 46. 

limes, vii. 36. 

limpidus, vi. 136. 

limus, i. 24 ; ii. 46. 

lingo, x. 17. 

lingua, x. 17. 

lino, vii. 36. 

linquo, iv. 17. 

linter, ii. 55. 

linteus, ii. 54. 

linum, ii. 54. 

lipio, ix. 3. 

lippus, iii. 32. 

liqueo, iii. 19. 

liquis, ii. 46. 

liro, vii. 2. 

liroe, iii. 34. 

lis, ix. 20. 

-lis, i. 26. 

litera, vii. 33. 

lito, iii. 33. 

littus, ii. 55. 

lituus, ii. 54. 

liveo, i. 24. 

lix, vii. 31. 

lixa, vii. 31. 

lixivus, iii. 19. 

lixo, iii. 19. 

lixulsc, vii. 31. 

loco, i. 26. 

locuples, vi. 96 + vi. 18. 

locus, i. 26. 

locusta, x. 1 1. 



loligo, i. 25. 

lolium, vii. 34. 

lomentum, i. 24. 

longabo, vi. 93 + vi. 40. 

longano, vi. 93 + ii. 6. 

longinquus, vi. 93 + i. 1. 

longurius, vi. 93 + vi. 23. 

longus, vi. 93. 

loquor, ix. 20. 

lora, iii. 34. 

lorum, ii. 50. 

lotus, vi. 87. 

lubet, vi. 95. 

lubricus, vii. 35. 

luca, ii. 46. 

lucar, vi. 123. 

luceo, vi. 123. 

lucerna, vi. 123 + ii. 57. 

lucius, ii. 47. 

lucrum, vi. 96. 

lucta. vi. 93. 

lucubro, vi. 1 23. 

lucuns, vii. 31. 

lucus, ii. 47. 

ludo, v. 14. 

lues, iii. 19. 

lugeo, ix. 20. 

luma, vii. 38. 

lumbricus, ii. 50 + ii. 48. 

lumbus, ii. 50. 

lumen, vi. 123. 

luna, vi. 1 23. 

luo, iii. 19 ; vii. 35. 

lupa, vi. 95. 

lupinus, ii. 51. 

lupus, ii. 51. 

lura, x. 16. 

lurco, x. 16. 

luridus, i. 24. 

luscinia, ii 55-t-ix. 8. 

luscus, ii. 55. 

lustro, v. 14. ; vi. 136. 

lustror, vi. 97. 

lustrum, i. 24 ; ii. 55 ; vi. 

136. 
Intra, v. 1 4. 
lutum, vi. 135. 
lutuin, i. 24. 
lux, vi. 123. 
luxus, ii. 46 ; iii. 19. 
Iympha, v. 15. 



lympho, v. 15. 
lynx, vi. 123. 
maccus, viii. 6. 
maceo, iii. 25. 
maceria, ii. 35. 
macero, iii. 25. 
machio, i. 20. 
macto, vi. 52. 
mactus, vi. 52. 
macula, i. 20. 
madeo, iii. 5. 
madulsa, v. 21. 
msereo, viii. 3. 
msesius, vi. 31. 
magister, vi. 3 1 + vi. 9. 
magmentum, vi. 52. 
magnus, vi. 31. 
majalis, vii. 44. 
majuma, i. 6. 
majus, vi. 31. 
mala, x. 6. 
malandria, vi. 29. 
maldacon, i. 20. 
malleus, vii. 45. 
mallo, vi. 29. 
malum, vi. 29. 
malundrum, vi. 29. 
malus, vii. 45. 
malva, iii. 3. 
mamma, x. 9. 
mancus, iii. 5. 
mando, ii. 39 ; x. 5. 
manduco, x. 5 + x. 11. 
mane, vi. 121. 
maneo, i. 16. 
manes, iii. 5. 
mango, vi. 121. 
mania, iii. 5. 
manifestus, vi. 121 + vi. 

115. 
manipulus, ii. 38 + vi. 18. 
mano, v. 21. 

mansuesco, iii. 5 + viii. 5. 
mantele, ii. 39. 
mantelum, ii. 39. 
mantica, ii. 39. 
mantissa, vi. 35. 
mantuelis, ii. 39. 
manubise, ii. 38 + ii. 8. 
maims, ii. 38. 
man us, iii. 5. 



INDEX. 



335 



marceo, iii. 4. 
mare, v. 8. 
marga, i. 20. 
niargella, vi. 121. 
inargo, ii. 43. 
marisca, vi. 28. 
mariscus, ii. 42 + ii. 2S. 
maritus, iii. 4. 
marmor, vi. 121. 
maronion, vi. 28 + vi. 34. 
niarra, vii. 45. 
marrubium, viii. 20 + viii. 

21. 
Mars, vii. 45. 
niartes, x. 6. 
martulus, vii. 45. 
mas, iii. 4. 

mascarpio, iii. 4 + ii. 4. 
massa, vi. 36. 
massaris, x. 20. 
masso, x. 5. 
mastico, x. 5. 
masturbor, iii. 4 + vii. 39. 
masucius, x. 5 + x. 11. 
mateola, vii. 44. 
mater, vi. 31 + vi. 9. 
materia, vi. 31. 
matertera, vi. 31 + vi. 9. 
matrix, vi. 31. 
matruelis, vi. 31 + i. 8 + 

i. 7. 
matta, ii. 38. 
mattus, v. 21. 
matus, v. 21. 
matula, iii. 5. 
maturus, vi. 31 + vi. 57. 
matutinus, vi. 31 + vi. 57. 
maurella, ii. 43. 
Mavors, vii. 45 + vii. 27. 
maxilla, x. 5. 
meddix, vi. 35 + vi. 108. 
meddixtuticus, vi. 35 + 

vi. 108 + vi. 58. 
niedeor, iii. 5. 
mediastinus, ii. 39 + i. 2. 
medipontus, vi. 35 + ii. 

33. 
meditor, viii. 2. 
meditullium, ii. 39 + i. 12. 
medius, ii. 39. 
medulla, i. 20. 



meio, iii. 25. 
mel, x. 20. 
meles, vii. 45. 
melior, vi. 29. 
mellum, ii. 40. 
melo, vi. 29. 
meltom, vi. 29. 
membrana, ii. 39 + ii. 

17. 
membrum, ii. 38. 
memini, viii. 1. 
memor, viii. 3. 
menda, v. 21. 
mend ax, v. 21. 
mendicum, ii. 39. 
mendicus, iii. 5 + vi. 126. 
metis, viii. 1. 
mensa, i. 11. 
mensis, i. 11 . 
menstruus, i. 11 + vi. 9. 
menta, viii. 20. 
mentio, viii. 1. 
mentior, v. 21. 
mentula, vi. 35. 
meiitum, viii. 1 ; x. 5. 
meo, v. 22. 
mephitis, viii. 6. 
meracus, iv. 16. 
mercedinus, iv. 10 + vi. 

57. 
mercedonius, iv. 16 + vi. 

57. 
merces, i. 11. 
mercurius, vii. 45. 
merda, i. 20. 

merenda, iv. 16 + vi. 101. 
mereo, i. 11. 
mergse, ii. 43. 
merges, ii. 43. 
mergo, iii. 4. 
mergus, iii. 4. 
merica, ii. 42. 
meridies, ii. 39 + vi. 127. 
merula, i.\. 3. 
merus, iv. 16. 
merx, i. 11. 
-met, viii. 2. 
rueta, i. 11. 
metella, ii. 38. 
metellus, i. 11. 
metior, i. 11. 



nioto, vii. 44. 

metus, viii. 2. 

meus, me, viii. 1. 

mica, vii. 18. 

mico, v. 31. 

migro, v. 22 + vi. 63. 

miles, vii. 45. 

milesium, x. 6. 

milio, x. 6. 

milium, ii. 41. 

mille, vi. 29. 

millio, x. 6. 

milvus, x. 6. 

mineo, vi. 35. 

Minerva, viii. 1. 

mingo, iii. 25. 

miniscitur, viii. 1. 

minister, iii. 5. 

minium, vi. 121. 

mino, minor, viii. 1. 

minor, iii. 5. 

mintrio, ix. 16 + ix. 4. 

minurio, ix. 16 + ix. 1"). 

minus, iii. 5. 

mio, iii. 25. 

miror, iv. 12. 

misce", i. 20. 

miser. \ iii. 3. 

mitilo, ix. 3. 

mitis, iii. 5. 

mitto, v. 21. 

mitulus, i. 20. 

modernus, i. 11+vi. 8. 

modero, i. 11. 

modius, i. 1 1. 

modo, i. 11. 

modus, i. 11. 

mcenia, ii. 39. 

moeiica, ii. 42. 

mola, vii. 45. 

molemonium, iii. 3. 

moles, vi. 30. 

molestus, vii. 45. 

molior, vi. 30. 

mollis, iii. 3. 

molo, vii. 45. 

molucrum, vii. 15. 

momar, iii. 4. 

monedula, ix. 16 + ix. 4. 

moneo, viii. I. 

monet.i, vii. 44. 



336 



INDEX. 



monile, ii. 38. 
monnula, vi. 121. 
mons, vi. 35. 
monstro, vi. 121. 
nionstrum, vi. 121. 
mora, iii. 4. 
moracius, vii. 45. 
tnoraria, viii. 20. 
morbus, iii. 4. 
niordeo, x. G. 
more, -io, iii. 4. 
moretnm, x. 20. 
mSrio, ii. 43. 
morion, iii. 4. 
morior, iii. 4. 
morochites, ii. 43 + vi. 

133. 
mortarium, vii. 45. 
mortuus, iii. 4. 
morulus, ii. 43. 
morum, ii. 43. 
morus, ii. 43. 
mos, viii. 3. 
motarium, ii. 38. 
moveo, v. 22. 
mox, i. 32 + i. 1. 
mu, xi. 7. 
mucor, i. 20. 
mucro, vii. 46. 
mucus, i. 20. 
muges, i. 20. 
ningil, i. 20. 
muginor, i. 20. 
mugio, ix. 21. 
mularis, vi. 29. 
mulceo, vii. 45. 
mulco, vii. 45. 
mulcta, vii. 45. 
mulcto, vii. 45. 
mulgeo, vii. 45. 
mulier, ii. 41. 
mullo, ii. 40. 
mullus, x. 6. 
mulsus, x. 20. 
multa, vii. 45. 
mnlticius, iii. 3. 
multus, vi. 29. 
mulus, vi. 31. 
jiiiiiidus, vi. 121. 
mungo, i. 20. 
omnia, ii. 39. 



munio, ii. 39. 
munis, ii. 39. 
munus, ii. 39. 
murcidus, iii. 4. 
murcus, iii. 4. 
murex, vii. 45. 
murgiso, iii. 4. 
muria, x. 20. 
murmur, ix. 21. 
muriha, vi. 121. 
murus, ii. 43. 
urns, ii. 39. 
mnsca, v. 31. 
muscerda, ii. 39 + viii. 7. 
musculus, i. 20. 
museus, vi. 32. 
musinor, i. 2ft. 
musso, ix. 21. 
mustace, vi. 32. 
mustela, ii. 39 + vii. 40. 
mustellago, vi. 32. 
niustricola, i. 11. 
mustum, vi. 32. 
mustus, vi. 32. 
mnticus, vii. 44. 
mutilago, i. 20 + vi. 92. 
mutilus, vii. 44. 
mutio, ix. 21. 
muto, v. 22. 
muto, vi. 35. 
mutulus, i. 20 ; vi. 35. 
niutus, i. 28. 
mutuiK, v. 22. 
ntvlasia, ii. 40. 
niystus, i. 20. 
nicoa, vii. 21. 
nte, i. 5. 
naevus, ii. 26. 
nam, i. 5. 
-nam, i. 5. 
nancio, i. 10. 
napus, vi. 7S. 
naris, viii. 18. 
narro, viii. 4. 
narus, viii. 4. 
nascor, vi. 66. 
nasica, viii. 18 + vii. 4. 
nassa, i. 10. 
nasturtium, viii. 18 + viii. 

21. 
nasus, viii. 18. 



natinor, v. 29. 

natis, vi. 58. 

naucnm, iii. 31. 

navis, v. 28. 

navus, vi. 66. 

naxa, i. 10. 

ne, iv. 4. 

-ne, i. 5. 

-n8, i. 1. 

nebula, ii. 2o. 

nebulo, iii. 23. 

necesse, vi. 98. 

neco, iii. 31. 

necto, ii. 9. 

nefastus, iv. 4 + vi. 115. 

nefrones, iii. 23. 

nego, iv. 4. 

neguin, iv. 4. 

negumo, iv. 4. 

nemus, iv. 3. 

nenia, ix. 22. 

nenu, nenum, iv. 4. 

neo, ii. 58. 

nepos. i. 10 ;iv. 4 + ii. 35. 

neptis, i. 10. 

Neptunus, v. 28. 

nepus, iv. 4 + vi. 118. 

nequam, iv. 4 + i. 5. 

nervus, ii. 58. 

nesi, iv. 4. 

ni, iv. 4. 

-ni, iv. 4. 

nico. ii. 26. 

nicto, ii. 26. 

nidor, viii. 18. 

nidus, iii. 30. 

niger, ii. 26. 

nigina, v. 28. 

nihil, iv. 4 + vii. 2. 

nimbus, iii. 23. 

nimis, iv. 4 + i. 11. 

ningo, v. 28. 

ninguis. v. 28. 

ningnlus, iv. 4. 

nitedula, vii. 23 + vii. -10. 

nitela, vii. 23 + vii. 40. 

niteo, vi. 133. 

nit or, vi. 98. 

nivens, ii. 26. 

nix, v. 28. 

nixor, vi. 98. 



INDEX. 



337 



no, v. 28. 

noceo, vii. 21. 

noctu, ii. 26 + vi. 57. 

nodia, ii. 58. 

nodus, ii. 58. 

nola, ix. 5. 

nomen, viii. 4. 

non, iv. 4. 

noneoke, iii. 5. 

nonna, i. 10. 

nonnus, i. 10. 

norma, i. 1 1. 

nos, viii. 1. 

nosco, viii. 4. 

notion, iii. 5. 

novacula, vii. 20. 

novem, iv. 5. 

noverca, i. 10. 

novus, i. 10. 

nox, ii. 26. 

nubes, ii. 26. 

nubo, i. 10 ; ii. 26. 

nudius, i. 10 + vi. 127. 

nudus, iv. 4. 

nugae, iii. 31. 

nuin, i. 5. 

numella, i. 10. 

Humerus, iv. 3. 

numus, iv. 3. 

nunc, i. 10. 

nuncupo, viii. 4 + ix. 12. 

nuntius, viii. 4. 

•nun, ii. 6. 

nuper, i. 10 + vi. 27. 

nurus, i. 10. 

nusciciosum, ii. 26. 

nuto, ii. 6. 

nutrio, vi. 101. 

mix, vi. 31. 

ob, vi. 40. 

obba, vi. 78. 

obesus, vi. 40 + vi. 59. 

oblecto, vi. 40 + iii. 19. 

obliquus, vi. 40 + ii. 46. 

obliviscor, vi. 40 + i. 24. 

obscenus, vi. 40 + viii. 7. 

obscurus, vi. 40 + ii. 29. 

obsolesco, vi. 40 + i. 24. 

obstino, vi. 40 + i. 29. 

obstipus, vi. 40 + vi. 71. 

obstitus, vi. 40 -t vi. 72. 



obturo, vi. 40 + vi. 11. 

obvagulo, vi. 40 + ix. 2. 

occa, vii. 3. 

occulo, vi. 40 + ii. 2. 

occupo, vi. 404 ii. 8. 

ocior, v. 1. 

ocrea, ii. 4. 

octans, iv. 7 + iv. 6. 

octo, iv. 7. 

oculus, vi. 124. 

odium, viii. 4. 

odor, viii. 16. 

cenus, iv. 5. 

oetor, xi. 3. 

offa, vi. 78. 

olea, i. 24. 

oleo, viii. 16 

olesco, vi. 86. 

oleum, i. 24. 

olim, i. 5 + vi. 37. 

oliva, i. 24. 

olla, ii. 1. 

olle, i. 5. 

olor, ix. 7. 

olus, vi. 2. 

olvatum, ii. 50. 

omen, ix. 10. 

omentum, ii. 25 + ii. 39. 

omnis, i. 32. 

-on-, vi. 34. 

onco, ix. 22. 

onus, vi. 99. 

opacus, vi. 40 + vi. 120. 

opera, vi. 40+ \i. 20. 

operio, vi. 40 + ii 17. 

opetis, vi. 47. 

opilio, ix. 13. 

opinor, viii. 5. 

oportet, vi. 40 f vi. 20. 

opperior, vi. 40 + i. 13. 

oppido, vi. 40 + vi. 46. 

oppidum, vi. 40 + vi. 46. 

ops, vi. 47. 

optimus, vi. 47. 

opto, vi. 47. 

opulus, ii. 37. 

opunculo, ix. 1. 

opus, vi. 40 + vi. 20. 

ora, ii. 13. 

orbis, ii. 52. 

orbus, iv. 17. 



orca, ii. 49 : vii. 30. 
ordior, vi. 83. 
ordo, i. 27. 
orior, vi. 83. 
origo, vi. 83. 
orno, ii. 13. 
ornus, ii. 12. 
oro, x. 24. 
os, i. 29 ; x. 24. 
oscillo, v. 2. 
oscito, x. 24. 
ossilago, i. 29 + vi. 92. 
ostigo, x. 24 + i. 25. 
ostium, x. 24. 
otium, iii. 27. 
ovis, iii. 27. 
ovo, xi. 3. 
ovum, v. 25. 
pabo, ii. 44. 
pabulum, ii. 35. 
pacio, i. 19. 
pacisco, i. 19. 
paciscor, i. 19. 
patdor, viii. 9. 
paeminosus, iv. 6. 
psene, i. 8 + i. 1. 
paenula, ii. 31. 
paetus, vi. 1 18. 
pagus, iv. 6. 
pala, i. 12. 
palam, vi. 117. 
palara, ix. 13. 
palatium, ii. 15. 
palatum, ii. 15. 
palea, ii. 15. 
palleo, i. 15. 
palma, i. 12. 
palmes, vi. 15 + vi. 35. 
palor, v. 10. 
palpebra, ii. 15 + ii. 17. 
palpito, vii. 41. 
palpo, vii. 41. 
paludamentuni, ii. 15. 
paludatus, ii. 15. 
palumbes, ix. 13 + ix. 21 j 
palus, vi. 15. 
palus, iii. 1 + iii. 27. 
palusca, ii. 15. 
pampinus, ii. 44. 
panaca, x. 9. 
panariciuin, ii. 30 + vii. 30. 
Y 



338 



INDEX. 



pando, iv. 15. 
pandus, ii. 30. 
pango, i. 19. 
pan is, x. 1. 
pannus, ii. 30. 
pantex, vi. 44. 
papa, vi. 38 ; x 1 . 
papse, xi. 6. 
papaver, vii. 28. 
papilio, ii. 1 4. 
papilla, vi. 4 4. 
pappus, vi. 38. 
papula, vi. 44. 
papyrus (Egyptian ?). ii. 

17. 
par, i. 13. 
parada, ii. 17. 
parens, iii. 2. 
parens, vi. 16. 
pareo, i. 13 ; vi. 117. 
paries, ii. 1 7. 
pario, vi. 16. 
parina, ii. 17. 
paro, i. 13. 
parra, ix. 13. 
pars, iv. 1 4. 
parum, iii. 2. 
parus, ix. 13. 
parvus, iii. 2. 
pasco, ii. 35.. 
passer, ix. 3. 
passim, iii. 26. 
passus, vi. 118. 
pasta, i. 18. 
pastinaca, vii. 41. 
pastinum, vii. 41. 
pateo, iv. 15. 
pater, vi. 38 + vi. 9. 
patera, i. 12. 
patina, i. 12.. 
patior. iii. 26. 
patro, vi. 38 + vi. 9. 
patruelis, vi. 38 + i. 8 + i. 

7. 
patruus, vi. 38 + i. 8. 
paucus, iii. 29. 
paulus, iii. -9. 
pauper, iii. 29. 
pausea, i. 18. 
pausilhilum. iii. 29. 
pauxillus, iii. 29. 



paveo, vii. 29. 

pavio, vi. 49. 

pavo, vi. 118. 

pax, i. 19. 

paxillus, i. 19. 

-pe, i. 5. 

pecco, viii. 9. 

pectis, vi. 49. 

pecto, ii. 34. 

pectus, ii. 35. 

pecu, ii. 35. 

peculium, ii. 35 + ii. 11. 

peculor, ii. 35 + ii. 11. 

pecunia, ii. 35. 

pecus, ii. 35. 

pedica, ii. 33. 

pedis, vii. 41. 

pedo, viii. 10. 

pedule, vi. 40 + vi. 18. 

pedum, ii. 33. 

pejor, viii. 9. 

pellex, vi. 15. 

pellion, ii. 14. 

pellis, ii. 15. 

pello, vi. 19. 

pelvis, ii. 14. 

penates, ii. 31. 

pendeo, vi. 40. 

pendigo, vi. 4 4. 

pendix, vi. 41. 

pendo, vi. 40. 

penes, ii. 31. 

penetro, ii. 31 + vi. 9. 

penicillum, vii. 26. 

penis, vii. 26. 

penitns,. ii. 31 + i. 1. 

penna, v. 19. 

pennus, vii. 26. 

penuria, vii. 26. 

penus, x. 1. 

per, vi. 20. 

per-, vi. 20. 

-per, vi. 27. 

percello, vi. 20 + v. 4. 

pereis, i. 15. 

percontor, vi. 22 + vi. 52. 

percutio, vi. 20 + vii. 11. 

perdagatus, vi. 20 + vi. 

126. 
pereger, vi. 20 + vi. 63. 
perendie, vi. 20 + vi. 37. 



perfines, vi. 20 + vii. 26. 
perfoco, vi. 20 + viii. 12. 
pergo, vi. 20 + vi. 94. 
pergula, ii. 17. 
periculum, vi. 20. 
perinde, i. 13 + i. 1. 
peritus, vi. 20. 
perna, vi. 17. 
pernix, vi. 20 + v. 2S. 
pero, ii. 17. 
perperus, v. 9. 
perpes, vi. 20 + vi. 45. 
perpetuus, vi. 20 + vi. 45. 
persites, iii. 2. 
persnis, iii. 2. 
persolata, vii. 27 + vii. 

33. 
personata, vii. 27 + vii. 

23. 
pertica, vi. 14. 
pervicus, vi. 20 + vi. 49. 
pervinca, ii. 16 + ii. 34. 
pes, vi. 40. 
pescia, ii. 36. 
pesestas, vii. 41. 
pessimus, viii. 9. 
pessulus, vi. 40. 
pessum, vi. 40. 
pestis, vii. 41. 
petigo, vii. 41 +i. 25. 
petilus, iii. 26. 
petimen, vii. 41. 
peto, vi. 45. 
petreia, ix. 1. 
petro, ix. 1. 
pexus, ii. 34. 
-piam, i. 5 + i. 2. 
pica, i. 18. 
picea, i. 18. 
picus, vii. 19. 
pigeo, iii. 28. 
piger, iii. 28. 
pignus, i. 19. 
pila, vi. 18. 
plla, ii. 1 4. 
pilates, vi. 117. 
pilentuni, vi. 18 + vi. 99. 
pileus, vi. 18. 
pilo, iv. 13 ; vi. 18. 
pilum, vi. 18. 
pllus, ii. 14. 



INDEX. 



339 



pilus, vi. 18. 
j lingo, i. 18. 
pinguis, vi. 38. 
pinna, vi. 4 4. 
pinso, vii. 41. 
pinuB, i. 18. 
piper, x. 2. 
pipio, ix. 3. 
pipo, ix. 3. 
pirum, x. 21 . 
piscis, v. 20. 
pisinnus, vii. 4 1. 
pisiti), ix. .*!. 
piso, vii. 41. 
pistana, vii. 41. 
pistris, vii. 41. 
pisuni, ii. 36. 
jiituita, i. 18. 
phis, iii. 22. 
pix, i. 18. 
placenta, i. 12. 
placeo, iii. 1. 
placitis, i. 15. 
placo, iii. 1. 
plaga, vi. 19. 
plaga, i. 12 ; ii. 15. 
plagium, ii. 15. 
plagula, ii. 15. 
plagusia, i. 1 2. 
planca, i. 12. 
plango, vi. 19. 
planta, i. 12 ; vi. 18. 
plantago, vi. 3 8. 
planus, i. 12. 
platalea, i. 12. 
platessa, i. 12. 
plaudo, vi. 19. 
plaustrum, ii. 15. 
plautus, i. 12. 
plebs, vi. 15. 
plecto, ii. 14 ; vi. 19. 
plenus, vi. 18. 
pleo, vi. 18. 
plerus, vi. 15. 
•plex, ii. 14:. 
plico, ii. 14. 
ploro, ix. 13. 
ploximum, ii. 15. 
pluma, iii. 1. 
plumbum, i. 20. 
pluo, v. 10. 



plurimus, vi. 15. 
plus, vi. 15. 

-plus, ii. 14. 

pluteus, ii. 15. 

poculum, x. 9. 

podex, vi. 40. 

poena, vii. 41. 

poeniceo, vii. 41. 

polenta, i. 15. 

polimenta, iv. 13. 

polio, vi. 117. 

pollen, i. 15. 

polleo, vi. 21. 

pollex, ii. 14. 

polliceor, vi. 20 + iii. 19. 

pollingo, vi. 20 + iii. 19. 

pollio, ii. 14. 

pollubrum, vi. 20 + vii. 

35. 
pollueeo, vi. 20 + iii. 19. 
polluo, i. 15. 
polteo, iv. 13. 
poumm, x. 1. 
pondus, vi. 40. 
pone, ii. 30. 
pono, i. S. 
pons, vi. 40. 
popa, vi. 49. 
popina, iii. 26. 
poples, ii. 14. 
populor, iv. 13. 
populus, vi. 1 5. 
populus, v. 10. 
por, vi. 14. 
pora, vi. 14. 
porca, vii. 27. 
porcastrum, iii. 2. 
porculus, ii. 16. 
porous, vii. 27. 
porricio, vi. 20 + vi. 108. 
porrigo, vi. 20 + vi. 94. 
porrigo, vii. 28 + i. 25. 
porro, vi. 20. 
porrum, viii. 19. 
porta, vi. 20. 
portions, ii. 17. 
portio, iv. 14. 
portisculus, vi. 14. 
porto, vi. 20. 
portulaca, -cilaca, iii. 2 + 
vi. 92. 



portus, vi. 20. 

posca, x. 9. 

posco, vi. 22. 

possideo, vi. 41 -4- iii. 17. 

ppssido, vi. 41 + iii. 17. 

post, ii. 16. 

posterns, ii. 16 + vi. 9. 

posticus, ii. 16 + i. 1. 

postidea, ii. 16 + i. 1 + i. 5. 

postis, i. 8. 

postridie, ii. 16 + vi. 9 + 

vi. 127. 
postnlo, vi. 22. 
-pote, i. 5. 
pytio, vi. 41. 
potis, vi. 41. 
potus, x. 9. 
prae, vi. 20. 
praecia, vi. 20 + ix. 10. 

praeco, vi. 20 + ix. 8. 

prteda, ii. 17. 

pnedium, ii. 17. 

praedopiont, vi. 20 + vi. 
47. 

pragnans, vi. 20 + vi. 66. 

premium, vi. 20 + i. 7. 

praenum, vii. 27. 

praepedio, vi. 20 + ii. 33. 

praspes, vi. 20 + v. 19. 

prasputium, vi. 20 + vi. 
40. 

praes, ii. 17. 

prccs, vi. 20 + i. 9. 

prfesens, vi. 20 + iii. 17. 

pmesertim, vi. 20 + ii. 22. 

prsestigia, vi. 20 + i. 9 + 
vi. 126. 

prsestino, vi. 20 + i. 29. 

prajsto, vi. 20 + i. 29. 

preestolor, vi. 20 + i. 29. 

pra3sul, vi. 20 + iii. 18. 

praeter, vi. 20 + vi. 9. 

prastor, vi. 20. 

praetnra, vi. 20. 

prandeo, vi. 20 + vi. 101. 

pratum, iv. 1 1. 

pravus, v. 9. 

precarius, vi. 22. 

precis, iii. 2. 

precianus, iii. 2. 

precor, vi. 22. 



340 



INDEX. 



prehendo, vi. 20 + ii. 6. 
prelum, vi. 17. 
premo, vi. 17. 
pretium, vi. 20. 
pridem, vi. 20 + vi. 57. 
pridie, vi. 20 + vi. 127. 
prior, -imus, \i. 20. 
prisons, vi. 20. 
pristinus, vi. 20 + vi. 57. 
privatus, iv. 1 4. 
privignus, vi. 20 + i. 8 -t- 

vi. 66. 
privo, iv. 14. 
privus, iv. 14. 
pro, vi. 20. 
proh, pro, xi. 5. 
probrum, xi. 5. 
probus, vi. 117. 
procapis, vi. 20 + vi. 68. 
procax, vi. 22. 
procella, vi. 20 + v. 4. 
procer, vi. 20. 
procerus, vi. 20 + vi. 1. 
proco, vi. 22. 
procul, vi. 20 + iv. 10. 
procus, vi. 22. 
prodigiuni, vi. 20 + vi. 

126. 
prod ins, vi. 20 + i. 1. 
proeliuin, v. 10. 
proin, vi. 20 + i. 1. 
proles, vi. 20 + vi. 86. 
proletarius, vi. 20 + vi. 
86. 

prolixus, vi. 20 + vi. 93. 

projuvies, vi. 20 + vii. 35. 

prouneliere, vi. 20 + ix. 2. 

promenervat, vi. 20 + 
viii. 1. 

promulcum, vi. 20 + ii. 
40. 

promulgo, vi. 20 + ix. 2. 

promulsis, vi. 20 + x. 20. 

pronus, vi. 20 + ii. 32. 

propages, vi. 20 4- i. 1'.'. 

prope, i. 13. 

properus, v. 9. 

propinquus, i. 13 ) i. 1. 

propitius, vi. 20 -I iii. 22. 

proprius, i. 13. 

propter, i. 13. 



1" 



ora, vi. 20. 



proriga, in. z. 
prorito, vi. 20+ vii. 32. 
prosapia, vi. 20 + vi. 68. 
prosper, vi. 20 + vi. 22. 
prosumia, vi. 20 + v. 3. 
proteluni, vi. 20 + ii. 2S. 
protervus, vi. 20 + v. 11. 
protinis, vi. 20 + vi. 57. 
protinus, vi. 20 + vi. 57. 
pruina, vii. 29. 
prima, vi. 117. 
pruniini, iii. 2. 
prurio, iii. 2. 
-pte, i. 5. 
pubes, vi. 38. 
pudeo, v. 19. 
puella, vi. 38. 
puer, vi. 38. 
pugil, vi. 49. 
pugio, vii. 19. 
pugna, vi. 49. 
pugnus, vi. 49. 
pulelier, vi, 11 7. 
puleium, -egium, ii. 14. 
pulex, vii 41. 
pullus, i. 15 ; vi. 15. 
pulmo, viii. 14. 
pulpa, iii. 1. 
pulpitum, i. 12 + vL 40. 
pulpo, ix. 13. 
puis, iii. 1. 
pulvinus, vi. 15. 
pulvis, i. 15 + vii, 2S. 
puinex, iii. 29. 
puuiilus, iii. 29. 
pumula, iii. 29. 
pungo, vii. 10. 
punio, vii. 41. 
pupa, iii. 29. 
pupillo, ix. 13. 
puppis, ii. 16. 
pupus, iii. 29. 
purgo, vi. 118. 
purpui issuin, i. 15 + vi. 

124. 
purus, vi. 118. 
pus, viii. 9. 
pusillus, iii. 29. 
pu8tula, vi. 43. 
pusula, vi. 43. 



pusus, -tus, iii. 29. 

puteo, iii. 26. 

puter, iii. 26. 

puteus, vi. 40. 

puto, vi. 118. 

putor, viii. 9. 

putus, vi. 118. 

puvire, vi. 49. 

quadrans, i. 4 + iv. 6. 

quadriga^, i. 4 + vi. 63. 

quadrimus, i. 4 + vi. 37. 

([uajro, vi. 107. 

quajso, vi. 107. 

qualis, i. 5 + i. 26. 

qualum, ii. 5. 

quani, i. 5 + i. 2. 

•quam, i. 5. 

quando, i. 5 + i. 2 + vi. 57. 

quantus, i. 5+vi. 34. 

quasillum, ii. 5. 

quatio, v. 1 . 

quatuor, i. 4. 

que, i. 5. 

-que, i. 5. 

queo, vi. 25. 

quercus, vi. 4. 

queror, ix. 6. 

querquedula, ix. 6 + ix. 4. 

querquerus, v. 5. 

qui, i. 5. 

quidain, i. 5 + i. 34. 

quiesco, iii. 8. 

quilon, i. 23. 

quinquatrus, iv. 6 + vi. 1*. 

quinque, iv. 6. 

(juinquo, vi. 134. 

quiris, vii. 3. 

quirito, ix. 6. 

quirrito, ix. 6. 

quis, i. 5. 

quisquilise, iv. 8. 

quondam, i. 5 + vi. 37 + i. 

34. 
quot, i. 5 + vi. 13. 
quotidie, i. 5 + vi. 13 

vi. 127. 
quoties, -iens, i. 5 + vi. 13 

+ iv. 5. 
quum, i. 5 + vi. 37. 
rabies, v. 15. 
rabo, v. 15. 



INDEX. 



341 



rabulana, vi. 90. 
rabuscula, vi. 90. 
racco, ix. 15. 
racemus, iii. 2. 
railius, vi. 88. 
radix, vi. 8 9 . 
rado, vii. 32. 
raia, vii. 30. 
ramus, vi. 88. 
rana, ix. 15. 
rancens, viii. 18. 
ranco, ix. 15. 
rapio, ii. 53. 
rapum, vi. 90. 
rarus, iii. 34. 
ratio, ix. 14. 
ratis, ii. 56. 
ratus, ix. 14. 
rauca, x. 11. 
raucus, ix. 15. 
raudus, vii. 30. 
ravis, ix. 15. 
ravus, vi. 135. 
re, -red-, ii. 56. 
recello, ii. 56 + v. 4. 
recens, vi. 89. 
rechamus, ii. 56 + ii. 7. 
recito, ii. 56 + ix. 1 1. 
rectus, vi. 94. 
recupero, ii. 56 + ii. 8. 
redimio, ii. 56 -f i. 9. 
redo, ii. 56. 

reduvia, ii. 56 + vi. 6' 1 . 
refragor, ii. 56 + ix. 13. 
refuto, ii. 56 + iii. 26. 
regio, vi. 94. 
rego, vi. 94. 
religens, ii. 56 + ii. 47. 
religio, ii. 56 + ii. 47. 
remeligo, ii. 56 + iii. 3. 
remillmn, ii. 56 + ii. 40. 
remulcum, ii. 56 + ii. 40. 
remus, ii. 56. 
renes, vi. 22. 
renideo, ii. 56 + vi. 133. 
renuo, ii. 56 + ii. 6. 
reor, ix. 14. 
repens, v. 15. 
reperio, ii. 5o + ii. 17. 
replum, ii. 56 + ii. 14. 
repo, v. 15. 



repudium, ii. 56 l- i. 8. 
res, vi. 83. 
resero, ii. 66 + ii. 22. 
resina, iii. 24. 
respondeo, ii. 56 + ix. 25. 
restauro, ii. 56 + i. 29. 
restis, ii. 56. 
retsc, ii. 56. 
rete, ii. 56. 

retricibus, iii. 24 + iii. 19. 
retro, ii. 56 + vi. 9. 
returo, ii. 56 + vi. 11. 
reus, ix. 14. 
revimentum, ii. 56 + ii. 

37. 
rex, vi. 94. 
rheda, ii. 56. 
rhexia, vii. 30. 
rica, ii. 49. 
ricinus, vii. 10. 
rictum, -us, iv. 17. 
rideo, ix. 19. 
ridica, vi. 91. 
rigeo, vi. ] 09. 
rigo, iii. 19. 
rima, iv. 17. 
rimor, iv. 17. 
ripa, vi. 90. 
rite, i. 27. 
ritus, i. 27. 
rivus, v. 6. 
rixa, vii. 30. 
robur, vi. 90. 
rodo, vii. 32. 
rogo, vi. 22. 
rogus, vi. 89. 
ros, iii. 24. 
rosa, viii. 19. 
rosina, viii. 19. 
rota, ii. 56. 
ruber, vi. 117. 
rubus, vii. 37. 
ructo, x. 1 1. 
rudens, ii. 56. 
rudis, vi. 88. 
rudo, ix. 19. 
rudus, vii. 30. 
rufus, vi. 1 1 7. 
ruga, ii. 48. 
rugio, ix. 15. 
rumen, x. 11. 



rumentum, vii. 37. 
rumex, vii. 32; vii. 37 + 

vii. 46. 
rumis, x. 1 1. 
rum i to, ix. 15. 
rumor, ix. 15. 
rumpo, vii. 37. 
rumpus, ii. 52. 
runa, vii. 37. 
runcina, vii. 30. 
runco, vii. 30. 
ruo, v. 6. 
rupes, vn. 3/. 
rupex, vii. 37. 
rus, vii. 37. 
ruscum, ii. 56. 
ruspor, vii. 37. 
russus, v. 14. 
ruta, vii. 32. 
rutilus, vi. 135. 
rutuba, v. 6 + v. 2-f. 
-s, i. 9. 

sabulum, vii. 15. 
saburra, vii. 15. 
sacco, vii. 48. 
saccus, ii. 29. 
sacer, vii 16. 
sacopenium, vii. 48 + i. 

18. 
saspe, i. 30 + i. 8. 
saevus, vii. 18. 
sagax, vi. 125. 
sagina, vi. 71. 
sagio, vi. 125. 
sagitta, vii. 7. 
sagmen, vii. 16. 
sagus, vi. 125. 
sal, v. 7. 

salaputium, v. 7 + vi. 40. 
salar, v. 7. 
salebra, v. 7. 
salio, v. 7. 

saliunca, ii. 22 + ii. 32. 
saliva, i. 24. 
salix, ii. 22+ii. 32. 
sal mo, v. 7. 
salpa, ii. 22. 

salpuga, vii. 14 + vii. 19. 
saltern, vi. 105. 
saltus, vi. 81. 
salum, v. 7. 



342 



INDEX. 



sains, vi. 105. 
salvia, vi. 105. 
salvus, vi. 105. 
sambucus, ii. 42 + ii. 34. 
samera, vii 18. 
sampsa, i. 20. 
sancio, vii. 16. 
sandala, vi. 132. 
sandapila, iv. 8 + ii. 15. 
sandaresus, vi. 132 + vi. 

137. 
sanguis, v. 27. 
sanies, v. 27. 
sanna, v. 27. 
santerna, i. 32. 
sanns, vi. 104. 
sapa, x. 19. 
saperda, x. 19. 
saperda, x. 19. 
sapiens, x. 19. 
sapinns, iv. 12. 
sapio, x. 19. 
sapo, i. 15. 
sapor, x. 19. 
sappium, iv. 12. 
sarcio, ii. 22. 
sarda, v. 6. 
sardo, vi. 4. 
sarpo, vii. 14. 

sarracum, vi. S4. 

sarrio, vii. 13. 

sartago, vii. 13. 

satanaria, vii. 22. 

satelles, i. 32+ i, 2!'. 

satis, vi. 71. 

satur, vi. 71. 

satureia, viii. 21. 

saturnus, vi. 64 + vi. 9. 

saucins, iii. 10. 

savrix, vii. 14. 

saxum, vii. 8. 

scabies, vii. 8. 

scabo, vii. 8. 

pcsevus, v. 2. 

scala, v. 2. 

scalpo, vii. 7. 

scando, v. 2. 

scandula, iv. 8. 

scapula-, ii. 29. 

scapua, vi. 63. 

scardia, vi. 69. 



scarifico, vii. 7- 
scateo, v. 2. 
scelus, v. 2. 
scena, vii. 7. 
scindo, iv. 8. 
scintilla, v. 2. 
scio, vi. 125. 
scipio, vi. 63. 
scirpo, ii. 28 + ii. 52. 
scirpus, ii. 28 + ii. 52. 
scisco, vi. 125. 
scitus, vi. 125. 
scobina, vii. 8. 
scobis, vii. 8. 
scopa, vii. 15. 
scopaj, vii. 15. 
scopio, vi. 63. 
scopulus, vi. 69. 
scopus, vi. 63. 
scordalus, ix. 6. 

scortes, ii. 29. 

scortum, ii. 29 ; vii. 7. 

scrapta, vii. 7. 

scratta, vii. 7. 

screo, viii. 7. 

scriblita, vi. 129 + vii. 31. 

scribo, vii. 7. 

scrobis, vii. 7. 

scrofa, vi. 69. 

scrofuloe, vi. 69. 

scrotum, ii. 29. 

scrupeda, vii. 7. 

scrupus, vii. 8. 

scruta, vii. 8. 

scrutillus, vii. 8. 

scrutor, vii. 8. 

sculna, iv. 8. 

sculpo, vii. 7. 

scurra, viii. 7. 

scuta, iv. 8. 

scutale, ii. 28 + ii. 18. 

scutica, ii. 28. 

scutilus, iii. 10. 

scutra, iv. 8. 

scutula, vi. 69. 

scutuluui, ii. 2' 1 . 

scutum, ii. 29. 

se, viii. 5. 

se-, sed-, iv. 19. 

sebum, i. 15. 

secale, vii. 7. 



secespita, vii. 7 + vii. 17. 
secessiones, ix. -'-'■ 
seco, vii. 7. 
secta, i. 30. 
seetus, ix. 26. 
seculum, vi. 64. 
secundus, i. 30. 
securis, vii. 7 + vii. 27. 
secus, i. 30 ; iv. 8. 
sed, seduin, iv. 19. 
sedeo, iii. 17. 
seditio, iv. 19 + i. 1. 
sedo, iii. 17. 
sedum, vi. 64. 
seges, vi. 73. 
segestre, ii. 29. 
segnis, iii. 10. 
segullum, vi. 125 + vi 
129. 

selago, vii. 14. 

seliquastrum, iii. 18 + iii. 
9. 

sella, iii. 18. 

semel, iv. 7. 

semi-, i. 32. 

semita, vii. 18. 

semper, vi. 64+ vi. 27. 

senex, vi. 64. 

sensim, vi. 64. 

sententia, viii. 5. 

sentina, v. 27. 

sentio, viii. 5. 

sentis, vii. 7. 

sentix, vii. 7. 

sentus, vii. 7. 

sepelio, ii. 25. 

seplasium, i. 15. 

seps, ii. 25. 

septeni, iv. 7. 

septentriones, iv. 7 + vi. 
128. 

sequester, iv. 8. 

sequius, iv. 8. 

sequor, i. 30. 

sera, ii. 22. 

serenus, vi. 131. 

seresco, vii. 1 3. 

seria, ii. 23. 

series, ii. 22. 

serius, vi. 84. 

sermo, ii. 22. 



INDEX. 



343 



sero, i. 1 ; ii. 22. 

serperastra, ii. 22 + ii. 16. 

serpo, v. 6. 

serra, v. 6 ; vii. 14. 

serraculum, v. (j. 

sertum, ii. 22. 

serum, v. 6. 

serus, iii. 10. 

servia, ii. 22 + ii. 37. 

servo, ii. 23. 

s rvus, ii. 23. 

sesqui, iv. 7 + iv. 8. 

seta, vii. 13. 

severus, vii. 18. 

sex, iv. 7. 

sextans, iv. 7 + iv. 6. 

sexus, i. 30. 

si, i. 5. 

sibilus, ix. 3. 

sibus, viii. 5. 

sic, i. 3 + i. 5. 

sica, vii. 7. 

siccus, vii. 8. 

sicilicus, iv. 8. 

sido, iii. 17. 

sidus, vi. 128. 

signum, vi. 12;". 

sil, i. 24. 

silaus, iii. 18. 

sileo, iii. 18. 

siler, ii. 22. 

silex, vii. 2. 

silicernium, iii. 18 + x. 4. 

silicia, vii. 14. 

siligo, vii. 14. 

siliqua, ii. 23 + ii. 47. 

silus, viii. 21. 

silva, vi. 81. 

simila, vii. 18. 

similago, vii. 18. 

similis, i. 32. 

simitu, i. 32 + vi. 57. 

simplex, iv. 7 + ii. 14. 

simplus, iv. 7 + ii. 14. 

simpulum, ii. 25. 

simpuvium, ii. 25. 

simul, i. 32. 

simultas, i. 32 + vii. 45. 

simus, viii. 20. 

sin, i. 5 + iv. 4. 

sincerus, iv. 19 + i. 23. 



sine, iv. 19. 

singultus, ix. 24 + ix. 7. 

singulus, iv. 7. 

sinister, v. 3 + vi. 9. 

sino, iii. 17. 

sinuin, ii. 58. 

sinus, ii. 58. 

sinus, ii. 58. 

sipaiium, ii. 25. 

-sipo, v. 1. 

sircitula, x. 22. 

sircula, x. 22. 

sirium, x. 22. 

sirius, vi. 131. 

sirpe, viii. 21. 

sisara, vii. 13. 

siser, vii. 7. 

sison, vii. 7. 

sitis, x. 8. 

situla, x. 8. 

situs, i. 24 ; iii. 17. 

sobrinus, i. 31 + vi. 17. 

sobrius, iv. 19 + x. 10. 

soccus, ii. 29. 

socer, i. 31 + vi. 4. 

socius, i. 30. 

socors, iv. 19 + vi. 6. 

.^odalis, iii. 17. 

sol, vi. 131. 

solea, i. 12. 

soleo, iii. 18. 

solidus, ii. 23. 

solipuga, vii. 14 + vii. 19. 

solistimus, i. 12 + i. 2. 

solium, iii. 18. 

sollennis, ii. 23 + vi. 37. 

sollers, ii. 23 + i. 26. 

sollicitus, ii. 23 + v. 1. 

sollus, ii. 23. 

solor, iii. 18. 

solox, vii. 13. 

solum, i. 12. 

solus, iv. 19. 

solvo, iv. 19 + iii. 19. 

somnus, iii. 14. 

sono, ix. 24. 

sons, vii. 9. 

sopor, iii. 14. 

sorbeo, x. 16. 

sorbum, vii. 14. 

sordes, i. 24. 



sorex, vii. 1 4. 

Borix, vii. 14. 

soror, vi. 80. 

sors, iv. 18. 

sortior, iv. 18. 

sos, i. 3. 

i-".-pes, vi. 104 + vi. 41. 

spagas, i. 15. 

spargo, iv. 12. 

sparus, v. 3 ; vii. 17. 

spatium, iv. 12. 

specio, vi. 120. 

specus, iv. 12. 

spelta, iv. 12. 

spelunca, iv. 12. 

sperno, iv. 12. 

spero, vi. 22. 

spes, vi. 22. 

spica, vii. 17. 

spina, vii. 17. 

spinea, vii. 17. 

spinturnix, ix. 3 + ix. 4 + 
v. 28. 

spionia, vii. 17. 

spiritus, viii. 5. 

spiro, viii. 5. 

spissus, vi. 40. 

splendeo, vi. 130. 

spolium, ii. 25. 
sponda, iv. 12. 
spondeo, ix. 25. 
sponte, viii. 5. 
sporta, ii. 27. 
spuma, vi. 113. 
spuo, viii. 9. 
spurcus, viii. 9. 
spurium, vi. 22. 
spurius, vi. 22. 
squaleo, vii. 8. 
squalus, vii. 7. 
squama, ii. 29. 
squarrosus, vii. 8. 
squatina, vii. 7. 
st, xi. 7. 
stagnum, i. 29. 
stagnum, stannum, vi. 

128. 
stamen, i. 29 + ii. 38. 
stats, vi. 128. 
statera, i. 29. 
statim, i. 29. 



344 



INDEX. 



statuo, i. 29. 
stella, vi. 128. 
stellatura, iv. 19. 
stephanomelis, ii. 22 + ii. 

40. 
stercus, viii. 9 + viii. 7. 
sterilis, i. 29. 
sterno, vii. 47. 
sternuo, viii. 9. 
sterto, ix. 4. 
Btilla, iii. 17. 
stilus, vi. 71. 
-stim-, i. 2. 
stimulus, vi. 72. 
stinguo, viii. 17. 
-stino, i. 29. 
stipes, vi. 71. 
stipo, vi. 71. 
stips, vi. 71. 
stipula, vi. 71. 
stipulor, vi. 71. 
stipuhim, vi. 71. 
stiria, i. 29. 
stirps, vi. 9, 
stiva, i. 29. 
stlata, iv. 13. 
stlembus, iii. 12. 
stloppus, vi. 5. 
sto, i. 29. 
stolidus, iii. 12. 
stolo, vi. 71. 
storea, vii. 47. 
strages, vii. 47. 
stragulum, vii. 47. 
strangulo, vi. 71. 
strena. vi. 128. 
strenuus, vi. 71. 
strepo, ix. 17. 
stria, vii. 47. 
stribligo, ii. 22. 
strideo, ix. 4. 
striga, vii. 47. 
striga, ix. 4. 
strigilis, vii. 47. 
strigo, iii. 1.'!. 
strigosus, iii. 13. 
stringo, vi. 71 ; vii. 47. 
strittare, iii. 13. 
strix, vii. 47. 
strix, ix. 4. 
strnes, vi. 9. 



struix, vi. 9. 

struma, vi. 9. 

strumus, iii. 13. 

struo, vi. 9. 

struppus, ii. 22. 

studeo, vi. 106. 

stultus, iii. 12. 

stupeo, iii. 15. 

stuprum, vi. 72. 

sturnus, ix. 4. 

suadeo, ix. 24. 

suasum, i. 24. 

sua vis, x. 19. 

suavium, ix. 3. 

sub, vi. 62. 

suber, ii. 25. 

subidus, viii. 5. 

subis, ix. 3. 

sublecto, vi. 62 + iii. 19. 

sublestus, vi. 62 + iii. 33. 

sublica, vi. 62 + vi. 92. 

sublimis, vi. 62 + ii. 46. 

subo, iii. 14. 

suboles, vi. 62+vi. 86. 

subscus, vi. 62 + vii. 15. 

subtel, vi. 62 + i. 12. 

subtemen, vi. 62 + ii. 28. 

subter, vi. 62 + i. 1. 

subtilis, vii. 18 + vii. 40. 

subucula, ii. 25. 

subulcus, ix. 24 + ii. 15. 

subulo, ix. 3. 

sucerda, ix. 24 + viii. 7. 

sucinum, x. 12. 

sucus, x. 12. 

sudes, vi. 72. 

sudo, iii. 14. 

sudus, vi. 131. 

sueo, viii. 5. 

suesco, viii. 5. 

surfio, vi. 62 + viii. 21. 

suffiscus, vi. 62 + ii. 36. 

sufHameu, vi. 62 + vi. 18. 

suffoco, vi. 62 + viii. 12. 

suffrage-, vi. 62 + ii. 16 + 

ii. 9. 
suffragor, vi. 62 + ix. 13. 
sugillo, vii. 8. 
sugo, x. 12. 
sui, viii. 5. 
sulcus, vii. 14. 



sulevise, vi. 81. 

sulfur, viii. 21+ viii. 19. 

sum, iii. 17. 

summus, vi. 62. 

sumo, vi. 62+ i. 7. 

suo, ii. 22. 

supat, v. 1. 

supellex, vi. 62 + iii. 19. 

super, vi. 62. 

superficies, vi. 62 + vi. 

120. 
superstitio, vi. 62 + i. 29. 
supinus, vi. 62. 
supo, v. 1. 
supparum, ii. 25. 
suppedito, vi. 62 + vi. 45. 
supplex, vi. 62 + ii. 14. 
supplicium, vi. 62 + \ i. 

19. 
suppus, vi. 62. 
supra, vi. 62. 
sura, vi. 81. 
surculus, vi. 81. 
surdus, iv. 19+ix. 27. 
surena, ii. 22. 
surgo, vi. (i2 + vi. 94. 
surio, vi. 80. 
sums, vi. 81. 
sus, ix. 24. 
sus-, vi. 62 + i. 9. - 
susurrus, ix. 24. 
suus, viii. 5. 
tabanus, vii. 42. 
tabeo, iii. 15. 
taberna, ii. 24+ii. 57. 
tabula, i. 33. 
taceo, iii. 11. 
tffida, vi. 127. 
tsedet, iii. 11. 
talasio, iii. 12. 
talea, vii. 40. 
talipedo, iii. 12 + vi. 40. 
talis, i. 3 + i. 26. 
talitrum, ii. 18. 
talla, ii. 19. 
talpa, vii. 40. 
talus, ii. 18. 
tain, i. 3. 
tama, vi. 75. 
tamarix, v. 3 i. 
tamen, i. 3 + i. 16. 



INDEX. 



345 



tamiuare, i. 20. 
fcaminia, tunmus, i. 20. 
tandem, vi. 57. 
tango, i. 21. 
laniacse, vi. 57. 
tantisper, i. 3 + vi. 34 + 

vi. 27. 
tantus, i. 3 + vi. 34. 
tapete, vi. 60. 
tardus, iii. 13. 
tarmes, vii. 39 + vii. 44. 
tarum, ii. 21. 
tasconium, i. 21. 
tat, xi. 7. 
tata, vi. 58. 
tatae, xi. 7. 
taurus, i. 29. 
taxa, ii. 28. 
taxo, i. 33. 
taxoninus, vii. 24. 
taxus, ii. 28. 
-te, i. 4. 
teba, vi. 53. 
tego, ii. 29. 
tela, ii. 28. 
telanae, ii. 19. 
telicardios, ii. 19 + vi. 6. 
telirrhizos, ii. 19 + vi. 23. 
tellus, i. 12 + iv. 14. 
telum, vii. 24. 
temere, v. 33. 
temero, i. 20. 
temetum, v. 33. 
temno, viii. 9. 
temo, ii. 28 ; vi. 13. 
tempero, i. 34. 
tempestas, vi. 57 + vi. 27 ; 

viii. 16 + vii. 41 . 
templum, iv. 2. 
tempus, i. 34. 
tempus, vi. 57 + vi. 27. 
temulentus, v. 33. 
tendo, vi. 57. 
tenebne, ii. 24. 
teneo, vi. 57. 
tener, iii. 11. 
tensa, v. 26. 
tento, vi. 57. 
tenuis, iii. 11. 
tenus, vi. 57. 
tepeo, vi. 138. 



-ter, i. 1 ; vi. 9. 

terebra, vii. 39. 

teredo, vii. 39. 

teres, vii. 39. 

tergo, vii. 39. 

tergum, ii. 21. 

termes, vi. 9 + vi. :;.". 

terminus, vi. 9. 

termo, vi. 9. 

-ternus, vi. 9. 

tero, vii. 39. 

terra, vi. 9. 

terreo, v. 11. 

terticeps, i. 3 + vi. 77. 

tesca, iv. 1. 

testa, i. 29. 

testis, i. 29; vi. 126. 

testu, i. 29. 

testudo, i. 29. 

teta, ix. 3. 

teter, iii. 11. 

tetrinnio, ix. 4. 

texo, ii. 28. 

thesarica, vii. 13. 

thus, viii. 16. 

tibia, vi. 60. 

tibulus, vi. 60. 

tignuni, vi. 53. 

tilia, ii. 19. 

-tim-, i. 2. 

timeo, iii. 15. 

tina, ii. 58. 

tinea, tinea, x. 3. 

tingo, iii. 16. 

tiniaria, vi. 57. 

tinnio, ix. 5. 

tinnunculus, ix. 5. 

tintinno, ix. 5. 

tinus, vi. 57. 

-tinus, vi. 57. 

tippula, vi. 60. 

tiro, iii. 13. 

titillo, vii. 40. 

titio, vi. 127. 

titivillicium, iii. 11 + iii. 1. 

titubo, vi. 74. 

titulus, vi. 127. 

todi, iii. 11. 

todilli, iii. 11. 

tofus, iii. 15. 

toga, ii. 29. 



tolero, vi. 12. 

tollo, vi. 12. 

tolutim, ii. 18. 

tomentum, vi. 60. 

tondeo, iv. 3 + iv. 1. 

toogere, vi. 12'i. 

tono, ix. 17. 

topia, i. 33. 

-tor, vi. 9. 

tores, ii. 20. 

torno, ii. 20. 

torpeo, iii. 13. 

torqueo, ii. 20 + ii. 5. 

torrens, vii. 39. 

torreo, vii. 13. 

torus, vi. 9. 

torvus, vii. 39. 

tot, i. 3 + vi. 13. 

toties, i. 3 + vi. 13 + iv. 

5. 
totjugus, i. 3 + vi. 13 f 

i. 6. 
totus, vi. 58. 
-tra, -tro, vi. 9. 
trabea, vi. 11. 
trabs, vi. 11. 
tragula, vii. 39. 
tragum, x. 3. 
traho, vi. 11. 
trama, ii. 20. 
trames, vi. 9 + v. 22. 
tranquillus, iii. 13 + iii. 6. 
trans, vi. 9. 

transenna, ii. 20 + ii. 58. 
tremis, i. 3 + i. 32. 
tremo, v. 11. 
trepidus, v. 11. 
tres, i. 3. 

triatrus, i. 3 + vi. 9. 
tribus, i. 3 + vi. 38. 
tricaj, ii. 20. 
trichila, ii. 20. 
triens, i. 3 +iv. 6. 
triginta, i. 3 + iv. 7. 
trimus, i. 3 + vi. 37. 
triones, vi. 128. 
tripudium, vi. 11 + vi. 40. 
triquetrus, i. 3 + vii. 11. 
trisso, ix. 4. 
tristis, vii. 39. 
tiit, ix. 4. 



346 



INDEX. 



triticum. vii. 39. 

triumphus, iii. 13. 

trixago, -ssago, ii. 20. 

trixis, vi. 9. 

tropis, iii. 13. 

trua, ii. 20. 

trucido, vii. 39 + vii. 11. 

tructa, x. 3. 

trudo, vi. 11. 

trulla, ii. 20. 

-trum, vi. 9. 

truncus, vii. 39. 

truo, ii. 20. 

trutina, vi. 1 1. 

trux, vii. 39. 

tn, i. 4. 

tuba, ii. 24. 

tuber, vi. 53. 

tuber, vi. 53. 

tuburcinor, vii. 42 + x. 

10. 
tubus, ii. 24. 
tude.s, vi. 74. 
tueor, ii. 24 ; vi. 127? 
tugurium, ii. 29. 
tuli, vi. 12. 
turn, i. 3 + vi. 37. 
-turn, vi. 57. 
tumeo, vi. 75. 
tumultus, v. 33. 
tumulus, vi. 75. 
tundo, vi. 74. 
tunica, ii. 24. 
turba, v. 11. 
turbo, ii. 20. 
turdus, ix. 4. 
turgeo, vi. 9. 
turio, vi. 9. 
turma, v. 11. 
-turnus, vi. 9. 
turpis, viii. 9. 
turris, ii. 21. 
turtur, ix. 4. 
turunda, vi. 1 1. 
-turus, vi. 9. 
-tus, i. 1. 
tus, viii. 16. 

tussilago, ix. 18 -f- vi. 92. 
tussis, ix. 18. 
tute, i. 4 + i. 3. 
tutulus, vi. 10. 



tympanum, vi. 74. 
uber, vi. 34. 
ubi, i. 5 + i. 8. 
udo, ii. 36. 
udus, iii. 27. 
ulciscor, vii. 31. 
ulcus, vii. 31. 
-ulentus, p. 269. 
ulex, vii. 4. 
uligo, iii. 1. 
ullus, i. 5. 
ulinus, ii. 51. 
ulna, ii. 1. 
ulpicum, vi. 96. 
uls, i. 5 + i. 9. 
ultra, i. 5 + vi. 9. 
ultro, i. 5 + vi. 9. 
ulucus, ix. 20. 
ulula, ix. 20. 
ululo, ix. 20. 
ulva, iii. 1. 
umbilicus, vi. 7S. 
umbo, vi. 78. 
umbra, ii. 17. 
uncia, iv. 7. 
uncus, ii. 9. 
unda, v. 18. 
unde, i. 5 + i. 1. 
unedo, ii. 32. 
ungo, i. 18. 
unguis, vii. 20. 
ungulus, ii. 9. 
unquam, vi. 37 + i. 5. 
unus, iv. 5. 
upupa, ix. 1. 
urbs, ii. 53. 
urceus, ii. 49. 
ui'geo, vi. 25. 
-uria, vi. 23. 
urica, x. 11. 
urina, v. 9. 
urinor, v. 9. 
urna, ii. 57. 
-urnus, vi. 8. 
uro, vi. 116. 
urruncum, vii. 34. 
ursus, vii. 30. 
urtica, vii. 32. 
urvo, vii. 27. 
urvum, vii. 27. 
-us, i. 9. 



uspiam, vi. 37 + i. 5. 

usquam, vi. 37 + i. 5. 

usque, vi. 37 + i. 5. 

usta, vi. 116. 

ustilago, vi. 116 + vi. 92. 

usurpo, xi. 3 + ii. 53. 

usus, xi. 3. 

ut, uti, i. 5. 

liter, vi. 34. 

liter, i. 5 + vi. 9. 

uterus, vi. 34. 

utor, xi. 3. 

uva, iii. 27. 

uvens, iii. 27. 

uxor, vi. 50. 

vacca, vi. 50. 

vaccinium, vi. 120. 

vacerra, ii. 34. 

vacillo, v. 30. 

vaco, iv. 5. 

vado, v. 17. 

vadum, iii. 27. 

vae, xi. 4. 

vafer, v. 23. 

vagina, ii. 35. 

vagio, ix. 2. 

vagor, v. 30. 

vah, xi. 4. 

valeo, vi. 25. 

Valeria, r. 23 + v. 1 3. 

valgus, ii. 14. 

vallescit, iii. 1. 

vallis, ii. 10. 

vallum, ii. 11. 

vallus, vi. 24. 

valvae, ii. 11. 

vanga, vii. 20. 

vannus, viii. 12. 

vanus, iii. 29. 

vapidus, viii. 13. 

vapor, viii. 13. 

vappa, viii. 13. 

vappo, v. 23. 

vapulo, vi. 19. 

varius, v. 9. 

varix, vi. 23. 

varo, iii. 2. 

varus, iv. 14. 

varus, vi. 23. 

vas, -dis, ii. 33. 

vas, -sis, ii. 36. 



INDKX. 



347 



vascuB, ix. 2. 

vastus, iv. 6. 
vates, v. 17. 
vatica, v. 17. 
vatius, ii. 32. 
vatrax, ii. 32. 
-ve, i. 5. 
ve-, iv. 5. 

vectigal, ii. 35 + ii. 29. 
vegeo, vi. 51. 
vehemens, vi. 49. 
veho, vi. 49. 
vel, i. 5. 
veles, v. 10. 
vello, vi. 24. 
vellus, iii. 1. 
velo,'ii. 11. 
velox, v. 10 + v. 1. 
vena, ii. 32. 
vendo, vi. 42 + iv. 1. 
venenum, i. IS. 
veneo, vi. 42 + v. 24. 
veneror, vi. 52. 
venetus, v. 18. 
venia, vi. 52. 
venio, i. 16. 
venor, vi. 52. 
venter, vi. 34. 
ventus, viii. 12. 
venus, vi. 52. 
venus, vi. 42. 
venustus, vi. 52. 
vepres, ii. 37. 
ver, vi. 116. 
veratrum, iii. 2. 
verbascum, iii. 2. 
verbena?, iii. 2. 
verber, vi. 19. 
verbum, ix. 14. 
veredus, v. 9 + v. 24. 
vereor, vii. 29. 
veretnun, vi. 26. 
vergiliie, ii. 12. 
verge-, ii. 12. 
vermina, ii. 12 + ii. 38. 
vermis, ii. 12 + ii. 38. 
verna, vi. 23. 
vernisera, x. 7 + vi. 128. 
verpa, vii. 27. 
verpus, vii. 27. 
verres, iii. 2. 



verro, vii. 28. 

verruca, vi. 23 + vii. 30. 

verrunco, ii. 12. 

verto, ii. 12. 
■''veru, vii. 27. 

verus, vi. 27. 

vervago, vii. 27. 

vervex, iii. 2 + ix. 1. 

vescor, x. 1. 

vescus, iii. 27. 

vesica, ii. 36. 

vespa, vii. 25. 

vespse, ii. 36. 

vesper, iii. 27 + vi. 27. 

vespices, iii. 27. 

vespillo, ii. 36 + ii. 15. 

Vesta, vi. 11'". 

vestibulum, ii. 36. 

vesticeps, vi. 52 + ii. 8. 

vestigium, i. 9 + vi. 71. 

vestis, ii. 36. 

veto, iv. 5. 

vetus, vi. 34. 

vexillum, v. 30. 

vexo, v. 30. 

via, v. 23. 

vibex, ii. 37. 

vibia, ii. 37. 

vibones, ii. 3 T . 

vibrissas, vii. 26. 

vibro, v. 23. 

viburnum, ii. 37 + ii. 12. 

vicia, ii. 34. 

vicinus, i. 17. 

vicis, ii. 34. 

victima, vi. 52. 

vicus, i. 1 7. 

video, vi. 119. 

vidulus, ii. 33. 

viduus, iv. 6. 

vieo, ii. 37. 

viesco, vii. 8. 

vigeo, vi. 51. 

vigil, vi. 51. 

viginti, i. 6 + iv. 7. 

vilis, xi. 4. 

villa, ii. 11. 

villus, iii. 1. 

vimen, ii. 37 + ii. 38. 

vinca, ii. 34. 

vincio, ii. 34. 



\ inco, vi. 49. 

vindex, ii. 33 + vi. 126. 

vinnulus, vi. 52. 

vinum, vi. 102. 

\io, v. 23. 

viola, viii. 21. 

violo, vi. 25. 

vipera, ii. . - !7. 

vipio, ii. 37. 

vir, vi. 23. 

vireo, vi. 23. 

virga, vi. 2:!. 

virgo, vi. 23. 

virias, ii. 12. 

vinculum, vii. 27. 

viridis, vi. 23. 

virtus, vi. 23. 

virus, i. 18. 

vi-, vi. 25. 

viscum, i. 18. 

viscus, i. 18. 

vispellio, ii. 36 + ii. 15. 

visula, ii. 32. 

vita, vi. 102. 

vitex, ii. 32. 

vitiligo, v. 17 + i. 25. 

vitis, ii. 32. 

vitium, v. 17. 

vito, v. 17. 

vitricus, i. 8 + vi. 9 + i. 2. 

vitruui, vi. 119. 

vitta, ii. 32. 

vitulor, vi. 52. 

vitulus, vi. 34. 

viverra, v. 9. 

vivo, vi. 103. 

vix, vi. 51. 

voco, ix. 2. 

vola, ii. 10. 

volema, vi. 23. 

volgiolus, vii. 28. 

vodo, v. 10. 

volo, vi. 26. 

volupe, vi. 26. 

voluptas, vi. 26. 

volva, vulva, ii. 11. 

volvo, ii. 10. 

vomer, iv. 6 + iv. 16 

vomica, vi. 44. 

vomo, viii. 6. 

vopiscus, vi. 47. 



348 



INDEX. 



voro, x. 10. 
voveo, vi. 52. 
vox, ix. 2. 



vulcanus, vi. 117. 
vulgus, vi. 23. 
vulnus, vii. 27. 



vulpes, ii. 11 + ii. 51. 
vultur, x. 7 + ix. 4. 
vultus. vi. 1 17. 



GOTHIC. 

The words under each initial arc put in Dicfcnbach's order. 



aba, vi. 41. 

abrs, vi. 41. 

agis, xi. 2. 

agga, ii. 9. 

aggvus, i. 10. 

agls, xi. 2. 

ada, vi. 58. 

ael, vii. 38. 

aquizi, vii. 9. 

azgo, vii. 8. 

azetaba, iii. 17. 

aha, viii. 4. 

ahana, vii. 6. 

ahma, viii. 4. 

ahyan, viii. 4. 

ahs, vii. 3. 

ahtau, iv. 7. 

aththan, vi. 59 + i. 3. 

athn, vi. 57. 

aigan, i. 21. 

aiz, vi. 137. 

aihtron, vi. 108. 

aihva-, v. 1. 

aithei, vi. 58. 

aiththau, i. 5. 

aiths, ix. 10. 

aikan, ix. 10. 

ains, iv. 5. 

air, vi. 8:?. 

aiizis, v. 13. 

airtha, vi. 83. 

airknis, vi. 97. 

airus, v. 13. 

aistan, viii. 5. 

aiviski, viii. 7. 

aiv8, v. 24. 

aihvatundi, v. 1+vi. 57. 

ak, vi. 50. 

akran, vi. 1. 

akrs, vi. 63. 

alan, vi. 86. 



aleina, ii. 1. 

alev, i. 24. 

alhs, vii. 38. 

althans, vi. 87. 

alis, i. 5. 

alls, ii. 11. 

alyan, vi. 97. 

amsa, ii. 7. 

an, i. 5. 

ana, vi. 110. 

anaks, vi. 110 + v. 1. 

anan, viii. 1. 

anil, vi. 110. 

andbahts, vi. 110 + vii. 1 9. 

andeis, vi. 110. 

anthar, i. 5 + vi. 9. 

anno, vi. 101. 

ans, vi. 82. 

ansts, iii. 30. 

ayukduth, v. 24 + vi. 57. 

augyan, vi. 120. 

augo, vi. 120. 

aud-, vi. 34. 

auhns, vi. 120. 

auhyon, ix. 2. 

auhuma, vi. 50. 

auhsa, iii. 28. 

auths, iv. 6. 

auk, vi. 50. 

aukan, vi. 50. 

aurtigards, vi. 23 + ii. 4. 

auso, ix. 27. 

aufto, vi. 62. 

ara, v. 13. 

arbaiths, vii. 37. 

arbi, vi. 90. 

ark.'i, ii. 49. 

arman, vii. 37. 

arms, i. 26 ; vii. 37. 

arniba, ii. 57. 

aryan, vii. 37. 



aivyo, v. 15. 

arhvazna, ii. 48 + vii. 25. 

asans, i. 32. 

asneis, i. 32. 

asts, vi. 73. 

at, i. 1. 

atathni, vi. 57. 

atisks, x. 3. 

atyan, x. 3. 

atta, vi. 58. 

avethi, iii. 27. 

avo, i. 8. 

af, iv. 6. 

afar, ii. 1(5. 

afta, ii. 16. 

ahva, v. 25 + v. 1 . 

-ba, i. 8. 

baar, vi. 17. 

bagms, vi. 48. 

badi, vi. 40. 

bai, i. 8. 

bayoths, i. 8 + i. 5. 

baidyan, i. 8. 

baina-bagins, vi. 40 + vi. 

48. 
bairan, vi. 17. 
bairgs, vi. 14. 
bairgan, ii. 17. 
baithts, vi. 11 7. 
baitrs, x. 1. 
balgs, ii. 15. 
baltha, vi. 18. 
balva-vesei, vi. 19 + iii. 27. 
bandva, vi. 115. 
banya, vii. 26. 
bansts, ii. 31. 
barn, vi. 17. 
bauan, vi. 38. 
baugyan, ii. 34. 
bauths, iii. 2'!. 
baidyan, vi. 15. 



INDEX. 



349 



baur, vi. 17. 

baurga, ii. 17. 

baurd, i. 12. 

baurts, vi. 17. 

bauryaba, vi. 17. 

barizeins, vii. 28. 

barms, ii. 17. 

barn, vi. 17. 

baruanyan, vi. 17. 

bars, vii. 28. 

basi, x. 1, 

batiza, vi. 39. 

beidan, i. 8. 

beist, vi. 43. 

beitan, x. 1. 

berusyos, vi. 17. 

bi, i. 8. 

biari, v. 9. 

bidyan, ix. 2. 

bindan, ii. 33. 

biugan, ii. 34. 

biudan, ix. 2. 

binds, vi. 40. 

blandan, i. If). 

blauthyan, i. 15. 

bleitlis, iii. 1. 

blesan, viii. 14. 

blaggvus, vi. 1 1 7. 
bliggvan, vi. 19. 
blinds, i. 15. 
bloth, vi. 15. 
bloma, vi. 15. 

blot an, iii. 1. 
bnauan, vii. 26. 
bugyan, ii. 35. 
busns, ix. 2. 
braids, iv. 14. 
brakya, vi. 17. 
brahv, ii. 17. 
breen, vii. 29. 
briggan, vi. 17. 
brikan, iv. 6 ; vi. 17. 
brinnan, vi. 117. 
bruths, vi. 17. 
bruks, vi. 17. 
brunna, vi. 14. 
brunyo, ii. 17. 
brusts, vi. 14. 
broe, vii. 29. 
brothar, vi. 17 -i \ i. \'. 
boka, ii. 34. 



bota, vi. 39. 

daban, i. 33. 

dobs, i. 33. 

dags, vi. 126. 

daddy an, x. 8. 

daigs, i. 21. 

dails, iv. 18. 

dal, ii. 18. 

dammyan, vi. 76. 

daubs, iii. 15. 

dauds, vi. 106. 

dauhtar, vi. 53 + vi. 9. 

daunts, vi. 53. 

dauths, iii. 11. 

daukans, vi. 53. 

dauns, viii. 16. 

daupyan, vi. 60. 

daur, ii. 20. 

daursan, vi. 11. 

deds, i. 1. 

deigan, i. 21. 

-deina, vii. 43. 

-deisei, i. 1. 

digrei, vi. 53. 

dikis, i. 21. 

diups, vi. 60. 

dius, v. 24. 

dis-, iv. 1. 
divans, iii. 1 1. 
du, i. 1. 
dubo, ix. 18. 
dugan, vi. 53. 
dulgs, vi. 12. 
dulths, vi. 12. 
dumbs, iii. 15. 
draban, vii. 39. 
dragan, vi. 11. 
drauhsna, iii. 13. 
drausna, iii. 13. 
dreiban, vi. 1 1, 
drigkan, x. 8. 
driugan, vii. 39. 
driusan, iii. 13. 
drunyus, ix. 4. 
drobyan, v. 11. 
dvaltnon, iii. 12. 
dvals, iii. 12. 
dobnan, iii. 15. 
douis, vi. 76. 
-ei, i. 5. 
eisarn, vi. 137. 



etin, x. 3. 

faginon, vi. 120. 

fagrs, i. 19. 

fadar, vi. 38 + vi. 9. 

fahan, ii. 35. 

faheths, vi. 120. 

fahyan, i. 19. 

fatha, ii. 33. 

-faths, vi. 41. 

faian, viii. 9. 

faih, i. IS. 

faihu, ii. 35 

faihus, i. 18. 

fair-, vi. 20. 

fairguni, vi. 20 + vi. 66. 

fairzna, vi. 17. 

fairina, vi. 20. 

fairnis, vi. 20. 

fairra, vi. 20. 

fairhvyan, viii. 14. 

fairhvus, viii. 14. 

falthan, ii. 14. 

-faiths, ii. 14. 

fan a, ii. 30. 

fani, iii. 28. 

fauho, ii. 35. 

faur, vi. 20. 

faura, vi. 20. 

faurds, ii. 17. 

faurhts, vii. 29. 

faurthis, vi. 20. 

faurs, ii. 17. 

faran, vi. 20. 

faryan, vi. 20. 

fastan, i. 8. 

favs, iii. 29. 

fehaba, i. lit. 

feinan, vii. 4 I. 

fera, iv. 11. 

ferya, ii. 17. 

fers, viii. 14. 

fetyan, i. 8. 

figgrs, ii. 34. 

fidvor, i. 4. 

filhan, ii. 15. 

-fill, ii. 15. 

filu, vi. 15. 

timf, iv. 6. 

finthan, vi. 45. 

riyan, viii. 9. 

risks, v. 20. 



350 



INDEX. 



Stan, vi. 40. 


gaurs, ix. 6. 


hairdo, ii. 4. 




flahtom, ii. 14. 


gards, ii. 4. 


hairthra, vi. 6. 




flautan, ix. 13. 


gasts, iii. 9. 


hairus, vii. 3. 




flekan, vi. 19. 


gatvo, v. 1. 


hairto, vi. 6. 




flodus, v. 10. 


gavi, vi. 67. 


hais, vi. 124. 




fugls, v. 32. 


geigan, i. 21. 


haists, iv. 8. 




fula, vi. 15. 


geiggan, i. 21. 


haitan, ix. 11. 




fulgins, ii. 15. 


geiro, vi. 7. 


haifsts, vi. 5. 




fulls, vi. 18. 
fuls, viii. 10. 


geisnan, viii. -1. 
giban, ii. 8. 


haifts, vi. 5. 
hakuls, ii. 2. 




fra-, vi. 20. 


gibla, vi. 77. 


halbs, i. 13. 




fragith, vi. 20. 


gild, vi. 5. 


haldan, ii. 2. 




frathyan, vi. 1 1 7. 
fraihnan, vi. 22. 


giltha, vii. 4. 
gilstr, vi. 5. 


haldis, ii. 1. 
halis, vi. 8. 




fraisan, vi. 20. 


ginnan, vi. 66. 


halks, ii. 1. 




fraiv, vi. 16. 


giutan, v. 1. 


hallus, vii. 2. 




fram, vi. 20. 


gistradagis, iii. 9 + vi. 1 26- 


halya, ii. 2. 




framatheis, vi. 20. 


gitan, i. 22. 


hals, ii. 1. 




frauya, vi. 20. 
frast«, vi. 16. 


glaggvuba, vi. 129. 
glitmunyan, vi. 129 + vi. 


halts, v. 4. 
hamon, ii. 8. 




freidyan, iii. 2. 


121. 


hana, ix. 8. 




freihals, v. 9 + v. 4. 


gudya, vi. 130. 


handugs, ii. 6. 




freis, v. 9. 


guth, vi. 130. 


handus, ii. 6. 




fri-, vi. 20. 
frithon, iii. 2. 


gulth, vi. 129. 
guina, viii. 4. 


hansa, i. 31. 
hanfs, vii. 5. 




-friks, vi. 22. 


gund, v. 1. 


haubith, vi. 77. 




friyon, vi. 22. 


graban, vii. 3. 


hauhs, vi. 70. 




friyonds, vi. 22. 
frius, vii. 29. 


gramyan, ix. C. 
gramst, vii. 1. 


hauitha, iii. 8. 
hauns, iii. 21. 




frums, vi. 20. 


grans, vii. 1. 


haurds, ii. 3. 




froths, vi. ] 17. 


gras, vi. 1. 


hauri, vi. 129. 




fod\ an, x. 1 . 


gredus, vi. 7. 


haurn, vi. 4. 




fodr, ii. 33. 
fon, vi. 118. 


greipan, ii. 4. 
gretan, ix. 6. 


hausyan, ix. 27. 
hardus, vi. 4. 




fotus, vi. 40. 


ga-grefts, i. 31 + ii. 4. 


haryis, ii. 4. 




ga, i. 31. 


grids, iv. 9. 


hatan, viii. 4. 




gabei, ii. 8. 


grinda-, vii. 1. 


havi, vi. 107. 




gaggan, v. 1. 
gadiliggs, i. 22 + i. 2 I. 


grudya, ix. 7. 
grundus, vii. 1. 


liafyan, vi. 77. 
haftvan, ii. 8. 




gazds, vii. 9. 


iXuds, vi. 107 


hafts, ii. 8. 




gaidv, iv. 8. 
gailyan, vii. 6. 


golyan, ix. 7. 

-h, i. 5. 


hethyo, iii. 9. 
heito, vii. 9. 




gairdan, ii. 4. 


haban, ii. 8. 


heiva-, iii. 9. 




gairu, vii. 3. 
gaisnan, viii. 4. 


liazyan, ix. 11. 
liahan, ii. 9. 


her, i. 5 + i. 1. 
hi, i. 5. 




gaitei, v. 2. 


haidus, iii. 9. 


hidre, i. 5 + vi. 9. 




galga, vi. 5. 


haihs, ii. 29. 


hilms, ii. 2. 




gatnains, i. 31 + ii. 39. 


haithi, iii. 9. 


hilpan, vi. 6. 




gansyan, vi. 66. 


haithno, iii. 9. 


hiniins, ii. 8. 




gaumyan, viii. 4. 


hails, vi. 6. 


hindana, i. 5 + iv. 4 + i 


. 1 


gaunon, ix. 8. 


hainis, ii. 8. 


hinthan, ii. 6. 





INDEX. 



351 



hiuhma, vi. 70. 

hiuma, vi. 70. 
hiufan, ix. 12. 

hita, i. 5. 
hivi, vi. 130. 
hlahyan, ix. 7. 
hlathan, vi. 5. 
hlaiba, vi. 129. 
hlains, vi. 2. 
hlaiv, vi. 2. 
hlaifs, vi. 129. 
hlatmu, ii. 2. 
hlaupan, v. 4. 
hlauts, iv. 10. 
Ill as, vii. 6. 
hleibyan, vi. 6. 
hleiduma, v. 4. 
hleithra, ii. 2. 
hliva, ii. 2. 
hliuth, ix. 27. 
Iilinma, ix. 27. 
hlifan, ii. 2. 
hlutrs, vii. 2. 
hluhyan, ix. 7. 
hnasqvus, iii. 21. 
hneivan, ii. 6. 
hniupan, ii. 6. 
hnutho, vii. 5. 
linuto, vii. 5. 
huggryan, vi. 10S. 
hugs, in., viii. 4. 
hugs, n., ii. 5. 
huzd, ii. 5. 
huhyan, ii. 5. 
huhrua, vi. 108. 
hulths, iii. 6. 
hulyan, ii. 2. 
hulon, ii. 1. 
-hun, i. 5. 
-hunda, iv. 7. 
hunds, ix. 8. 
hunyan, vi. 10S. 
hups, vi. 77. 
hus, ii. 5. 
hrains, vii. 1. 
hraiva-, ix. 6. 
hramyan, vi. 4. 
hrisyan, v. 5. 
hrugga, ii. 3. 
hruk, ix. 6. 
Iiruskan, ix. 6. 



hrothi-igs, ix. 6. 
h ropy an, ix. 6. 
hrot, ii. '.'■. 
hobains, ii. S. 
hoef, vi. 77. 
hoba, vii. 3. 
holon, v. 4. 
hors, vii. 3. 
liva, i. 5. 

hvaiva, i. 5 + i. 9. 
livar, i. 5 + i. 1. 
hvathar, i. 5 4- vi. 9. 
•hun, i. 5. 

hveleiks, i 5 + i. 26. 
hvathyan, vi. 114. 
hvairban, ii. 5. 
hvairnei, ii. 5. 
hvaiteis, vi. 103. 
hvapyan, viii. 13. 
hvassaba, vii. 9. 
hveila, vi. 8. 
hveits, vi. 130. 
hvilftri, ii. 5. 
hvopan, xi. 3. 
hvota, ix. 10. 
(hir)i, i. 5. 
ibai, i. 5. 
lbns, i. 9. 

ibuks, ii. 32 4- ii. 34. 
id-, ii. 32. 
iddya, v. 24. 
idreiga, ii. 32. 
ith, ii. 32. 
ik, viii. 4. 
in, i. 1. 

inuh, inn, iv. 4. 
iumyo, vi. 70. 
iup, vi. 62. 
ins, iii. 27. 
is, i. 5. 
itan, x. 3. 
iftunia, ii. 16. 
ya, i. 5. 
yabai, i. 5. 
yah, i. 5. 

yains, i. 5 + iv. 4. 
yau, i. 5. 
yer, vi. 27. 
yiuka, i. 6. 
yu, i. 5. 
yuggs, vi. 102. 



yuk, i. 6. 
yunda, vi. 102. 
yUB, i. 4. 

kadariou, vii. 11. 
kalbo, vi. 3. 
kalds, vii. 2. 
kalkyo, v. 4. 
kannyan, viii. 4. 
kaupatyan, \i. 5. 
kaupon, iv. 20. 
kauin, vii. 1. 
kaurs, vi. 4. 
kara, vi. 7. 
karkara, ii. 4. 
kas, i. 22. 
kasya, i. 22. 
katils, ii. 6. 
keian, vi. 70. 
kilthei, vi. 3. 
kindins, vi. 66. 
kinnus, vii. 5. 
kiusan, ii. ii. 
-klahs, vi. 3. 
klisnio, ix. 7. 
klismyan, ix. 7. 
kniu, ii. 6. 
knus^yan, ii. 6. 
knoda, \ i. 66. 
kukyau, ii. 5. 
kunaveda, ii. 6 -(- ii. 32. 
kuni, vi. 66. 
kunnan, viii. 4. 
kriustan, vii. 1. 
kriten, ix. 6. 
kroton, vii. 1. 
laggs, vi. 93. 
lachen, ix. 7. 
lathon, ix. 20. 
laian, ix. 20. 
laiba, iv. 17. 
laigon, x. 17. 
laikan, v. 16. 
laisyan, vi. 136. 
laists, ii. 55. 
lamb, iii. 20. 
land, i. 12. 
laubyan, vi. 95. 
laugnyan, ii. 47. 
laudya, vi. 87. 
-lauds, vi. 87. 
Liuhatyan, vi. 123. 



352 



INDEX. 



lauhmoni, -uni, vi. 

+ vi. 121. 
-lauths, vi. 87. 
laun, vi. 96. 
Iaus, iii. 19. 
laufs, i. 12. 
lasivs, iii. 33. 
lats, iii. 33. 
-leds, vi. 87. 
leihts, v. 16. 
laithan, v. 14. 
leithus, x. 20. 
leik, vi. 92. 
leikan, iii. 19. 
leikeis, iii. ] 9. 
-leiks, i. 26. 
lein, ii. 54. 
leisan, vi. 136. 
leitan, iii. 33. 
leitils, v. 16. 
leivyan, iv. 17. 
leihvan, iii. 19. 
lekeis, iii. 19. 
letan, iii. 33. 
levyan, iv. 17. 
liban, vi. 95. 
Hgan, iii. 19. 
liginon, ii. 4 7. 
lithus, ii. 54. 
linnan, iii. 20. 
Hubs, vi. 95. 
liugan, i. 26 ; ii. 47. 
liudan, vi. 87. 
liuhath, vi. 123. 
liuthon, ix. 20. 
liusan, iii. 19. 
Huts, ii. 55. 
lisan, ii. 55. 
lists, v. 14. 
lita, v. 14. 
-lif, iv. 7. 
lifnan, iv. 17. 
lubains, vi. 95. 
lubya-, i. 24. 
lubo, vi. 95. 
lubs, vi. 95. 
lukun, i. 26. 
lustus vi. 97. 
lutou, ii. 55. 
luftus, v. LC. 
lofa, i. 12. 



123 



magan, vi. 33. 
magaths, vi. 31. 
magus, vi. 31. 
mahei, viii. 2. 
mahts, vi. 33. 
matha, x. 5. 
math], ix. 2. 
mathlyan, ix. 2. 
maids, v. 21. 
maihstus, i. 20. 
maithms, iii. 5. 
mail, i. 20. 
maindai, iii. 5. 
mains, ii. 39. 
mais, vi. 31. 
maitan, vii. 44. 
malan, vii. 45. 
maltliata, ix. 2. 
malma, vii. 45. 
mulda, vii. 45. 
-malsks, v. 8. 
-malteins, iii. 3. 
malvyan, vii. 45. 
malo, x. 6. 
maminyan, viii. (I. 
mammo, x. 5. 
man, viii. 1. 
manags, vi. 35. 
manna, viii. 1. 
manvus, i. 16. 
maudyan, viii. 2. 
maurgins, vi. 121. 
maurgyan, iv. It',. 
maurthr, iii. 4. 
maurnan, viii. 3. 
marei, v. 8. 
marzvan. v. 8. 
marzus, iii. 4. 
marka, iv. 16. 
mats, x. 5. 
mavi, vi. 31. 
megs, i. 20. 
meki, vii. 46. 
mel, i. 11 ; i. 20. 
mela, i. 1 1. 
iiiena, i. 1 1. 
menus, x. 5. 
menoths, i. 1 1 . 
-mers, ix. 2. 
mes, i. 1 1. 
midya, ii. 39. 



miera, vii. 45. 
mizdo, i. 11. 
mith, ii. 39. 
mikils, vi. 31. 
milds, iii. 3. 
millima, ii. 41 . 
milith, x. 20. 
miluks, vii. 45. 
mimz, x. 5. 
-minds, viii. 1. 
mins, iii. 5. 
missa-, v. 21. 
misso, v. 21. 
mitan, i. 11. 
miton, viii. 2. 
muka-, iii. 25. 
mulyan, x. 6. 
munan, viii. 1. 
mundrei, viii. 1. 
mundon, viii. 1. 
-munditha, viii. 1. 
munths, x. 5. 
mods, viii. 2. 
mota, i. 11. 
inotaii, i. 1 1. 
inotyan, i. 11. 
naglyan, vii. 20. 
nadrs, vii. 23. 
naqvaths, iv. 4. 
nahan, vi. 98. 
nahts, ii. 26. 
naityan, viii. 8. 
namo, viii. 4. 
nantliyan, v. 29. 
nauh, i: 10. 
nauhan, vi. 98. 
nauths, vi. 99. 
naus, iii. 31. 
nas, viii. IS. 
nasyan, iii. 30. 
nati, ii. 58. 
natyan, iii. 5. 
ne, iv. 4. 
nethla, vii. 23. 
neith, vi. 100. 
nehv, i. 10. 
ni, iv. 4. 
nidva, vii. 23. 
nithan, i. ID. 
nithyis, i. 10. 
niman, i. 10. 



INDEX. 



353 



ninhsyan, \iii. 18. 

niuyis, i. 10. 

niuii, iv. 5. 

niutan, vi. 100. 

nipnan, ii. 26. 

nisan, iii. 30. 

nu, i. 10. 

nohs, vi. 98. 

nota, ii. 58. 

paida, ii. 33. 

peika-bagms, i. 18 + vi. 48. 

plats, i. 15. 

plinsyan, v. 10. 

puggs, ii. 35. 

praggan, vi. 17. 

qvainon, ix. 8. 

qvairnus, vii. 1. 

qvairrus, iii. 7. 

qval, iii. 6. 

qvens, vi. 66. 

qvithan, ix. 11. 

qvithus, ii. 6. 

qviman, i. 16. 

qvino, vi. 66. 

qvius, vi. 103. 

qvistyan, vii. 9. 

qvrammitha, i. 23. 

ragin, vi. 94. 

raginon, vi. 94. 

razda, ix. 19. 

razn, iii. 24. 

rahnyan, vi. 94. 

rahton, vi. 94. 

rathyan, ix. 19. 

raths, iii. 34. 

raids, i. 27. 

raihts, vi. 94. 

-raip, ii. 52. 

raisyan, vi. 89. 

rakyan, vi. 94. 

raubon, iv. 17. 

rauds, v. 14. . 

rauhtyan, ix. 15. 

raupyan, ii. 53. 

raus, ii. 56. 

rasta, iii. 24. 

ratyan, i. 27. 

redan, ix. 19. 

rehsns, vi. 94. 

reiks, vi. 109. 

reiian, v. 13. 



reisan, vi. 89. 
reks, vi. 109. 
-riggvs, vi. 94. 
rign, iii. 19. 
riqviSj i. i5. 
rikaii, vi. 89. 
riinis, iii. 14. 
riiinan, v. 15. 
riuds, v. 14. 
riurs, iii. 34. 
rums, iv. 14. 
runa, ix. 15. 
rodyan, ix. 19. 
rohsns, ii. 49. 
sa, i. 3. 
sagio, ix. 26. 
-sahts, vi. 125. 
saths, vi. 71. 
saian, i. 1. 
sailyan, ii. 22. 
sainyan, vi. 64. 
sair, vii. 14. 
saivala, vi. 125. 
saivs, v. 3. 
saihs, iv. 7. 
saihvan, vi. 125. 
saio, ix. 26. 
sakan, ix. 26. 
sakkus, ii. 29. 
salbon, i. 24. 
saldra, viii. 7. 
salyan, iii. 18. 
salt, v. 7. 
sama, i. 32. 
samana, i. 32. 
sammath, i. 32. 
samyan, vi. 132. 
sandyan. vi. 64. 
satyan, iii. 17. 
sauhts, iii. 10. 
sautha, ix. 24. 
sauths, ix. 24. 
sauil, vi. 131. 
saulyan, i. 24. 
sauls, vi. 71. 
saun, i. 32. 
samga, vii. 14. 
sarva, vii. 13. 
-seths, i. 1. 
seithu, vi. 64. 
-seiths, vi. 64. 



seina, sis, sik, viii. 5. 
seinteins, iv. 7 + vL 127. 
sels, vi. 105. 
seneigs, vi. 64. 
sibis, i. 30. 
sibun, iv. 7. 
sibya, i. 30. 
siggqvan, iii. 10. 
siggvan, ix. 26. 
sigis, vi. 63. 
sidus, viii. 5. 
sihora, vi. 63. 
silan, iii. 18. 
silba, viii. 5. 
sildaleik, iii. 18-»-i. 26. 
silubr, vi. 131 + vi. 117. 
simle, iv. 7. 
us-sindo, iv. 7. 
ga-sintha, vi. 64. 
sintlis, iv. 7. 
sineigs, vi. 64. 
sinista, sins, vi. 64. 
sinteins, iv. 7 + vi. 127. 
sinteino, iv. 7 + vi. 127 
siuks, iii. 10. 
siuns, vi. 125. 
siuyan, ii. 22. 
siponeis, vi. 107. 
sis, viii. 5. 
sitan, iii. 17. 
sifan, vi. 107. 
skaban, vii. 7. 
skadus, ii. 29. 
skathyan, vii. 7. 
skaidan, iv. 8. 
skalks, vi. 63. 
skalya, ii. 29. 
skaman, viii. 7. 
skanda, viii. 7. 
skauda-, ii. 29. 
skauns, vi. 125. 
-skauro, vii. 8. 
skauts, vii. 15. 
skapyan, vii. 7. 
skatts, ii. 29. 
skavs, vi. 125. 
skaftyan, vii. 7. 
skeima, vi. 125. 
skeinan, vi. 125. 
skeirs, vi. 125. 
skevyan, v. 2. 
Z 



354 



INDEX. 



schieten, v. 2. 
skildus, ii. 29. 
skilliggs, iv. 8. 
skilya, iv. 8. 
skiuban, vii. 8. 
skip, vii. 7. 
skuggva, vi. 125. 
skulan, vi. 63. 
-skuldrs, viii. 7. 
skura, vii. 8. 
skufts, vii. 15. 
skrams, vii. 7. 
skreitan, iv. 8. 
skohs, ii. 29. 
skohsl, vii. 16. 
schkop, x. 12. 
schuos, i. 30. 
slahan, vi. 72. 
slahals, vi. 72+ v. 4. 
slaihts, vii. 13. 
slauhts, vi. 72. 
slauthyan, v. 7. 
slaupyan, vii. 13. 
slavan, iii. 18. 
sleitha, vii. ] 3. 
slepan, iii. 18. 
slindan, x. 16. 
sliupan, vii. 13. 
sniahthr, i. '20. 
smalists, vii. 18. 
siuarna, i. 20. 
smeitan, i. 20. 
smitha, i. 20. 
snaivs, v. 27. 
snarpyan, vii. 9. 
sneithan, vii. 9. 
sniumyan, v. 27. 
snivan, v. 27. 
snutrs, viii. 5. 
snoryo, ii. 58. 
su([vns, x. 12. 
suqvon, x. 12. 
suthyan, iii. 17. 
sulya, i. 12. 
Buman, i. 5 + vi. 37. 
sums, j. 5. 
sundro, iv. 7. 
Bunis, i. 32. 
sunna, vi. 132. 
Minva, i. 32. 
sunyane, i. 32. 



sunyon, i. 32. 

sunns, vi. 80. 

suns, i. 32. 

supon, x. 19. 

sutis, iii. 17. 

spai^-kuldrs, viii. 9 + viii. 

7. 
spaurds, v. 3. 
sparva, ix. 3. 
spedists, vi. 79. 
speidiza, vi. 79. 
speivan, viii. 9. 
spevan, viii. 9. 
spidists, vi. 79. 
spilda, iv. 12. 
spill, ix. 25. 
spinnan, ii. 27. 
sprauds, v. 3. 
sprauto, v. 3. 
stabs, vi. 71. 
stads, i. 29. 
staths, i. 29. 
stains, i. 29. 
stairno, vi. 128. 
stairo, i. 29. 
staks, vi. 72. 
staldan, i. 29. 
stamms, ix. 1 7. 
standan, i. 29. 
staua, ix. 17. 
staurkan, i. 29. 
staurran, i. 29. 
stautan, vi. 72. 
-stass, i. 29. 
steigan, vi. 71. 
stibna, ix. 17. 
stiggan, vi. 72. 
st'gqvan, vi. 72. 
stikls, vi. 72. 
stiks, vi. 72. 
stilan, iv. 19. 
stiur, i. 29. 
stiuryan, i. 29. 
stiviti, i. 29. 
stubyus, viii. 17. 
strauyan, vii. 47. 
striks, vii. 47. 
stodyan, i. 29. 
stothan, i. 29. 
stols, vi. 71. 
stoma, vi. 71. 



stoyan, ix. 17. 
sva, i. 3 + i. 9. 
svaggvyan, v. 3. 
svaihra, i. 31 + vi. 1. 
svairban, vii. 13. 
svalleins, vi. 113. 
svamms, iii. 14. 
svaran, ix. 24. 
svare, v. 3. 
svarts, ii. 25. 
sve, i. 3 fi. 9. 
svegnyan, v. 3. 
sveiban, iii. 14. 
svein, ix. 24. 
-sveipains, vii. 15. 
sveran, vi. 26. 
svers, vi. 84. 
sves, viii. 5. 
svi-, vi. 104. 
svibls, viii. 21. 
sviglon, ix. 24. 
svignyan, v. 3. 
svikns, vi. 131. 
sviltan, vi. 113. 
svinths, vi. 104. 
svistar, vi. 80+vi. 9. 
svulan, vi. 113. 
svumsl, v. 3. 
svumfsl, v. 3. 
svogyan, ix. 24. 
sokyan, ix. 26. 
tagl, vi. 53. 
tagr, vi. 126 + v. 6. 
tahyan, iv. 1. 
taihun, iv. 7. 
taihsvs, vi. 53. 
taikns, vi. 126. 
tains, vi. 57. 
tainyo, vi. 57. 
tairan, vii. 39. 
talzyan, ix. 20. 
tals, ix. 20. 
tamyan, vi. 76. 
tandyan, vi. 126. 
tauyan, vi. 53. 
tarhyan, vi. 126. 
tarinyan, vii. 39. 
tarnyan, vii. 39. 
-tass, i. 33. 
tehan, i. 21. 
-tehund, iv. 7. 



INDEX. 



355 



teihan, vi. 126. 
teikan, i. 21. 
teva, i. 33. 
-tigyus, iv. 7. 

tils, vi. 13. 
timan, i. 34. 
timryan, i. 31. 
tiulian, vi. 55. 
tuggl, vi. 12(i. 
tuggo, x. 17. 
tuz-, i. 6. 
tulgus, vi. 12. 
-tundi, vi. 57. 
tundnan, vi. 128. 
tunthus, x. 3. 
trauan, vi. 11. 
triggvs, vi. 11. 
trigo, vii. 39. 
trimpan, vi. 11. 
triu, vi. 11. 
trisgan, vii. 39. 
trudan, vi. 11. 
trusnyan, iii. 13. 
tvai, i. 6. 

tveifls, i. 6 + v. 10. 
taui, vi. 53. 
tha, i. 3. 

thagkyan, vi. 126. 
thadei, i. 1. 
thahan, iii. 11. 
thaho, i. 21. 
thairh, vii. 39. 
thairko, vii. 39. 
thairsan, vii. 13. 
than, i. 3 4- vi. 37. 
thande, i. 3 + vi. 37 + vi. 

57. 
thanks, vi. 126. 
thanyan, vi. 57. 
thauh, i. 5. 
thaurban, vi. 11. 
thaurnus, vii. 39. 
thaurp, vi. 9. 
thaursyan, vii. 13. 
thaursus, vii. 13. 
thar, i. b + i. 1. 
tharba, vi. 1 1. 
tharbs, vi. 11. 
tharihs, vi. 11. 
thata, i. 3. 
thathro, i. 3 + vi. 9. 



theihan, vi. 53. 
theihs, vi. :,:). 
theihvo, vi. 127+ ix. 10. 
the vis, vi. 5.8. 
fchinsan, vi. 57. 
thiubs, ii. 24. 
thiuda, vi. 58. 
thiudans, vi. 58. 
thinth, vi. 58. 
thius, vi. 5S. 
thivi, vi. 58. 
thlaqvus, iii. 12. 
thlahsyan, v. 7. 
thlaihan, iii. 1:\ 
thliuhan, v. 7. 
thu, i. 4. 

thugkyan, vi. 126. 
thulan, vi. 12. 
thut, ix. 18. 
thragyan, ii. 20. 
-thraihns, vi. 11. 
thramstei, ix. 4. 
thrasa-, vi. 11. 
thrafstyan, iii. 13. 
threihan, vi. 11. 
threis, i. 3. 
thriutan, vii. 39. 
thriskan, vii. 39. 
thrulla, ii. 20. 
thruts-, vii. 39. 
throthvan, vii. 39. 
thvahan, vii. 43. 
thvairhs, ii. 20. 
fchvalh, vii. 43. 
thvastyan, vi. 54. 
uli, i. 5. 
ubizva, ii. 36. 
ubils, vi. 62. 
uhteigs, iv. 5. 
uhtvo, iv. 5. 
un-, iv. 4. 
und, vi. 110. 
undar, vi. 110 + vi. 9. 
undauroi-mats, vi. 110 + 

x. 5. 
untha, iv. 4 + i. 1. 
unte, vi. 110. 
us, iv. 6. 
ut, iv. 6. 
uf, vi. 62. 
ufar, vi. 62. 



ufyo, vi. 62. 
ufta, vi. 62. 
ufto, vi. 62. 
-va, i. 9. 
vaggari, ii. 34. 
vaggs, ii. 34. 
vagyan, v. 30. 
-vaddyus, ii. 33. 
vadi, ii. 33. 
vahs, xi. 4. 
vahsyan, vi. 50. 
vai, xi. 4. 
vaian, viii. 12. 
vaibyan, ii. 37. 
vaihsta, ii. 34. 
vaihts, vi. 50. 
vaila, vi. 25. 
vainans, xi. 4. 
vainei, xi. 4. 
vair, vi. 23. 
vairdus, iii. 2 
vairthan, vi. 23. 
vairthi, iii. 2. 
-vairths, ii. 12. 
vairths, ii. 12. 
vairilo, ii. 13. 
vairpan, vi. 25. 
vairs, ii. 12. 
vakan, vi. 51. 
valdan, v. 10. 
valyan, vi. 26. 
valugyan, v. 10. 
valus, vi. 23. 
valtyan, ii. 10. 
valvyan, ii. 10. 
vamba, vi. 47. 
vamnn, i. 15. 
vandyan, ii. 32. 
vandus, ii. 32. 
vans, iii. 29. 
vaurd, ix. 4. 
vaurkyan, vi. 2">. 
vaurnis, ii. 12. 
vaurstv, vi. 25. 
vaurts, vi. 23. 
vargs, ix. 15. 
vardyan, ii. 13. 
-vards, ii. 13. 
varkyan, ix. 15. 
varmyan, vi. 117. 
varyan, ii. 13. 



356 



INDEX. 



vars, ii. 13. 
vasyan, ii. 36. 

vato, iii. 27. 

vegs, v. 30. 

veda, ii. 32. 

veigan, vi. 49. 

veihs, i. 17 ; vi. 52. 

vein, vi. 102. 

veipari, ii. 37. 

veis, viii. 5. 

-veis, vi. 119. 

veison, vi. 119. 

veitan, vi. 119. 

veitvods, vi. 119 4- ix. 2. 

vens, vi. 52. 

vepna, v. 23. 

veryan, iii. 2. 

vigan, v. 30. 

vigs, v. 30. 

vidan, ii. 32. 

viduvairns, iv. 6. 

vidmo, iv. 6. 



vizon, iii. 27. 
vithra, ii. 32. 
vithrus, iv. 6. 
vithon, v. 17. 
viltheis, v. 10. 
.vilyan, vi. 26. 
vilvan, ii. 11. 
vindan, ii. 32. 
vinds, viii. 12. 
vinthyan, viii. 12. 
vinnan, vii. 26. 
vinya, vi. 102. 
vintrus, viii. 12. 
vis, iii. 2-7. 
-vis, vi. 119. 
visan, iii. 27. 
-vissei, vi. 119. 
vitan, vi. 119. 
vitoth, ix. 2. 
vlaiton, vi. 117. 
vleizns, vi. 117. 
vlizyan, vi. 117. 



vlits, vi. 117. 
vulan, vi. 113. 
vulthus, vi. 117. 
vulthrs, vi. 117. 
vulla, iii. 1. 
vulfs, ii. 11. 
vunands, vi. 52. 
vunds, vii. 20. 
vraiqvs, ii. 12 + ii. 5. 
vraton, v. 9. 
vrithus, ii. 13. 
vrikan, vii. 27. 
vrisqvan, vi. 23 + vi. 

67. 
vrits, vii. 27. 
vruggo, ii. 14. 
vrohyan, ix. 15. 
vods, v. 17. 
voths, viii. 12. 
vokrs, vi. 50. 
vopyan, ix. 2. 
waghen, vi. 49. 



INDEX. 



357 



ENGLISH. 



acre, vi. 63. 

aft, after, ii. 16. 

all, ii. 11. 

answer, ix. 24. 

arm, i. 26. 

at, i. 1. 

awn, vii. 6. 

bag, ii. 15. 

bate, vi. 39. 

bed, vi. 40. 

begin, vi. 66. 

behave, vi. 130. 

beteem, i. 34. 

better, vi. 39. 

bid, ix. -2. 

bide, i. 8. 

bind, ii. 33. 

bite, x. 1. 

bitter, x. 1. 

blend, i. 15. 

blind, i. 15. 

blithe, iii. 1. 

blood, vi. 15. 

bloom, vi. 15. 

blot, i. 15. 

board, i. 12. 

bold, vi. 18. 

book, ii. 34. 

both, i. 8 + i. 5. 

breast, vi. 14. 

broad, iv. 14. 

brother, vi. 17 + vi. 9. 

brow, ii. 17. 

burgh, ii. 17. 

buy, ii. 35. 

by, i. 8. 

calf, vi. 3. 

child, vi. 3. 

chin, vii. 5. 

choose, ii. 5. 

cold, vii. 2. 

come, i. 16. 

corn, vii. 1. 

crane, ix. 6. 

dale, ii. IS. 

dam, vi. 76. 

day, vi. 126. 



deaf, iii. 15. 
deep, vi. 60. 
dolt, iii. 12. 
doom, vi. 76. 
door, ii. 20. 
dough, i. 21. 
•dove, ix. 18. 
drag, vi. 11. 
drink, x. 8. 
drive, vi. 11. 
dull, iii. 12. 
dumb, iii. 15. 
dwindle, iii. 11. 
early, vi. 83. 
earth, vi. 83. 
eight, iv. 7. • 
end, vi. 110. 
errand, v. 13. 
even, i. 9. 
evil, vi. 62. 
fain, vi. 120. 
fair, i. 19 ; vi. 120. 
far, iv. 14. 
fast, i. 8. 

father, vi. 38 + vi. 9. 
fear, vii. 29. 
feather, v. 19. 
feed, x. 1. 
few, iii. 29. 
fiend, viii. 9. 
find, vi. 45. 
finger, ii. 34. 
fish, v. 20. 
five, iv. 6. 
flood, v. 10. 
foal, vi. 15. 
fold, -fold, ii. 14. 
foot, vi. 40. 
fore, vi. 20. 
foul, viii. 10. 
four, i. 4. 
fowl, v. 32. 
free, v. 9. 
friend, vi. 22. 
fright, vii. 29. 
from, vi. 20. 
full, vi. 18. 



furrow, vii. 27. 
gable, vi. 77. 
gallows, vi. 5. 
gather, i. 22. 
get, i. 22. 
gird, ii. 4. 
give, ii. 8. 
goat, v. 2. 
god, vi. 130. 
gold, vi. 129. 
good, vi. 107. 
grass, vi. 1. 
grave, vii. 3. 
greed, vi. 7. 
grind, vii. 1. 
grip, ii. 4. 
ground, vii. 1. 
grudge, ix. 7. 
guest, iii. 9. 
hale, vi. 6. 
half, i. 13. 
hamlet, ii. 8. 
hang, ii. 9. 
hard, vi. 4. 
have, ii. 8. 
haviour, vi. 130. 
hay, vi. 107. 
head, vi. 77. 
heart, vi. 6. 
heat, vii. 9. 
heath, iii. 9. 
heathen, iii. 9. 
heave, vi. 77. 
hell, ii. 2. 
helmet, ii. 2. 
herd, ii. 4. 
here, i. 5 + i. 1. 
hew, vii. 3. 
high, vi. 70. 
hind, i. 5 + iv. 4. 
hither, i. 5 + vi. 9. 
home, ii. 8. 
-hood, iii. 9. 
horn, vi. 4. 
hound, ix. 8. 
house, ii. 5. 
how, i. 9. 



358 



INDEX. 



hurdle, ii. 3. 
I, viii. 4. 
in, i. 1. 
jape, viii. 7. 
kettle, ii. 6. 
knee, ii. 0. 
know, viii. 4. 
lamb, iii. 20. 
land, i. 12. 
last, iii. 33. 
late, iii. 33. 
laugh, ix. 7. 
leaf, i. 12. 
lean, ii. 1. 
leap, v. 4. 
leech, iii. 19. 
lie, ii. 47 ; iii. 19. 
light, v. 16 ; vi. 128. 
like, i. 26; iii. 19. 
linen, ii. 54. 
listen, ix. 27. 
little, v. 16. 
live, vi. 95. 
loaf, vi. 129. 
lock, i. 26. 
lose, iii. 19. 
lot, iv. 10. 
love, vi. 95. 
lust, vi. 97. 
-ly, i. 26. 
main, vi. 33. 
make, i. 20. 
man, viii. 1. 
many, vi. 35. 
mark, i. 20. 
marrow, i. 20. 
marry, iii. 4. 
mate, i. 11. 
may, vi. 33. 
meat, x. 5. 
meek, iii. 25. 
meet, i. 11. 
might, vi. 33. 
mild, iii, 3. 
milk, vii. 45. 
mis-, v. 21. 
mixen, i. 20. 
mole, i. 20. 
month, i. 11. 
mood, viii. 2. 
moon, i. 11. 



morrow, vi. 121. 

moth, x. 5. 

mould, vii. 45. 

mourn, viii. 3. 

mouse, ii. 39. 

mouth, x. 5. 

muck, i. 20. 

nail, vii. 20. 

naked, iv. 4. 

name, viii. 4. 

needle, vii. 23. 

net, ii. 58. 

new, i. 10. 

next, i. 10. 

nigh, i. 10. 

night, ii. 26. 

nine, iv. 5. 

nose, viii. 18. 

now, i. 10. 

oft, vi. 62. 

on, vi. 110. 

one, iv. 5. 

orchard, vi. 23 + ii. 4. 

out, iv. 6. 

ox, iii. 28. 

queen, vi. 66. 

quell, iii. 6. 

rack, i. 25. 

rain, iii. 19. 

raise, vi. 89. 

ready, i. 27. 

reckon, vi. 94. 

red, v. 14. 

rest, iii. 24. 

rich, vi. 109. 

rick, vi. 89. 

riddle, ii. 3. 

rise, vi. 89. 

rook, ix. 6. 

room, iv. 14. 

rope, ii. 52. 

sallow, i. J.4. 

salve, i. 24. 

same, i. 3 J. 

scale, ii. 29. 

scathe, vii. 7. 

sea, v. 3. 

see, vi. 125. 

seem, vi. 132. 

seemly, vi. 132. 

set, iii. 17. 



seven, iv. /. 



sew, ii. 



99 



shadow, ii. 29. 
shape, vii. 7. 
shield, ii. 29. 
shilling, iv. 8. 
shine, vi. 125. 
ship, vii. 7. 
shoe, ii. 29. 
shoot, v. 2. 
sick, iii. 10. 
silver, vi. 131 + vi. 

117. 
sink, iii. 10. 
sister, vi. 80 + vi. 9. 
sit, iii. 17. 
skipper, vii. 7. 
slaughter, vi. 72. 
slay, vi. 72. 
slob, iii. 18. 
slough, iii. 18. 
small, vii. 18. 
smear, i. 20. 
smile, iv. 12. 
smith, i. 20. 
smittle, i. 20. 
snow, v. 27. 
so, i. 9. 
soil, i. 24. 
sole, i. 12. 
some, i. 5. 
soon, i. 32. 
soot, i. 24. 
soothe, iii. 17. 
sore, vii. 14. 
sorrow, vii. 14. 
soul, vi. 125. 
sow, i. 1. 
sparrow, ix. 3. 
spew, viii. 9. 
spin, ii. 27. 
stair, vi. 71. 
stand, i. 29. 
star, vi. 128. 
starch, i. 29. 
stark, i. 29. 
stead, i. 29. 
steal, iv. 19. 
steer, i. 29. 
stile, vi. 71. 
stone, i. 29. 



INDEX. 



359 



stool, vi. 71. 

strew, vii. 47. 

sully, i. 24. 

summer, vi. 132 + iv. 

16. 
sun, vi. 132. 
sunder, iv. 7. 
swarthy, ii. 25. 
swear, ix. 24. 
swell, vi. 1 13. 
swine, ix. 24. 
take, i. 21. 
tame, vi. 76. 
ttar, vii. 39. 
tear, vi. 126 + v. 6. 
ten, iv. 7. 
thank, vi. 126. 
the, i. 3. 

then, i. 3 + vi. 37. 
-ther, vi. 9. 
there, i. 3 + i. 1. 
thief, ii. 24. 
think, vi. 126. 
thither, i. 3 + vi. 9. 
thorn, vii. 39. 
thou, i. 4. 
though, i. 5. 
three, i. 3. 
thresh, vii. 39. 



throng, vi. 11. 
till, vi. 13. 
tinder, vi. 126. 
to, i. 1. 
token, vi. 126'. 
tooth, x. 3. 
tree, vi. 11. 
tread, vi. 11. 
two, i. 6. 
un-, iv. 4. 

under, vi. 110+ vi. 9. 
up, vi. 62. 

urchin, vii. 3 + vii. 5. 
waggon, vi. 49. 
wake, vi. 51. 
wand, ii. 32. 
wane, iii. 'z9. 
wards, ii. 12. 
warm, vi. 117. 
was, iii. 27. 
water, iii. 27. 
we, viii. 5. 
weapon, v. 23. 
well, vi. 25. 
wem, i. 15. 
wend, ii. 32. 
west, iii. 27. 
wether, iv. 6. 
wheat, vi. 103. 



where, i. 5 + i. 1. 
whether, i. 5 + \i. 9. 
which, i. 5 + i. 26. 
while, vi. 8. 
whit, vi. 50. 
white, vi. 130. 
who, i. 5. 
widow, iv. 6. 
wind, ii. 32. 
wine, vi. 102. 
wise, vi. IIP. 
wish, vi. 52. 
wolf, ii. 11. 
womb, vi. 47. 
wool, iii. 1. 
word, ix. 14. 
work, vi. 25. 
worm, ii. 12. 
worse, ii. 12. 
worth, ii. 12. 
wound, vii. 20. 
wreak, vii. 27. 
wriggle, ii. 12. 
wrong, ii. 12. 
yester-, iii. 9. 
yoke, i. 6. 
yon, i. 5 + iv. -1. 
you, i. 4. 
young, vi. 102. 



THE END. 



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